|Parthenocissus quinquefolia, foliage and fruit|
Parthenocissus //, is a genus of tendril climbing plants in the grape family, Vitaceae. It contains about 12 species native to the Himalayas, eastern Asia and North America. Several are grown for ornamental use, notably P. henryana, P. quinquefolia and P. tricuspidata.
The name derives from the Greek parthenos, "virgin", and kissos (Latinized as "cissus"), "ivy". The reason is variously given as the ability of these creepers to form seeds without pollination or the English name of P. quinquefolia, Virginia creeper, which has become attached to the whole genus.
Among the middle Miocene Sarmatian palynoflora from the Lavanttal Basin Austria researchers have recognized Parthenocissus fossil pollen. The sediment containing the Parthenocissus fossil pollen had accumulated in a lowland wetland environment with various vegetation units of mixed evergreen/deciduous broadleaved/conifer forests surrounding the wetland basin. Key relatives of the fossil taxa found with Parthenocissus are presently confined to humid warm temperate environments, suggesting a subtropical climate during the middle Miocene in Austria.
- Three leaved
- Parthenocissus chinensis, this species grows in dry areas between 1300 and 2300 m in China in the west of both Sichuan and Yunnan.
- Parthenocissus heterophylla, from China and Taiwan
- Parthenocissus semicordata, from the Himalayas
- Parthenocissus feddei, this species grows in rocky places between elevations of 600 and 1100 m in the Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guizhou, Hubei and Hunan
- Five leaved
- One or three leaved
From North America
- Seven or five-leaved
- Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
- RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.
- Ze-Long Nie a.o., "Molecular phylogeny and biogeographic diversification of Parthenocissus (Vitaceae) disjunct between Asia and North America", in: American Journal of Botany 97: p. 1342 (2010)
- Fralish, James S.; Franklin, Scott B. (2002). Taxonomy and Ecology of Woody Plants in North American Forests. John Wiley and Sons. p. 167. ISBN 0-471-16158-6. Retrieved 2008-03-09.
- Coombes, Allen J. (2012). The A to Z of plant names. USA: Timber Press. p. 312. ISBN 9781604691962.
- Combined LM and SEM study of the middle Miocene (Sarmatian) palynoflora from the Lavanttal Basin, Austria: part III. Magnoliophyta 1 – Magnoliales to Fabales, Friðgeir Grímsson, Barbara Meller, Johannes M. Bouchal & Reinhard Zetter, Grana 2015, Vol 54, No. 2, 85-128.
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