Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia

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Malaysian People's Movement Party
Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia
马来西亚民政运动党
Mǎláixīyà Mínzhèng Yùndòng Dǎng/மலேசிய இந்திய காங்கிரஸ்
Abbreviation Gerakan, PGRM
President Mah Siew Keong
Secretary-General Liang Teck Meng
Founder Syed Hussein Alatas
Tan Chee Khoon
J.B.A. Peter
Lim Chong Eu
Wang Gungwu
V. Veerappan
Deputy President Cheah Soon Hai
Slogan Satu Hati Gerak Bersama (Forward Together with One Heart)
Founded 24 March 1968
Legalised 28 May 1968
Headquarters Level 5, Menara PGRM, 8, Jalan Pudu Ulu, Cheras, 56100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Think tank Socio-Economic Development And Research Institute
Youth wing Pemuda Gerakan
Women's wing Wanita Gerakan
Ideology Centrism,
Liberalism
Political position Centre
National affiliation Barisan Nasional (1973–present)
International affiliation Alliance of Democrats,
Liberal International (observer)[1]
Regional affiliation Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats
Colours Red, green, white, gold
Anthem Satu Hati
Dewan Negara:
2 / 70
Dewan Rakyat:
2 / 222
Dewan Undangan Negeri:
3 / 576
Election symbol
Barisan Nasional Logo.svg
Website
www.gerakan.org.my
Politics of Malaysia
Political parties
Elections
Coat of arms of Malaysia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Malaysia

The Malaysian People's Movement Party (Malay: Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia, commonly abbreviated as Gerakan) is a political party in Malaysia. The party was founded on 24 March 1968, and as of 2008, it is part of the ruling National Front coalition.

During its formation, Gerakan was an opposition party not affiliated with the national ruling coalition, the Alliance Party, the predecessor of the National Front. Following the 1969 general election, Gerakan won most of the seats in the state legislature of Penang. However, in 1972 Gerakan joined the Alliance Party which later became the coalition called the National Front, where it remains until today.

As of 2006, about 80% of Gerakan's members are ethnic Chinese, another 15% are Indian, and the rest are Malays or other races.[2]

The party is assisted by an affiliated think tank called SEDAR Institute (Socio-Economic Development And Research Institute).

The party is a member of the Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats.

History[edit]

Formation[edit]

In 1959, the leader of Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) Dr. Lim Chong Eu resigned his position as president after conflict with UMNO leader Tunku Abdul Rahman over the allocation of seats in the 1959 general election . He left MCA, and later set up the United Democratic Party (UDP) in 1962. In 1968, UDP was dissolved and its former members, together with the Labour Party and others, joined force to form a new party Gerakan.[3] The six founders of the party were Professor Syed Hussain Alatas, Dr. Tan Chee Khoon, Dr. J.B.A. Peter, Lim Chong Eu, Professor Wang Gungwu, and V. Veerapan.[4] Although its supporters are mainly Chinese, the party positioned itself as a Malaysian, non-communal party that has some support from Indians and Malays. Its pro tem president was Professor Syed Hussein Alatas, and later Lim took over the presidency which lasted until 1980.[5]

1969-2007[edit]

The party won the state of Penang in the 1969 general election by taking 16 out of 24 seats, winning control from the MCA. Lim Chong Eu became Penang's Chief Minister. Gerakan and the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, which won in Kelantan, were the only parties not then affiliated with the Alliance Party to form a state government in Malaysia. However, due to internal disputes within the party, the party was split. Many of its members, such as Syed Hussein Alatas, V. David, Veerappen, and Tan Chee Khoon, left to form Pekemas (Parti Keadilan Masyarakat, Social Justice Party).[6] Pekemas however would last only four years, and Gerakan itself became largely Chinese as many non-Chinese left the party. In 1972, Gerakan joined the Alliance which became the Barisan Nasional in 1973.[7]

In 1973, a number of former MCA members who were expelled from the party, including Lim Keng Yaik and Paul Leong Khee Seong, joined Gerakan.[8][9] In 1980, Lim Chong Eu decide to retire from the post of party president, and Lim Keng Yaik won the presidency over Lim Chong Eu's preferred candidate Paul Leong.[10] Lim Keng Yaik stayed as president of Gerakan until he decided to retire in 2007.

Gerakan had continual conflicts with MCA as it challenged MCA's position as the main Chinese party within Barisan Nasional. In the 1978 general election, disputes broke out between Gerakan and MCA as seven ex-MCA members (with support from MCA) stood against Gerakan.[11] The party lost some seats but managed to retain its stronghold Penang. Gerakan also sought to expand its influence in others states, in particularly Perak, an effort helped by some defections from MCA.

In the 1990 general election, Gerakan suffered some setbacks. In particular, Lim Chong Eu was defeated by Lim Kit Siang of Democratic Action Party (DAP) in his Kota constituency, after which Lim Chong Eu retired from politics.[5] Nevertheless Gerakan retained the post of Chief Minister of Penang with Dr. Koh Tsu Koon taking over the position. In the 1995 general election, Gerakan bounced back, winning 7 parliamentary seats and 23 state seats.

For nearly four decades, from 1969 to 2008, Gerakan dominated Penang State Legislature, and became closely associated with the fortune of Penang. In that time there had been only two chief ministers in Penang, Lim and Koh Tsu Koon, both from Gerakan.[12] In 1996, in an attempt to win broader support, the party shifted its headquarter to Kuala Lumpur.[3]

In the 2004 general election, Gerakan achieved its best electoral result, winning 10 parliamentary seats and 30 state seats. On 27 August 2005, the party held its party election which saw its president Lim Keng Yaik being challenged by its Deputy, Kerk Choo Ting. Lim retained his party President post after winning with 983 votes against 628 votes obtained by Kerk. Koh Tsu Koon became the new Deputy President which he won unopposed after the nomination day for the party election.

2008-present[edit]

In the 2008 party elections, Koh Tsu Koon who won the post of President uncontested.

In the 2008 General Election, the party suffered its worst electoral defeat. The party retained only two parliament seats, compared to the 10 seats it had before the election. As a result, the party lost its only cabinet post in the ensuing cabinet shuffle. In addition, Gerakan also lost power in Penang after governing the state for almost 39 years.[13] Soon after the defeat, a number of prominent members, such as Tan Kee Kwong and Lee Kah Choon, went over to the opposition coalition Pakatan Rakyat to take up posts with Opposition-led state governments in Penang and Selangor.[14]

In 2013, the party failed to improve its position in the 2013 General Election, losing in fact one its two remaining parliamentary seats. Later in the year, Mah Siew Keong took over as president after beating Penang Gerakan chairman Teng Chang Yeow for the post.[15]

Rejuvenation campaign[edit]

On 25 May 2008, after the dismal performance in the 12th general election, Gerakan launched a party rejuvenation campaign in conjunction with the party's 40th anniversary celebrations in its bid to rebound in mainstream politics and to regain people’s confidence. It has outlined three thrusts, namely to voice Gerakan’s ideology, policy position and advocate Malaysian solutions for various major issues, to rebuild, rebrand and re-empower the party at all levels, and to regain people’s confidence.[16]

The party also launched a new slogan, “Forward Together with One Heart” (Satu Hati Gerak Bersama), and set out its area of concerns and strategies.[17] The campaign would focus on eight strategies, namely:[18]

1) To formulate and voice principled policy positions and solutions for major national issues;

2) To be constructive opposition in Pakatan Rakyat-led states and to pursue reforms of the National Front as an effective multi-racial coalition;

3) To effectively rebuild and revitalise the party;

4) To forge smart partnership with society and non-governmental organizations;

5) To embark on membership expansion and consolidation;

6) To train more leaders and boost their commitments;

7) To re-energise and revamp the party at all levels;

8) To further improve communication and public relations strategies.

Party acting president Koh Tsu Koon said the party would be more proactive and vocal in raising issues concerning people of all races. He said Gerakan would also conduct more activities and gain a stronger foothold in states which it previously had low-key presence, like Perlis and Sabah. Koh said the party members have to consolidate, evaluate, motivate and rejuvenate the party in order to achieve the missions. He said the party would execute the plan via the eight strategies, including broad plans to expand and consolidate membership while rebuilding the party in Penang.

Trivia[edit]

In November 2006, the President of another National Front party, the People's Progressive Party (PPP), M. Kayveas, proposed a merger between Gerakan and the PPP. Koh welcomed the suggestion.[2]

Gerakan Central Committee[edit]

Elected representatives[edit]

Dewan Negara (Senate)[edit]

Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)[edit]

Members of Parliament of the 13th Malaysian Parliament[edit]

Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)[edit]

Malaysian State Assembly Representatives[edit]

List of presidents[edit]

President

No. Name Took office Left office
1 Syed Hussein Alatas 1968 1969
2 Lim Chong Eu 1969 1980
3 Lim Keng Yaik 1980 8 April 2007
4 Koh Tsu Koon 4 October 2008 16 May 2013
5 Mah Siew Keong 26 October 2013 Incumbent

Acting President

No. Name Took office Left office
1 Koh Tsu Koon 8 April 2007 4 October 2008
2 Chang Ko Youn 16 May 2013 26 October 2013

General election results[edit]

Election Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader
1969
8 / 144
178,971 7.5% Decrease1 seat; Opposition Lim Chong Eu
1974
5 / 144
Decrease3 seats; Governing coalition (Barisan Nasional) Lim Chong Eu
1978
4 / 154
Decrease1 seat; Governing coalition (Barisan Nasional) Lim Chong Eu
1982
5 / 154
Increase1 seat; Governing coalition (Barisan Nasional) Lim Keng Yaik
1986
5 / 177
Steady; Governing coalition (Barisan Nasional) Lim Keng Yaik
1990
5 / 180
Steady; Governing coalition (Barisan Nasional) Lim Keng Yaik
1995
7 / 192
Increase2 seats; Governing coalition (Barisan Nasional) Lim Keng Yaik
1999
7 / 193
Steady; Governing coalition (Barisan Nasional) Lim Keng Yaik
2004
10 / 219
257,763 3.7% Increase3 seats; Governing coalition (Barisan Nasional) Lim Keng Yaik
2008
2 / 222
184,548 2.27% Decrease8 seats; Governing coalition (Barisan Nasional) Koh Tsu Koon
2013
1 / 222
191,019 1.73% Decrease1 seat; Governing coalition (Barisan Nasional) Koh Tsu Koon

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia Party, Liberal International, www.liberal-international.org. Retrieved on 17 November 2011.
  2. ^ a b Suthakar, K. (20 November 2006). PPP offers Gerakan merger. The Star.
  3. ^ a b Keat Gin Ooi (2010). The A to Z of Malaysia. Scarecrow Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0810876415. 
  4. ^ "The Early Years, 1968-1972". Parti Gerakan Rakyak Malaysia. 
  5. ^ a b Cheah Kooi Guan (2012). Leo Suryadinata, ed. Southeast Asian Personalities of Chinese Descent: A Biographical Dictionary. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 603–605. ISBN 978-9814345217. 
  6. ^ K S Sandhu, A Mani, ed. (1993). Indian Communities in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 259. ISBN 978-9812100177. 
  7. ^ Keat Gin Ooi (2010). The A to Z of Malaysia. Scarecrow Press. pp. ixvi–ixvii. ISBN 978-0810876415. 
  8. ^ Malte Kaßner (2014). he Influence of the Type of Dominant Party on Democracy: A Comparison Between South Africa and Malaysia. Springer VS. p. 99. ISBN 978-3658044374. 
  9. ^ Cheah Kooi Guan (2012). Leo Suryadinata, ed. Southeast Asian Personalities of Chinese Descent: A Biographical Dictionary. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 634. ISBN 978-9814345217. 
  10. ^ Harold A. Crouch (1982). Malaysia's 1982 General Election. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 12. ISBN 978-9971902452. 
  11. ^ Ismail Kassim (1978). The Politics of Accomodation: An Analysis of the 1978 Malaysian General Election. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 58–59. 
  12. ^ Peter James Rimmer, Howard W. Dick (2009). The City in Southeast Asia: Patterns, Processes and Policy. Univ of Hawaii Pr. p. 123-124. ISBN 978-0824833138. 
  13. ^ Malte Kaßner (2014). he Influence of the Type of Dominant Party on Democracy: A Comparison Between South Africa and Malaysia. Springer VS. p. 106-108. ISBN 978-3658044374. 
  14. ^ Dharmender Singh, Chritina Tan (May 29, 2008). "Gerakan’s Tan ‘joins’ Pakatan". The Star. 
  15. ^ L. Suganya, D. Kanyakumari (October 26, 2013). "Gerakan: Mah Siew Keong is the new party president". The Star. 
  16. ^ "Will a party rejuvenation program save Gerakan from its impending doom?". Rakyat Post. Oct 29, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Gerakan still has a role to play: Koh". The Sun Daily. 26 May 2008. 
  18. ^ "Gerakan Matters". Gerakan. 

Other references[edit]

External links[edit]

Official Site

Gerakan Wanita (Woman) Site