Partitiviridae

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Partitiviridae
Emd-5161.jpg
CryoEM reconstruction of Penicillium stoloniferum virus S capsid, a partitivirus. EMDB entry EMD-5161[1]
Virus classification
Group: Group III (dsRNA)
Order: Unassigned
Family: Partitiviridae
Genera

Partitiviridae is a family of viruses. Fungi and plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 56 species in this family, divided among 5 genera.[2][3] Their name comes from the Latin partitius which means divided and they are called this as they have segmented genomes.

Genome and structure[edit]

Viruses in Partitiviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=1 symmetry. The diameter is around 35-40 nm. Partitiviruses have double stranded RNA genomes divided into two genomic segments and there may be additional subgenomic segments. The genome segments are packaged in the same virus particle, the larger segment codes for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the smaller codes for the coat protein. Genomes are linear and around 1.4-3.0kb in length. The genome codes for 2 proteins.[2]

Genus Structure Symmetry Capsid Genomic Arrangement Genomic Segmentation
Cryspovirus Icosahedral T=1 Non-Enveloped Linear Segmented
Alphapartitivirus Icosahedral T=1 Non-Enveloped Linear Segmented
Deltapartitivirus Icosahedral T=1 Non-Enveloped Linear Segmented
Betapartitivirus Icosahedral T=1 Non-Enveloped Linear Segmented
Gammapartitivirus Icosahedral T=1 Non-Enveloped Linear Segmented

Life Cycle[edit]

Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by cell-to-cell movement. Fungi and plants serve as the natural host.[2]

Genus Host Details Tissue Tropism Entry Details Release Details Replication Site Assembly Site Transmission
Cryspovirus Protists None Cell division; sporogenesis; hyphal anastomosis Cell division; sporogenesis; hyphal anastomosis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Cell division; sporogenesis; hyphal anastomosis
Alphapartitivirus None Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Cell division
Deltapartitivirus Plants None Viral movement; mechanical inoculation Cell division Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Cell division
Betapartitivirus None Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Cell division
Gammapartitivirus Fungi None Cytoplasmic exchange; hyphal anastomosis Cytoplasmic exchange; hyphal anastomosis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Cytoplasmic exchange; hyphal anastomosis

Taxonomy[edit]

There are currently five recognized genera within the Partitiviridae family:

Group: dsRNA

[3]

Cryspoviruses infect apicomplexian protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium,[4] while viruses of the other genera infect plants and fungi. There are an additional fifteen species in the family unassigned to a genus.

Phylogenetics[edit]

Based on the RNA polymerase gene this group can be divided into four clades (I-IV).[5] Four isolates from animals and protozoans form a fifth clade. Clades I-IV consist of mixtures of partitivirus-like sequences from plants and fungi.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tang, J.; Pan, J.; Havens, W. M.; Ochoa, W. F.; Guu, T. S. Y.; Ghabrial, S. A.; Nibert, M. L.; Tao, Y. J.; Baker, T. S. (2010). "Backbone Trace of Partitivirus Capsid Protein from Electron Cryomicroscopy and Homology Modeling". Biophysical Journal 99 (2): 685–694. doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2010.04.058. PMC 2905076. PMID 20643089. 
  2. ^ a b c "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  3. ^ a b ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  4. ^ Nibert ML, Woods KM, Upton SJ, Ghabrial SA (2009) Cryspovirus: a new genus of protozoan viruses in the family Partitiviridae. Arch Virol 154(12):1959-1965
  5. ^ Liu H, Fu Y, Xie J, Cheng J, Ghabrial SA, Li G, Yi X, Jiang D (2012) Discovery of Novel dsRNA Viral Sequences by In Silico Cloning and Implications for Viral Diversity, Host Range and Evolution. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e42147.

External links[edit]