Parrott rifle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A 200-pound Parrott rifle on Morris Island, South Carolina, 1865

The Parrott rifle was a type of muzzle-loading rifled artillery weapon used extensively in the American Civil War.[1]

Parrott rifle[edit]

The gun was invented by Captain Robert Parker Parrott,[1] a West Point graduate. He was an American soldier and inventor of military ordnance. He resigned from the service in 1836 and became the superintendent of the West Point Foundry in Cold Spring, New York. He created the first Parrott rifle (and corresponding projectile) in 1860 and patented it in 1861.[2] Daniel Treadwell, who developed a method for making built-up guns in early 1840s, tried to claim that his patent infringed on an earlier one, but in 1866 S.D.N.Y. court dismissed it, deciding that Treadwell's claim was invalidated by a 1843 British patent to John Frith.[3]

Parrotts were manufactured with a combination of cast and wrought iron. The cast iron made for an accurate gun, but was brittle enough to suffer fractures. Hence, a large wrought iron reinforcing band was overlaid on the breech to give it additional strength.[4] There were earlier cannons designed this way,[clarification needed] but the method of securing this band was the innovation that allowed the Parrott to overcome the deficiencies of these earlier models.[citation needed] It was applied to the gun red-hot and then the gun was turned while pouring water down the muzzle, allowing the band to attach uniformly.[4] By the end of the Civil War, both sides were using this type of gun extensively.

Parrott rifles were manufactured in different sizes, from the 10-pounder Parrott rifle up to the rare 300-pounder.[5] In the field, the 10- and 20-pounders were used by both armies. The 20-pounder Parrott rifle was the largest field gun used during the war, with the barrel alone weighing over 1,800 pounds (820 kg). The smaller size was much more prevalent; it came in two bore sizes: 2.9 inches (74 mm) and 3.0 inches (76 mm). Confederate forces used both bore sizes during the war, which added to the complication of supplying the appropriate ammunition to its batteries. Until 1864, Union batteries used only the 2.9-in. The M1863, with a 3-in bore, had firing characteristics similar to the earlier model; it can be recognized by its straight barrel, without muzzle-swell. Its range was up to 2,000 yards (1,800 m) with a trained crew.[6]

On June 23-24, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln made an unannounced visit to West Point, where he consulted with retired Gen. Winfield Scott regarding the handling of the Civil War and the staffing of the War Department. Following this meeting, President Lincoln visited the West Point Foundry at which the 100- and 200-pound Parrott cannons were successfully demonstrated in live firing.[7]

Naval versions of the 20-, 30-, 60-, and 100-pound Parrotts were also used by the Union navy.[8] The 100-pound naval Parrott could achieve a range of 6,900 yards (6,300 meters) at an elevation of 25 degrees, or fire an 80-pound shell 7,810 yards (7,140 m) at 30 degrees elevation.[8]

Although accurate, as well as being cheaper and easier to make than most rifled artillery guns, the Parrott had a poor reputation for safety and they were shunned by many artillerists.[9] At the end of 1862, Henry J. Hunt attempted to get the Parrott eliminated from the Army of the Potomac's inventory, preferring the 3-inch ordnance rifle. When the Parrott gun burst in battle, artillerists would chip out the jagged parts and continue firing.[10] In 1889, The New York Times called on the Ordnance Bureau of the War Department to discontinue use of the Parrott gun altogether, following a series of mishaps at the West Point training grounds.[9]

Several hundred Parrott gun tubes remain today, many adorning battlefield parks, county courthouses, and museums. The gun tubes made by Parrott's foundry are identifiable by the letters WPF (West Point Foundry), along with a date stamp between 1860 and 1889, found on the front face of the gun tube. The first production Parrott gun tube (serial number 1) still exists, and is preserved on a reproduction gun carriage in the center square of Hanover, Pennsylvania, as part of a display commemorating the Battle of Hanover. A list of many of the surviving tubes can be found at the National Register of Surviving Civil War Artillery.

The larger sizes of Parrott rifles (100-pdr and up) were deployed in coast defense from 1863 to 1900, when they were replaced by Endicott period forts and weapons. Along with Rodman guns, some were deployed shortly after the outbreak of the Spanish–American War in 1898 as a stopgap; it was feared the Spanish fleet would bombard the US East Coast.[11]

The 300-pound solution[edit]

By summer 1863, Union forces became frustrated by the heavily fortified Confederate position at Fort Sumter, and brought to bear the 10-inch (250 mm) Parrott, along with several smaller cannons. In all, two 80-pounder Whitworths, nine 100-pounder Parrotts, six 200-pounder Parrotts, and a 300-pounder Parrott[12] were deployed. It was widely believed in the north that a massive 10-in Parrott would finally break the previously impenetrable walls of the fort, which had become the symbol of stalwart steadfastness for the Confederacy.[13]

The Washington Republican described the technical accomplishments of the 10-in Parrott:

The breaching power of the 10-inch 300-pounder Parrott rifled gun, now about to be used against the brick walls of Fort Sumter, will best be understood by comparing it with the ordinary 24-pounder siege gun, which was the largest gun used for breaching during the Italian War.[13]

The 3-3/4" bore 24-pound shot, with a muzzle velocity of 1,625 feet per second, strikes a target at 3,500 yards with a velocity of about 300 feet per second (this is almost beyond the range of the weapon). In contrast, the 10" bore 300-pound shot, with a muzzle velocity of 1,111 feet per second, strikes the target at the same range still moving at 700 feet per second, due to its much higher mass to drag ratio. The resulting huge difference in impact energy, 33,000 ft-lb for the 24 lb, and over 2,000,000 ft-lb for the 300 lb, means the penetrating energy of the larger shell is 20 times that of the smaller.

In terms of the ability to punch holes in fortifications, at that long range the light 24 lb shell would be expected to only breech a 6" thick brick wall. In contrast, the greater mass and retained velocity of the 300 lb shell would enable it to penetrate 6 to 7 feet of brick (given the quality of the material back then). The Union soldiers knew Fort Sumter's brick walls averaged about 5 feet thick, and thus recognized the potential for such a cannon to help them succeed in taking back their Fort.

Swamp Angel[edit]

The Swamp Angel

A famous large 8-inch (200 mm) Parrott cannon, called the Swamp Angel, was used by federal Brigadier General Quincy Adams Gillmore to bombard Charleston, South Carolina. It was manned by the 11th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment.[14]

On August 21, 1863 Gillmore sent Confederate general P. G. T. Beauregard an ultimatum to abandon heavily fortified positions at Morris Island or the city of Charleston would be shelled. When the positions were not evacuated within a few hours, Gillmore ordered the Parrott rifle to fire on the city. Between August 22 and August 23, the Swamp Angel fired on the city 36 times (the gun burst on the 36th round), using many incendiary shells which caused little damage and few casualties.[14] The battle was made more famous by Herman Melville's poem "The Swamp Angel".[15]

After the war, a damaged Parrott rifle said to be the Swamp Angel was moved to Trenton, New Jersey, where it rests as a memorial today at Cadwalader Park.[16][17]

Parrott rifles by size[edit]

A replica 10-pound Army Parrott rifle
Parrott gun No. 107 (USS Kanawha), a 3.67-in (20-lb) Naval Parrott
Parrot rifle in Freeport, New York, from U.S.S.Hartford, Adm Farragut's flagship in Mobile Bay
Parrott Guns by Size[8][18][19][20][21][22]
Model Length Weight Munition Charge size Maximum range at elevation Flight time Crew size
2.9-in (10-lb) Army Parrott 73 in 890 lb (400 kg) 10 lb (4.5 kg) shell 1 lb (0.45 kg) 5,000 yd (4,600 m) at 20 degrees 21 secs 8
3.0-in (10-lb) Army Parrott 74 in 890 lb (400 kg) 10 lb (4.5 kg) shell 1 lb (0.45 kg) 1,830 yd (1,670 m) at 5 degrees 7 secs 8
3.67-in (20-lb) Army Parrott 79 in 1,795 lb (814 kg) 19 lb (8.6 kg) shell 2 lb (0.91 kg) 4,400 yd (4,000 m) at 15 degrees 17 secs 8
3.67-in (20-lb) Naval Parrott 81 in 1,795 lb (814 kg) 19 lb (8.6 kg) shell 2 lb (0.91 kg) 4,400 yd (4,000 m) at 15 degrees 17 secs 8
4.2-in (30-lb) Army Parrott 126 in 4,200 lb (1,900 kg) 29 lb (13 kg) shell 3.25 lb (1.47 kg) 6,700 yd (6,100 m) at 25 degrees 27 secs 9
4.2-in (30-lb) Naval Parrott 102 in 3,550 lb (1,610 kg) 29 lb (13 kg) shell 3.25 lb (1.47 kg) 6,700 yd (6,100 m) at 25 degrees 27 secs 9
5.3-in (60-lb) Naval Parrott 111 in 5,430 lb (2,460 kg) 50 lb (23 kg) or 60 lb (27 kg) shell 6 lb (2.7 kg) 7,400 yd (6,800 m) at 30 degrees 30 secs 14
5.3-in (60-lb) Naval Parrott (breechload) 111 in 5,242 lb (2,378 kg) 50-lb or 60 lb (27 kg) shell 6 lb (2.7 kg) 7,400 yd (6,800 m) at 30 degrees 30 secs 14
6.4-in (100-lb) Naval Parrott 138 in 9,727 lb (4,412 kg) 80 lb (36 kg) or 100 lb (45 kg) shell 10 lb (4.5 kg) 7,810 yd (7,140 m) at 30 degrees (80-lb) 32 secs 17
6.4-in (100-lb) Naval Parrott (breechload) 138 in 10,266 lb (4,657 kg) 80 lb (36 kg) or 100 lb (45 kg) shell 10 lb (4.5 kg) 7,810 yd (7,140 m) at 30 degrees (80-lb) 32 secs 17
8-in (150-lb) Naval Parrott 146 in 16,500 lb (7,500 kg) 150 lb (68 kg) shell 16 lb (7.3 kg) 8,000 yd (7,300 m) at 35 degrees 180 ?
8-in (200-lb) Army Parrott 146 in 16,500 lb (7,500 kg) 200 lb (91 kg) shell 16 lb (7.3 kg) 8,000 yd (7,300 m) at 35 degrees ? ?
10-in (300-lb) Army Parrott 156 in 26,900 lb (12,200 kg) 300 lb (140 kg) shell 26 lb (12 kg) 9,000 yd (8,200 m) at 30 degrees 202.5 secs* ?

(*) This time is an educated guess, the time is unknown. Flight times appear to be extremely inaccurate. Example: 10-in (300-lb) projectile would have to average only 133 ft per second to be in flight for 202 seconds to cover 9,000yds. A more accurate estimate will be in the range of 30 seconds.

See also[edit]

Contemporary rifled artillery


  1. ^ a b "6.4" (100 pounder) Parrott Rifle / 7" Brooke Rifle". Historical Marker Database. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
  2. ^ Pritchard Jr, Russ A. Civil War Weapons and Equipment Archived 2012-11-14 at the Wayback Machine, p.82. Globe Pequit Press, 2003. ISBN 1-58574-493-X.
  3. ^ Curtis, George Ticknor (1873). "A Treatise on the Law of Patents for Useful Inventions: As Enacted and Administered in the United States of America".
  4. ^ a b Gusley, Henry O. and Edward T. Cotham. The Southern Journey of a Civil War Marine, p.195. University of Texas Press 2006. ISBN 0-292-71283-9
  5. ^ Jones, Terry L. Historical Dictionary of the Civil War, p.1047. Scarecrow Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8108-4112-6
  6. ^ National Park Service: Gettysburg National Military Park. "Big Guns at Gettysburg". Retrieved January 18, 2008 Archived January 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "The President at West Point". The New York Times. New York. 26 June 1862. p. 8. Archived from the original on 23 May 2022. Retrieved 23 May 2022 – via One of them, which sends a 100-pound shell, was fired fifteen times, and another, which sends a 200-pound shell, was fired five times.
  8. ^ a b c Norfolk Naval Ship Yard: Civil War Guns in Trophy Park Archived 2008-01-10 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ a b New York Times, April 20, 1889. "Perils of Gunnery.; The Frequent Bursting of the Parrott Guns During Practice" Retrieved January 18, 2008.
  10. ^ Earl J Hess.Field Armies and Fortifications in the Civil War: The Eastern Campaigns, 1861-1864, p.271. University of North Carolina Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-8078-2931-8
  11. ^ Congressional serial set, 1900, Report of the Commission on the Conduct of the War with Spain, Vol. 7, pp. 3778–3780, Washington: Government Printing Office
  12. ^ Johnson, John. The Defense of Charleston Harbor: Including Fort Sumpter and the Adjacent Islands, 1863-1865. Walker, Evans, and Cogswell Co, 1890. Digitized by Harvard University, August 9, 2006.
  13. ^ a b "The Big Gun: What the Three-Hundred Pound Parrott is Expected to Do". New York Times, August 14, 1863. Byline: From the Washington Republican
  14. ^ a b Wise, Stephen R. Gate of Hell: Campaign for Charleston Harbor, 1863 Archived 2008-02-17 at the Wayback Machine. University of South Carolina Press, 1994. ISBN 978-0-87249-985-0.
  15. ^ Vincent, Howard P. Collected Poems of Herman Melville. Packard and Company, 1947.
  16. ^ "The Swamp Angel". The New York Times, December 1, 1876.
  17. ^ "Pictures of the Swamp Angel at Cadwallader". Archived from the original on 2008-02-29. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
  18. ^ The Encyclopedia of Civil War Artillery: Parrot Rifles Archived 2006-03-30 at the Library of Congress Web Archives Accessed January 18, 2008
  19. ^ National Park Service: Artillery at Antietam. Accessed January 18, 2008.
  20. ^ Bigelow, John. The Campaign of Chancellorsville. Yale University Press, 1910.
  21. ^ Archived 2008-01-13 at the Wayback Machine. Citing Martin, David G. "Data File 023: Civil War Heavy Artillery". Strategy & Tactics, No. 81, Jul/Aug. 1980
  22. ^ The Encyclopedia of Civil War Artillery: Projection Tables, citing "The Confederate Ordnance Manual". Accessed January 21, 2008.

Further reading[edit]

  • United States War Department. Atlas to Accompany the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1880–1901.
  • Thomas, Dean, Cannons: An Introduction to Civil War Artillery, Thomas Publications, Gettysburg, 1985
  • James Hazlett, Edwin Olmstead, & M. Hume Parks, Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, University of Delaware Press, Newark, 1983
  • Johnson, Curt, and Richard C. Anderson, Artillery Hell: Employment of Artillery at Antietam, College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1995
  • Coggins, Jack, Arms and Equipment of the Civil War. Wilmington N.C.: Broadfoot Publishing Company, 1989. (Originally published 1962).
  • Edwin Olmstead, Wayne E. Stark, and Spencer C. Tucker (1997). The Big Guns: Civil War Siege, Seacoast, and Naval Cannon. Alexandria Bay, NY: Museum Restoration Service. ISBN 0-888-55012-X.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)

External links[edit]