|Leader||Sylvain Gaudreault (interim)|
|Founded||11 October 1968|
|Merger of||Mouvement Souveraineté-Association,
|Headquarters||1200 av. Papineau, Suite 150, Montreal, Quebec|
Social democracy (Québécois)
Social: moderate liberal (left)
|Seats in the National Assembly||
28 / 125
The Parti Québécois (French, and sometimes English: Parti québécois, PQ; pronounced: [paʁ.ti ke.be.kwa]) is a sovereignist provincial political party in Quebec in Canada. The PQ advocates national sovereignty for Quebec involving independence of the province of Quebec from Canada and establishing a sovereign state. The PQ has promoted the possibility of maintaining a loose political and economic sovereignty-association between Quebec and Canada. The party traditionally has support from the labour movement, but unlike most other social-democratic parties, its ties with the labour movement are informal. Members and supporters of the PQ are called "péquistes" (Quebec French pronunciation: [pekɪst] ( listen);), a French word derived from the pronunciation of the party's initials.
The party is an observer member of COPPPAL. The party has strong informal ties to the Bloc Québécois (BQ, whose members are known as "Bloquistes"), the federal party that advocates for the secession of Quebec from Canada and its independence, but the two are not linked organizationally. As with its federal counterpart, the Parti Québécois has been supported by a wide range of voters in Quebec, from large sections of organized labour to more conservative rural voters.
- 1 History
- 2 Relationship with the Bloc Québécois
- 3 Logo
- 4 Party policy
- 5 Slogans
- 6 Party leaders
- 7 Leaders in the legislature
- 8 Party presidents
- 9 Leadership elections
- 10 General election results
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The PQ is the result of the 1968 merger between former Quebec Liberal Party cabinet minister René Lévesque's Mouvement Souveraineté-Association and the Ralliement national. Following the creation of the PQ, the Rassemblement pour l'Indépendance Nationale held a general assembly that voted to dissolve the RIN. Its former members were invited to join the new Parti Québécois.
The PQ's primary goals were to obtain political, economic and social autonomy for the province of Quebec. Lévesque introduced the strategy of referenda early in the 1970s.
Lévesque and the PQ's first government
In the 1976 provincial election, the Parti Québécois was elected for the first time to form the government of Quebec. The party's leader, René Lévesque, became the Premier of Quebec. This provided cause for celebration among many French-speaking Quebecers, while it resulted in an acceleration of the migration of the province's Anglophone population and related economic activity toward Toronto.
The first PQ government was known as the "republic of teachers" because of the large number of scholars who served as cabinet members. The PQ was the first government to recognize the rights of Aboriginal peoples to self-determination, insofar as this self-determination did not affect the territorial integrity of Quebec. The PQ passed laws on public consultations and the financing of political parties, which ensured equal financing of political parties and limited contributions by individuals to $3000. However, the most prominent legacy of the PQ is the Charter of the French Language (the Bill 101), a framework law which defines the linguistic primacy of French and seeks to make French the common public language of Quebec. It allowed the advancement of francophones towards management roles, until then largely out of their reach – despite the fact that 85% of the population spoke French and most of them did not understand English, the language of management was English in most medium and large businesses. Critics, both Francophone and Anglophone, have however criticized the charter for restraining citizens' linguistic school choice, as it forbids immigrants and Quebecers of French descent from attending English-language schools funded by the state (private schools remained an option for those who could afford tuition). The Parti Québécois initiated the 1980 Quebec referendum seeking a mandate to begin negotiation for independence. It was rejected by 60 per cent of voters.
The party was re-elected in the 1981 election, but in November 1984 it experienced the most severe internal crisis of its existence. Lévesque wanted to focus on governing Quebec rather than sovereignty, and also wanted to adopt a more conciliatory approach on constitutional issues. This angered the more ardent sovereigntists, known as the purs et durs. Lévesque was forced to resign as a result. In September 1985, the party leadership election chose Pierre-Marc Johnson as his successor.
The PQ led by Johnson was defeated by the Quebec Liberal Party in the 1985 election that saw Robert Bourassa return as premier. The Liberals served in office for two terms and attempted to negotiate a constitutional settlement with the rest of Canada but with the failure of the Charlottetown Accord and the Meech Lake Accord, two packages of proposed amendments to the Canadian constitution, the question of Quebec's status remained unresolved and the Quebec sovereignty movement revived.
Return to power under Parizeau
The PQ returned to power under the leadership of hardline sovereigntist Jacques Parizeau in the 1994 Quebec election. This saw the PQ win 77 seats and 44% of the vote, on a promise to hold an independence referendum within a year. The following year, Parizeau called the 1995 Quebec referendum proposing negotiations on sovereignty. After leading all night, the final count showed 49.42% of voters supported negotiations that could eventually lead to sovereignty. On the night of the defeat, an emotionally drained Premier Parizeau stated that the loss was caused by "money and ethnic votes" (which led to accusations that Parizeau was racist) as well as by the divided votes amongst francophones. Parizeau resigned the next day (as he is alleged to have planned beforehand in case of a defeat).
Lucien Bouchard, a former member of Prime Minister Brian Mulroney's Cabinet and later founder of the Bloc Québécois, a federal-level sovereigntist party, succeeded Parizeau as PQ leader, but chose not to call another referendum due to the absence of "winning conditions". Bouchard's government then balanced the provincial budget – a feat achieved in Canada only by the federal government and a few of the ten Canadian provinces at that point – by reducing government spending, including social programs. The PQ was re-elected in the 1998 election, despite receiving fewer votes than the Quebec Liberal Party led by former federal deputy prime minister Jean Charest. Bouchard resigned in 2001, and was succeeded as PQ leader and Quebec Premier by Bernard Landry, a former PQ Finance minister. Under Landry's leadership, the party lost the 2003 election to Jean Charest's Liberals.
Return to opposition
Mid-late 2004 was difficult for Landry's leadership, which was being contested. A vote was held during the party's June 2005 convention to determine whether Landry continued to have the confidence of the party membership. Landry said he wanted at least 80% of approval and after gaining 76.2% approval on the confidence vote from party membership on 4 June 2005, Landry announced his intention to resign.
Louise Harel had been chosen to replace him until a new leader, André Boisclair, was elected 15 November 2005, through the party's 2005 leadership election. At the time of Boisclair's election, the PQ was as much as 20 percent ahead of the Liberals in opinion polls, suggesting that Boisclair would lead them to a landslide majority government in the next election.
Splintering on the right and the left
Progressives on the left wing of the PQ perceived a rightward move by the party towards neoliberalism under Bouchard, Landry and Boisclair. In 2006, a new left-wing party, Québec solidaire, was formed which included many activists who would have formerly been members or supporters of the PQ. Over subsequent elections, the QS would attract increasing support from left-wing sovereigntists disillusioned with the PQ, while on the right, the ADQ and later the Coalition Avenir Québec attracted the votes of right-wing and soft sovereigntists, resulting in the PQ being squeezed from both sides.
The PQ was unable to maintain the momentum it briefly had under Boisclair, and in the 2007 provincial election, the party fell to 36 seats and behind the conservative Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ) in number of seats and the popular vote: this is the first time since 1973 that the party did not form the government or Official Opposition. Boisclair said that the voters clearly did not support a strategy of a rapid referendum in the first mandate of a PQ government. Instead of a policy convention following the election, the party held a presidents' council. The party caucus in the provincial legislative assembly was said to have supported Boisclair continuing as leader.
On May 8, 2007 Boisclair announced his resignation as leader of the PQ. This was effective immediately, although Boisclair confirmed he would remain within the PQ caucus for the time being. He was replaced by veteran MNA François Gendron, pending a leadership race and convention.
Former Bloc Québécois leader Gilles Duceppe was the first to announce his intention to run for party leadership, on 11 May 2007. He was followed the same day by Pauline Marois. In a surprise move, Duceppe withdrew on the 12th – leaving Marois the only declared candidate. No other candidates came forward, and on 26 June 2007, Marois won the leadership by acclamation.
In June 2011, the party was shaken when three of its most prominent MNAs—popular actor Pierre Curzi, former cabinet minister Louise Beaudoin, and Lisette Lapointe, the wife of former premier Jacques Parizeau, followed the next day by a fourth, Jean-Martin Aussant, quit the party to sit as independents over Marois's support for a bill changing the law to permit an agreement between the City of Québec and Quebecor Inc. concerning the management of the new sports and entertainment complex in Quebec City. Unrest continued later in the month when a fifth MNA, Benoit Charette, also quit, citing his dissatisfaction with the party's sole focus being sovereignty. Beaudoin rejoined the PQ caucus in 2012.
Marois minority government
The party won a minority government under Marois in the 2012 provincial election with 54 of 125 seats in the National Assembly. It embarked on a program of "sovereigntist governance" in relations with the rest of Canada, to return Quebec to balanced budgets through higher taxes and debt reduction, to increase the use of French in public services, and to address resource development in Northern Quebec. However the PQ's 'new Bill 101' did not pass. The centrepiece of the government's program was a Quebec Charter of Values which would have curtailed minority religious identity by banning the wearing of religious symbols by those in the employ of the government, particularly Sikh turbans, Muslim veils and Jewish kippas.
Based on the charter's growing popularity among francophones, Marois called an early election for 7 April 2014 in an attempt to win a majority government. Despite leading in the polls when the writ was dropped, the campaign went badly due to several mishaps. The recruitment of star candidate Pierre Karl Péladeau, whose comments made sovereignty and the prospect of another referendum a focus of the campaign, as well as feminist Janette Bertrand suggesting that wealthy Muslim men were taking over swimming pools, among other incidents badly hurt the PQ. Marois' government was defeated by the Liberals, led by Philippe Couillard, in the 2014 provincial election which resulted in a Liberal majority government. The PQ won 25% of the vote and 30 seats, its worst result in terms of popular vote since 1970. Marois announced her intention to resign as PQ leader that night.
On November 27, 2014, Pierre Karl Péladeau announced his intentions to run for PQ's leadership, joining Bernard Drainville, Martine Ouellet, Jean-François Lisée, Alexandre Cloutier, and Pierre Céré.
Despite a fiercely contested race, Péladeau was the frontrunner for much of the campaign, causing Jean-François Lisée to drop out in January 2015, Bernard Drainville to drop out on April 22, 2015, and Pierre Céré to follow Drainville only five days before the leadership election.
On May 2, 2016, Péladeau announced that he was retiring from politics to dedicate more time to his family.
Relationship with the Bloc Québécois
The Bloc Québécois (BQ) is a federal political party founded in 1990 by former Progressive Conservative MP Lucien Bouchard. It has traditionally had close ties to the Parti Québécois and shares its principal objective of sovereignty. The two parties have frequently shared political candidates, and have supported each other during election campaigns. The two parties have a similar membership and voter base. Prominent members of either party often attend and speak at both organizations' public events. Gilles Duceppe, the current Bloc leader, is also the son of Jean Duceppe, a Quebec actor who helped found the PQ.
In June 2014, Mario Beaulieu, a former PQ riding president and Bloc candidate, was elected leader of the Bloc Québécois. Notwithstanding his previous ties to both parties, Beaulieu has been critical of what he sees as a too timid approach to sovereignty by both the Bloc and PQ. Beaulieu's election as Bloc leader was more warmly received by the PQ's rival party, Option nationale, than by the PQ.
The party's distinctive logo was designed in 1968 by painter and poet Roland Giguère. It consists of a stylised letter Q, represented by a blue circle broken by a red arrow. The creator meant it as an allegory of the Parti Québécois breaking the circle of colonialism which he claimed Canada was imposing on Quebec and opening Quebec upon the world and the future. The PQ has made very few significant modifications to its logo during its history. In 1985 it made the circle and arrow slightly thicker, and placed the tip of the latter at the centre of the circle. The original saw it span the whole diameter. When placed upon a blue background instead of a white one, the circle was commonly turned to white, the single main design variation currently observed.
The party revealed a new logo on 21 February 2007, at the beginning of the 2007 provincial election campaign. While maintaining the basic style of past logos, the Q was redesigned and modernized. In addition, the tail of the Q was recoloured green.
|This article is outdated. (May 2008)|
||This article may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. (May 2008)|
The Parti Québécois centres on the protection of the Franco-Québécois identity, up to or including the ultimate result of sovereignty-association. Sovereigntism, however, is 'Article 1' in its party program.
After then-French President Nicolas Sarkozy rejected the long-standing "non-interference, non-indifference" stance towards Quebec should it seek sovereignty in 2009, PQ leader and Premier Pauline Marois' visit to France in October 2012 saw her reinstate it with French President François Hollande. Also during her visit, Marois commented that "Canada's current foreign policy corresponds to neither our values nor our interests".
The PQ delivered a brief to the reasonable accommodation commission on minorities, which conducted holding hearings across the province. The commission briefing looked to reformulate the relations between Quebec's francophone and minority populations. Its task was to be a platform for the PQ's protectionism of French.
Marois stated there is nothing dogmatic in Francophones wishing to declare their existence even if it includes developing legislation requiring newcomers to have a basic understanding of French before becoming citizens of Quebec. (Note that there are no official citizens of Quebec; residents of Quebec are citizens of Canada.)
Further to her desire to protect French in Quebec, during Marois' visit to France in October 2012, she recommended that the "French elite" conduct themselves only in French on the international scene.
Marois stated the PQ understands the arrival of newcomers is attractive and they donate largely to Quebec's growth, but she stated that does not imply that to better assimilate them that "we must erase our own history."
As of 2014, the PQ electoral program describes the party’s main commitment: "Aspiring to political liberty, the Parti Québécois has as its first objective to achieve the sovereignty of Quebec after consulting the population by a referendum to be held at the moment that the government judges appropriate."
These are the slogans used by the Parti Québécois in general election campaigns throughout its history. They are displayed with an unofficial translation. The elections in which the PQ won or remained in power are in bold.
- 1970: OUI – Yes
- 1973: J'ai le goût du Québec – I have a taste for Quebec
- 1976: On a besoin d'un vrai gouvernement – We need a real government
- 1981: Faut rester forts au Québec – We must remain strong in Quebec
- 1985: Le Québec avec Johnson – Québec with Johnson
- 1989: Je prends le parti du Québec – I'm choosing Quebec's party / I'm taking Quebec's side (double meaning)
- 1994: L'autre façon de gouverner – The other way of governing
- 1998: J'ai confiance – I am confident / I trust
- 2003: Restons forts – Let us stay strong
- 2007: Reconstruisons notre Québec – Let us rebuild our Quebec
- 2008: Québec gagnant avec Pauline – Quebec winning with Pauline
- 2012: À nous de choisir – The choice is ours
- 2014: Plus prospère, plus fort, plus indépendant, plus accueillant – More prosperous, stronger, more independent, more welcoming
Until 5 June 2005, the office of Leader of the Parti Québécois was known as President of the Parti Québécois.
|Party leader||Years as party leader||Years as Premier|
|Guy Chevrette||1987–88 (acting)||None|
|Louise Harel||2005 (acting)||None|
|François Gendron||2007 (acting)||None|
|Stéphane Bédard||2014–15 (acting)||None|
|Pierre Karl Péladeau||2015–16||None|
|Sylvain Gaudreault||2016–present (acting)||None|
Leaders in the legislature
When a Parti Québécois leader does not have a seat in the National Assembly, another member leads the party in the legislature.
|Parliamentary leader||Years as parliamentary leader||Comments|
|René Lévesque||1968–70||René Lévesque sat as an Independent member until the 29 April 1970 election.|
|Camille Laurin||1970–73||René Lévesque did not have a seat from 29 April 1970 to 29 October 1973.|
|Jacques-Yvan Morin||1973–76||René Lévesque did not have a seat from 29 October 1973 to 15 November 1976.|
|Guy Chevrette||1987–89||Became Leader of the Opposition when Johnson resigned on November 10, 1987. Remained parliamentary leader after Jacques Parizeau became party leader from 19 March 1988 until Parizeau won a seat on 25 September 1989.|
|Lucien Bouchard||1996–2001||Lucien Bouchard did not have a seat from 27 January 1996 to 19 February 1996.|
|Louise Harel||2005–06||André Boisclair did not have a seat from 15 November 2005 to 14 August 2006.|
|Pauline Marois||2007–14||Pauline Marois lost her seat on 7 April 2014 and announced her resignation as leader.|
|Stéphane Bédard||2014–15||Interim leader between Marois' defeat and Péladeau's election|
|Pierre Karl Péladeau||2015–16|
|Sylvain Gaudreault||2016—present||Interim leader following Péladeau's resignation|
Until 5 June 2005, the office of President of the Parti Québécois was known as First Vice-President of the Parti Québécois.
|Party president||Years as party president||Comments|
|Nadia Assimopoulos||1984–88||Nadia Assimopoulos served as acting leader (then known as president) from 20 June 1985 to 29 September 1985.|
- Parti Québécois leadership elections
- Parti Québécois leadership election, 1985
- Parti Québécois leadership election, 2005
- Parti Québécois leadership election, 2007
- Parti Québécois leadership election, 2015
- Parti Québécois leadership election, 2016
General election results
|General election||Leader||# of seats won||Change +/-||% of popular vote||Result|
7 / 108
6 / 110
71 / 110
80 / 122
23 / 122
29 / 125
77 / 125
76 / 125
45 / 125
36 / 125
|9||28.35%||Third Party (Liberal minority government)|
51 / 125
54 / 125
30 / 125
- SPQ Libre
- Parti Québécois Crisis, 1984
- Politics of Quebec
- History of Quebec
- List of political parties in Quebec
- Sovereigntist events and strategies
- Secessionist movements of Canada
- Parti Québécois leadership elections
- How Political Parties Respond: Interest Aggregation Revisited. Routledge. p. 149. ISBN 978-1-134-27668-4. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- Rodney S. Haddow, Thomas Richard Klassen (2006). Partisanship, globalization, and Canadian labour market policy. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press. p. 56. ISBN 9780802090904.
- Geoffrey Hale; Geoffrey E. Hale (2006). Uneasy Partnership: The Politics of Business and Government in Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-55111-504-7. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- Cecil Young (2004). One Canada. Trafford Publishing. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-4120-2235-4. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- — La première ministre du Québec, Pauline Marois. "Des élections au Québec le 7 avril | Élections Québec 2014". ICI.Radio-Canada.ca. Retrieved 2014-04-09.
- New independence think tank promises to be politically independent - Montreal - CBC News
- Liam D. Anderson (2013). Federal Solutions to Ethnic Problems: Accommodating Diversity. Routledge. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-415-78161-9.
- Cameron I. Crouch (10 September 2009). Managing Terrorism and Insurgency: Regeneration, Recruitment and Attrition. Routledge. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-135-23018-0.
- J. Patrick Boyer (25 July 1996). Direct Democracy in Canada: The History and Future of Referendums. Dundurn. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-4597-1884-5.
- Eric Braun (1 January 2003). Canada in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8225-4679-5.
- Amílcar Antonio Barreto (1 January 1998). Language, Elites, and the State: Nationalism in Puerto Rico and Quebec. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-275-96183-1.
- Leslie Brokaw; Erin Trahan (23 February 2011). Frommer's Montreal and Quebec City 2011. John Wiley & Sons. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-470-96494-1.
- Social Democracy After the Cold War - Bryan Evans, Ingo Schmidt - Google Boeken. Books.google.com. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
- "Péquiste: definition of Péquiste in Oxford dictionary (British & World English)". Oxforddictionaries.com. 2014-04-02. Retrieved 2014-04-09.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- "Boisclair gets emotional talking about homophobia". CTV News. 4 March 2007. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "Results suggest rift between urban, rural voters". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 24 January 2006. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- Cameron I. Crouch (10 September 2009). Managing Terrorism and Insurgency: Regeneration, Recruitment and Attrition. Routledge. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-135-23018-0.
- [dead link]
- Seymour Martin Lipset; Rafael Gomez; Ivan Katchanovski (2004). The paradox of American unionism: Why Americans like unions more than Canadians do, but join much less. Cornell University Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-8014-4200-1. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- Alvin Finkel (1 April 1997). Our Lives: Canada After 1945. James Lorimer & Company. p. 200. ISBN 978-1-55028-551-2. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- Nelson Wiseman (2007). In Search of Canadian Political Culture. UBC Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-7748-1388-4. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- UPDATE 1-Former Quebec separatist leader Parizeau dies at 84 | Reuters
- "Bernard Landry quits as Parti Québécois leader". 5 May 2005. Archived from the original on 10 September 2005. Retrieved 9 May 2007.
- Hébert, Chantal (27 March 2007). "PQ fails miserably to rally sovereignists". The Star. Toronto. Retrieved 9 May 2007.
- Mason, Christopher (8 May 2007). "Quebec Separatist Leader Resigns". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 May 2007.
- "PQ left reeling after three top members of Quebec sovereigntist party quit". The Canadian Press. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
- Philip Authier (3 April 2012). "Parti Québécois leader Pauline Marois welcomes MNA Louise Beaudoin back into the fold". Montreal Gazette. Archived from the original on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- "Pauline Marois resigns as PQ leader after crushing defeat". CTV News. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- "PQ elects Stephane Bedard to interim leader post". CTV News. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- Vendeville, Geoffrey (21 October 2014). "CAQ holds the fort in Lévis byelection". The Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- Authier, Philip (27 November 2014). "Pierre Karl Péladeau joins the PQ leadership race". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- Authier, Philip (22 April 2015). "Drainville drops out of PQ race after concluding the troops want PKP". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- Authier, Philip (14 May 2015). "After long campaign, fate of new PQ leader in the hands of party members". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- "Pierre Karl Peladeau elected leader of Parti Quebecois". CTV News. May 15, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
- "Péladeau stuns political world, steps down for family reasons". Montreal Gazette. May 2, 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
- Don, Macpherson. "Mario Beaulieu's victory shows the Bloc's irrelevance". The Gazette.
- "Les députés bloquistes lancent un appel au calme". Huffington Post. 16 June 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- Gagnon, Lysiane (18 June 2014). "Will the Bloc Self-Destruct?". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- "Archives de Radio-Canada: Fondation du Parti québécois". 8 May 2007. Retrieved 9 May 2007.
- Fidler, Richard (2011-06-07). "Life on the Left: Behind those resignations from the Parti Québécois". Lifeonleft.blogspot.ca. Retrieved 2014-04-09.
- Dougherty, Kevin (15 October 2012). "France's president embraces traditional "ni, ni" stance on Quebec's future". Montrealgazette.com. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
- "Parti Quebecois Premier Pauline Marois tears a strip off Harper's foreign policy". Ottawacitizen.com. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
- "globeandmail.com: National". Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 9 January 2009.
- "Letter: Marois telling France what to do". Montrealgazette.com. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
- "PQ leader defends citizenship plan". Canada.com. 21 October 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
- "William Johnson: Hard truths for separatists | National Post". Fullcomment.nationalpost.com. Retrieved 2014-04-09.
- "Conseil national - Le PQ ne profite pas de l'impopularité de Jean Charest". http://www.ledevoir.com/. Retrieved 12 February 2005. External link in
- Lévesque, Michel and Pelletier, Martin (Sept. 2007). Le Parti québécois : bibliographie 1968–2007, Bibliothèque de l'Assemblée nationale du Québec, 244 pages
- Dubuc, Pierre (2003). L'autre histoire de l'indépendance : de Pierre Vallières à Charles Gagnon, de Claude Morin à Paul Desmarais, Trois-Pistoles: Éditions Trois-Pistoles, 288 pages ISBN 2-89583-076-2
- Fraser, Graham (2001). René Lévesque & the Parti Québécois in Power, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 434 pages ISBN 0-7735-2310-3 [First Ed. Toronto: Macmillan, 1984]
- Godin, Pierre (1997). René Lévesque, Héros malgré lui, Éditions Boréal ISBN 2-89052-833-2
- Lévesque, René (1986). Memoirs, Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 368 pages ISBN 0-7710-5285-5 [translated by Philip Stratford]
- Montreal Gazette, 15 October 2012.