Sydney, New South Wales
Church Street, Parramatta
|Population||19,745 (2011 census)|
|• Density||3,730/km2 (9,650/sq mi)|
|Area||5.3 km2 (2.0 sq mi)|
|Location||23 km (14 mi) west of Sydney CBD|
|LGA(s)||City of Parramatta|
|Region||Greater Western Sydney|
Parramatta (//) is a suburb and major business district in the metropolitan area of Sydney, Australia. It is located in Central-Western Sydney 23 kilometres (14 mi) west of the Sydney central business district on the banks of the Parramatta River. Parramatta is the administrative seat of the local government area of the City of Parramatta. It is also acknowledged on the register of the Geographical Names Board of New South Wales as one of only four cities within the Sydney metropolitan area.
Parramatta, founded in the same year as Sydney by the British in 1788, is the oldest inland European settlement in Australia, the economic capital of Greater Western Sydney and the sixth largest central business district in Australia. Since 2000, Parramatta has seen the consolidation of its role as a government centre with the relocation of agencies such as the New South Wales Police Force headquarters and Sydney Water, from the Sydney CBD.
Parramatta is a major business and commercial centre, and the second largest CBD in the State of New South Wales. Parramatta has many high density commercial and residential developments. It is home to Westfield Parramatta, which is the ninth largest shopping centre in Australia by gross leasable area.
Simultaneously, major upgrades have occurred around the railway station with the expansion of Westfield Parramatta, the creation of a new transport interchange, and the ongoing development of the Parramatta Square local government precinct. It is colloquially known as Parra.
- 1 History
- 2 Heritage listings
- 3 Geography
- 4 Transport
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Education
- 7 Culture
- 8 Sport
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The Darug people who lived in the area before European settlement regarded the area as rich in food from the river and forests. They called the area Baramada or Burramatta ('Parramatta') which means "head of waters", "the place where the eels lie down", or "eel waters" To this day many eels and other sea creatures are attracted to nutrients that are concentrated where the saltwater of Port Jackson meets the freshwater of the Parramatta River. The Parramatta Eels Rugby League club chose their symbol as a result of this phenomenon.
Parramatta was founded in 1788, the same year as Sydney. As such, Parramatta is the second oldest city in Australia, being only 10 months younger than Sydney. The British Colonists, who had arrived in January 1788 on the First Fleet at Sydney Cove, had only enough food to support themselves for a short time and the soil around Sydney Cove proved too poor to grow the amount of food that 1,000 convicts, soldiers and administrators needed to survive. During 1788, Governor Arthur Phillip had reconnoitred several places before choosing Parramatta as the most likely place for a successful large farm. Parramatta was the furthest navigable point inland on the Parramatta River (i.e. furthest from the thin, sandy coastal soil) and also the point at which the river became freshwater and therefore useful for farming.
On Sunday 2 November 1788, Governor Phillip took a detachment of marines along with a surveyor and, in boats, made his way upriver to a location that he called The Crescent, a defensible hill curved round a river bend, now in Parramatta Park. As a settlement developed, Governor Phillip gave it the name "Rose Hill" after George Rose, Secretary for the British Treasury. In 1791 he changed the name to Parramatta, approximating the term used by the local Aboriginal people. A neighbouring suburb acquired the name Rose Hill.
In an attempt to deal with the food crisis, Phillip in 1789 granted a convict named James Ruse the land of Experiment Farm at Parramatta on the condition that he develop a viable agriculture. There, Ruse became the first person to successfully grow grain in Australia. The Parramatta area was also the site of the pioneering of the Australian wool industry by John Macarthur's Elizabeth Farm in the 1790s. Philip Gidley King's account of his visit to Parramatta on 9 April 1790 is one of the earliest descriptions of the area. Walking four miles with Governor Phillip to Prospect he saw undulating grassland interspersed with magnificent trees and a great amount of kangaroos and emus.
Governor Arthur Phillip built a small house for himself on the hill of The Crescent. In 1799 this was replaced by a larger residence which, substantially improved by Governor Lachlan Macquarie from 1815 to 1818, has survived to the present day, making it the oldest surviving Government House anywhere in Australia. It was used as a retreat by Governors until the 1850s, with one Governor (Governor Brisbane) making it his principal home for a short period in the 1820s. The house, Old Government House, is currently a historic site and museum within Parramatta Park and is Australia's oldest surviving public building.
In 1803, another famous incident occurred in Parramatta, involving a convicted criminal named Joseph Samuel, originally from England. Samuel was convicted of murder and sentenced to death by hanging, but the rope broke. In the second attempt, the noose slipped off his neck. In the third attempt, the new rope broke. Governor King was summoned and pardoned Samuel, as the incident appeared to him to be divine intervention.
- Elizabeth Farm, Alice Street
- Experiment Farm Cottage, Hassal Street
- Lancer Barracks, Smith Street
- Former Post Office, Church Street
- Centennial Clock, Church Street
- Lennox Bridge
- St John's Cathedral, Church Street
- St John's Cemetery
- St Patrick's Cathedral and Presbytery, Marist Place
- Parochial School, Elizabeth Street
- Brislington, Marsden Street
- Hambledon Cottage, Hassall Street
- The former King's School, O'Connell Street (later Marsden Rehabilitation Centre)
- Roman Catholic Cemetery in North Parramatta
- Parramatta Psychiatric Centre (Cumberland Hospital)
- Parramatta Park – including Old Government House
- Macquarie Street Gatehouse in Parramatta Park
- All Saints Church Group, including church, grounds and trees, corner Victoria Road and Elizabeth Street.
- Parramatta Gaol was Australia's oldest operating prison until it closed in 2011 Located on O'Connell Street, the Gaol was formally proclaimed on 2 January 1842.
- Woolpack Hotel, George Street, claims to hold Australia's oldest pub licence (dating to 1796).
- Paramatta Public School, a brick building in Victorian Gothic style, was built in 1875. It has a state heritage listing. It was originally known as Arthur Phillip High School.
- Parramatta Town Hall, a two-storey building in Victorian Free Classical style, was built in 1880. It is heritage-listed.
Church Street is home to many shops and restaurants. The northern end of Church Street, close to Lennox Bridge, features al fresco dining with a diverse range of cuisines. The southern end of Church Street features many Chinese restaurants and extends past Westfield to Auto Alley. Immediately south of the CBD Church Street is known across Sydney as 'Auto Alley' for the many car dealerships lining both sides of the street as far as the M4 Motorway.
Since 2000, Parramatta has seen the consolidation of its role as a government centre, with the relocation of agencies such as the New South Wales Police Force Headquarters and the Sydney Water Corporation from Sydney CBD. At the same time, major construction work occurred around the railway station with the expansion of Westfield Shoppingtown and the creation of a new transport interchange. The western part of the Parramatta CBD is known as the Parramatta Justice Precinct and houses the corporate headquarters of the New South Wales Department of Attorney General and Justice. Other legal offices include the Children's Court of New South Wales and the Sydney West Trial Courts, Legal Aid Commission of New South Wales, Office of Trustee and Guardian (formerly the Office of the Protective Commissioner), NSW Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions, as well as a branch of the Family Court. Nearby on Marsden Street is the Parramatta Courthouse and the Drug Court of New South Wales. The Garfield Barwick Commonwealth Law Courts Building (named in honor of Sir Garfield Barwick), houses courts of the Federal Magistrates Court and the Family Court of Australia.
Parramatta Square (previously known as Civic Place) is a proposed civic precinct located in the heart of the city, adjacent to Parramatta Town Hall. The proposal includes a redevelopment of the Parramatta Civic Centre, a culture and arts centre and a new plaza. The designs of the first two projects, a 65 storey residential skyscraper and an office building were announced on 20 July 2012.
A hospital known as The Colonial Hospital was established in Parramatta in 1818. This then became Parramatta District Hospital. Jeffery House was built in the 1940s. With the construction of the nearby Westmead Hospital complex public hospital services in Parramatta were reduced but after refurbishment Jeffery House again provides clinical health services. Nearby, Brislington House has had a long history with health services. It is the oldest colonial building in Parramatta, dating to 1821. It became a doctors residence before being incorporated into the Parramatta Hospital in 1949.
Places of worship
Church Street takes its name from St John's Cathedral (Anglican), which was built in 1803 and is the oldest church in Parramatta. While the present building is not the first on the site, the towers were built during the time of Governor Macquarie, and were based on those of the church at Reculver, England, at the suggestion of his wife, Elizabeth. The historic St John's Cemetery is located nearby on O'Connell Street.
St Patrick's Cathedral (Roman Catholic) is one of the oldest Catholic churches in Australia. Construction commenced in 1836, but it wasn't officially complete until 1837. In 1854 a new church was commissioned, although the tower was not completed until 1880, with the spire following in 1883. It was built on the site to meet the needs of a growing congregation. It was destroyed by fire in 1996, with only the stone walls remaining. On 29 November 2003, the new St Patrick's Cathedral was dedicated. The historic St Patricks Cemetery is located in North Parramatta. The Uniting Church is represented by Leigh Memorial Church. Parramatta Salvation Army is one of the oldest active Salvation Army Corps in Australia.
The Greek Orthodox Parish and Community of St Ioannis (St John The Frontrunner) Greek Orthodox Church was established in Parramatta in May 1960 under the ecumenical jurisdiction of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia to serve the predominantly emigrating Greek population of Greater Western Sydney. Originally the liturgies where held in the hall of St John's Ambulance Brigade, at the corner of Marion and Harris Sts,Harris Park until the completion of the church in December 1965 located in Hassall Street Parramatta. Fr Nicholas Tsouloukidis served the Parish Community faithfully and devotedly for over 48 years and following his retirement was succeeded by Fr Dimitri Kokkinos on 31 August 2008. The Parish Community of St Ioannis continues to serve over 5,000 Greek parishioners.
A Buddhist temple is located in Cowper Street, Parramatta. Parramatta's Mosque is in an apartment building on Marsden Street, Parrmatta. The district is served by Hindu temples located on Eleanor St, Rosehill, and a Murugan temple in Mays Hill, off Great Western Highway.
Parramatta River runs through the suburb in an easterly direction
Parramatta Park is a large park adjacent to Parramatta Stadium. It was formerly the Governor's Domain, land set aside for the Governor to supply his farming needs. As the Governor's Domain, the grounds were much larger than the modern day Parramatta Park, extending from Parramatta Road to the south, evident by a small gatehouse adjacent to Parramatta High School. Over time parts of the domain were re-allocated to make way for Parramatta High School, a golf course, the Western (railway) line, Parramatta RSL and Bowling Club, Parramatta Swimming Centre, and Parramatta Stadium.
Parramatta Park contains Old Government House and thus Parramatta was once the capital of the colony of New South Wales until Governors returned to residing in Sydney in 1846. (Sydney also has a Governor's Domain adjacent to Government House). Another feature is the natural amphitheatre located on one of the bends of the river, named by Governor Philip as "the Crescent", which is used to stage concerts. Over 120 bird species have been recorded there. It is home to the Dairy Cottage, built from 1798 to 1805, originally a single-room cottage and is one of the earliest surviving cottages in Australia. It was built for ex-convict George Salter. Between 1814 and 1816 it was converted to a dairy. The Tudor Gatehouse, on O'Connell Street, was erected by the Park Trust in 1885 and designed by Gordon McKinnon. It was restored in 1980. The remains of Governor Brisbane's private astronomical observatory, constructed in 1822, are visible. Astronomers who worked at the observatory, discovering thousands of new stars and deep sky objects, include James Dunlop and Carl Rümker. In 1822, the architect S. L. Harris designed the Bath House for Governor Brisbane and built it in 1823. Water was pumped to the building through lead pipes from the river. In 1886, it was converted into a pavilion.
Depending on the wind direction, summer weather may be humid or dry, though the humidity is mostly in the comfortable range, with the late summer/autumn period having a higher average humidity than late winter/early spring. Summer maximum temperatures are quite variable, often reaching above 35 °C (95 °F), on average 8.1 days in summer, and sometimes remaining in the low 20's, especially after a cold front or a sea breeze, such as the southerly buster.
Northwesterlies can occasionally bring hot winds from the desert that can raise temperatures higher than 40 °C (104 °F) mostly from November to February. Parramatta is slightly warmer than Sydney CBD due to the urban heat island effect, but in extreme cases it can be 5 – 10 °C (9 – 18 °F) warmer than Sydney, especially when sea breezes do not penetrate inland on hot summer and spring days. For example, on the 28th November 2009, the city reached 29.3 °C (84.7 °F), while Parramatta reached 39.0 °C (102.2 °F), almost 10 °C higher.
Rainfall is fairly evenly divided between summer and winter, but is slightly higher during the first three months of the year, when easterly winds dominate. The second half of the year tends to be drier (late winter/spring), that is when westerly winds dominate, which bring drier conditions. Thunderstorms are common in the months from early spring to early autumn, occasionally quite severe thunderstorms can occur. Snow in virtually unknown, having been recorded only in 1836 and 1896  Parrammatta gets 106.6 days of clear skies annually.
|Climate data for Parramatta North|
|Record high °C (°F)||45.5
|Mean maximum °C (°F)||39.0
|Average high °C (°F)||28.4
|Average low °C (°F)||17.6
|Mean minimum °C (°F)||12.8
|Record low °C (°F)||10.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||101.4
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||12.0||12.1||12.6||9.6||9.8||10.6||8.2||7.9||8.0||10.1||11.6||10.3||122.8|
|Average relative humidity (%)||57||59||59||58||60||59||55||46||46||49||49||55||55|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology (1967-)|
Parramatta is the major transport hub for Western Sydney, servicing trains and buses, as well as having a ferry wharf and a future light rail service.
Parramatta railway station is a major transport interchange on the Sydney rail network. It is served by Sydney Trains' Cumberland Line and North Shore, Northern & Western Line. NSW TrainLink operate intercity services on the Blue Mountains Line as well as services to rural New South Wales. The station was originally opened in 1855, located in what is now Granville, and known as Parramatta Junction. The station was moved to its current location and opened on 4 July 1860, five years after the first railway line in Sydney was opened, running from Sydney to Parramatta Junction.
The current station was upgraded, with work beginning in late 2003 and the new interchange opening on 19 February 2006. The original station still exists within the over-all structure as part of Platform 4.
Parramatta is also serviced by a major bus interchange located on the south eastern side of the railway station. The interchange is served by buses utilising the North West T-Way to Rouse Hill and the Liverpool-Parramatta T-way to Liverpool. Parramatta is also serviced by five high-frequency Metrobus services:
- M52 – Parramatta to City via Victoria Road (Sydney Buses)
- M54 – Parramatta to Macquarie Park via Carlingford and Epping (Sydney Buses)
- M60 – Parramatta to Hornsby via Baulkham Hills, Castle Hill, Cherrybrook, Pennant Hills, Thornleigh and Normanhurst (Hillsbus)
- M91 – Parramatta to Hurstville via Granville, Bankstown and Peakhurst (Transdev)
- M92 – Parramatta to Sutherland via Lidcombe, Bankstown and Padstow (Transdev)
A free bus Route 900 is operated by Parramatta City Council in conjunction with the state government. Route 900 circles Parramatta CBD. A free bus also links Parramatta Stadium to Parramatta railway station during major sporting events.
The Parramatta ferry wharf is at the Charles Street Weir, which divides the tidal saltwater from the freshwater of the upper river, on the eastern boundary of the Central Business District. The wharf is the westernmost destination of the Sydney Ferries River Cat ferry service which runs on Parramatta River.
The two-line Parramatta Light Rail project was announced in 2015. Lines originating from Carlingford and Strathfield will form a combined route at Camellia and pass through Parramatta before terminating at Westmead.
Parramatta Road has always been an important thoroughfare for Sydney from its earliest days. From Parramatta the major western road for the state is the Great Western Highway The M4 Western Motorway, running parallel to the Great Western Highway has taken much of the traffic away from these roads, with entrance and exit ramps close to Parramatta.
The main north-south route through Parramatta is Church Street. To the north it becomes Windsor Road, and to the south it becomes Woodville Road.
- Age distribution
- Parramatta has an over-representation of young adults when compared to the country as a whole. Nearly half (45.1%) of the suburb's population is aged 20–34 years, more than double the national average of 20.6%. Parramatta residents' median age was 30 years, compared to the national median of 37. Children aged under 15 years made up 14.2% of the population (national average is 19.3%) and people aged 65 years and over made up 7.1% of the population (national average is 14.0%).
- Ethnic diversity
- About one quarter (27.5%) of residents were born in Australia, down from 42.4% in the previous census five years earlier. The next most common countries of birth were India 21.5%, China 14.7%, South Korea 1.9%, Philippines 1.8% and New Zealand 1.7%. However, only 7.6% identify their ancestry as Australian; the other common self-identified ancestries were Indian 19.2%, Chinese 18.9%, English 9.5%, and Lebanese 2.9%. About one quarter (26.5%) of people spoke English at home; other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 12.7%, Gujarati 6.6%, Hindi 5.8%, Cantonese 5.7% and Arabic 4.1%.
- This question is optional in the Census. Of the people who answered it, the most common response was "No Religion" (20.7%); the next most common responses were Hinduism 20.1%, Catholic 15.4%, Islam 6.7% and Anglican 5.7%.
- The average weekly household income was $1,314, compared to the national average of $1,234.
- The majority of dwellings in Parramatta (79.3%) were flats, units or apartments; 14.0% were separate houses, and 6.5% were semi-detached (mostly townhouses). The average household size was 2.4 people.
- Keith Agget, rugby player
- Richie Benaud (1930-2015), cricketer and commentator
- Allan Cunningham (1791–1839), explorer and botanist
- Harry Hopman (1906–1985), tennis player
- David Lennox (1788–1873), colonial bridge builder
- John Lewin (1770–1819), first professional artist in New South Wales
- George McIver, (1859-1945) science fiction writer
- Rev. Samuel Marsden (1765–1838), known as the "flogging parson"
- Mary Cover Hassall (1799–1825), Methodist missionary to Tonga Island
- Dowell Philip O'Reilly (1865–1923), poet and politician
- J. C. Wharton (1853–1929), editor of Parramatta Times (defunct) and a local history
Parramatta is home to several primary and secondary schools. Arthur Phillip High School is the oldest public school in the district (it is in buildings which have been continuously used as a school since 1875), established in 1960 in its own right. Parramatta High School was the first coeducational school in the Sydney metropolitan area established in 1913. Our Lady of Mercy College is one of the oldest Catholic schools in Australia. Macarthur Girls High School is successor to an earlier school 'Parramatta Commercial and Household Arts School'. Others schools include Macquarie Boys Technology High School, Parramatta Public School, Parramatta East Public School, Parramatta West Public School, and St Patrick's Primary Parramatta.
Several tertiary education facilities are also located within Parramatta. One of six University of Western Sydney campuses is situated in the suburb. The UWS Parramatta Campus consists of three sites: Parramatta South (the main site), Parramatta North and the Parramatta City campus located at 100 George Street. Parramatta South campus occupies the site of the historic Female Orphan School. The UWS Village is also located in Parramatta, adjacent to the Parramatta North campus. The Alphacrucis College is a national vocational and higher education college, located at 30 Cowper Street.
As the centre of the City of Parramatta, as well as the centre and second largest business district of Sydney, Parramatta hosts many festivals and events. Riverside Theatre is a performing arts centre located on the northern bank of Parramatta River. The city hosts the following events:
- January - Sydney Festival and Australia Day
- February - Lunar New Year
- April - Anzac Day
- June - Winterlight
- July - Burramatta Day
- October - Parramasalla - a festival celebrating Parramatta's multiculturalism, in particular, South East Asian culture, and Parramatta Lanes
- November - Loy Krathong, Christmas in Parramatta and Parramatta Day
- December - New Year's Eve
Parramatta is the home of several professional sports teams. These teams include the Parramatta Eels of the National Rugby League and Western Sydney Wanderers of the A-League. Both teams play matches at the 21,500 seat Parramatta Stadium. Parramatta Stadium was also home to the now dissolved Sydney Wave of the former Australian Baseball League and Parramatta Power of the former National Soccer League.
Parramatta Park is a popular venue for walking, jogging and bike riding. Parramatta Swimming Centre is also popular and includes a 10 lane 50m swimming pool, twin waterslides, and dive towers.
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- Media Release
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- Macey, Richard (2007). "Settlers' history rewritten: go back 30,000 years". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- Troy, Jakelin. "The Sydney Language". Macquarie Aboriginal Words. Sydney: Macquarie Library. p. 76.
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- Norman, Heidi (2015). "Parramatta and Black Town Native Institutions". Dictionary of Sydney. Dictionary of Sydney Trust. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- Discover Parramatta St Johns Cemetery
- Discover Parramatta Hambledon Cottage
- The Heritage of Australia, Macmillan Company, 1981, pp.2/49-57
- "Prisons to close" (PDF) (Press release). Corrective Services NSW. 6 September 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Woolpack Hotel
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- "Pictures". Macarthur House. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- State Heritage Register
- Auto Alley at Discover Parramatta
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- Jeffery House
- Brislington House
- http://www.heritage.nsw.gov.au St John's Anglican Cathedral (Retrieved 15 July 2010). See also Reculver.
- St Johns Cemetery at Discover Parramatta
- "St Patrick's Catholic Cathedral: Parramatta". ohta.org.au. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- St Patrick's Cathedral Parish Parramatta History (Retrieved 11 January 2008).
- "Worship". Parramatta Mission. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- "Parramatta Synagogue" (in Japanese). Parramatta Synagogue. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- Parish and Community of St Ioannis (St John The Frontrunner) Greek Orthodox Church – http://www.stioannis.org/
- Nan Tien Vihara
- Parramatta Mosque
- Shri Swaminarayan Hindu Mandir
- Murugan Temple
- "Parramatta". Sydney.com. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- Timeline Old Government House
- Parramatta Park Trust Website
- "Daily Maximum Temperature - 066062 - Bureau of Meteorology". www.bom.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-02-03.
- "Daily Maximum Temperature - 066124 - Bureau of Meteorology". www.bom.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-02-03.
- "Climate statistics: PARRAMATTA NORTH (MASONS DRIVE)". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- CityRail. "Station Facilities – Parramatta". Retrieved 30 January 2008.
- Bozier, Rolfe. "New South Wales Railways:Parramatta Railway Station". Retrieved 30 January 2008.
- CityRail (14 February 2006). "Parramatta Transport Interchange – opening 19 February". Archived from the original on 20 December 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
- Parramatta bus routes
- Route 900
- Sydney Ferries (2007). "Sydney Ferries – Network Map". Retrieved 30 January 2008.
- "Parramatta Light Rail - How the preferred network was chosen". Transport for NSW. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
- The jubilee history of Parramatta in commemoration of the first half-century of municipal government, 1861-1911, Parramatta T.D. Little and R.S. Richardson, 1911, retrieved 10 June 2016 Available as .pdf-based CD-ROM
- "Welcome to the Female Orphan School". uws.edu.au. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "Parramatta Events - About".
- "Sydney Festival - About".
- "Parramasala - About". Parramasala Limited. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- "Parramatta Swimming Centre". discoverparramatta.com. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Parramatta.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Parramatta, New South Wales.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Parramatta.|
- Parramatta City Council website
- Parramatta Park website
- Parramatta & District Historical Society Inc website
Dictionary of Sydney entries
- "Parramatta". Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 28 September 2015. [CC-By-SA]
- Chris Levins - Parramatta Park Trust (2010). "Parramatta Park". Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 28 September 2015. [CC-By-SA]
- Michaela Ann Cameron (2015). "Brislington". Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 2 October 2015. [CC-By-SA]
- Michaela Ann Cameron (2015). "The Crescent". Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 6 October 2015. [CC-By-SA]
- Michaela Ann Cameron (2015). "Travellers' Rest Inn Parramatta". Dictionary of Sydney. Dictionary of Sydney Trust. Retrieved 11 October 2015.[CC-By-SA]
- Michaela Ann Cameron (2015). "Roseneath Cottage". Dictionary of Sydney. Dictionary of Sydney Trust. Retrieved 16 October 2015.[CC-By-SA]