Tomb of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae
|Location||Fars Province, Iran|
|Builder||Cyrus the Great|
|Founded||6th century BCE|
|Archaeologists||Ali Sami, David Stronach, Ernst Herzfeld|
|Criteria||i, ii, iii, iv|
|Designated||2004 (28th session)|
Pasargadae (from Ancient Greek: Πασαργάδαι, from Old Persian; Modern Persian: پاسارگاد Pāsārgād) was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great who had issued its construction (559–530 BC); it was also the location of his tomb. It was a city in ancient Persia, located near the city of Shiraz (in Pasargad County), and is today an archaeological site and one of Iran's UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Cyrus the Great began building the capital in 546 BC or later; it was unfinished when he died in battle, in 530 or 529 BC. The remains of the tomb of Cyrus' son and successor Cambyses II have been found in Pasargadae, near the fortress of Toll-e Takht, and identified in 2006.
Pasargadae remained the capital of the Achaemenid empire until Cambyses II moved it to Susa; later, Darius founded another in Persepolis. The archaeological site covers 1.6 square kilometres and includes a structure commonly believed to be the mausoleum of Cyrus, the fortress of Toll-e Takht sitting on top of a nearby hill, and the remains of two royal palaces and gardens. Pasargadae Persian Gardens provide the earliest known example of the Persian chahar bagh, or fourfold garden design (see Persian Gardens).
Tomb of Cyrus the Great
The most important monument in Pasargadae is the tomb of Cyrus the Great. It has six broad steps leading to the sepulchre, the chamber of which measures 3.17 m long by 2.11 m wide by 2.11 m high and has a low and narrow entrance. Though there is no firm evidence identifying the tomb as that of Cyrus, Greek historians tell that Alexander believed it was. When Alexander looted and destroyed Persepolis, he paid a visit to the tomb of Cyrus. Arrian, writing in the second century AD, recorded that Alexander commanded Aristobulus, one of his warriors, to enter the monument. Inside he found a golden bed, a table set with drinking vessels, a gold coffin, some ornaments studded with precious stones and an inscription on the tomb. No trace of any such inscription survives, and there is considerable disagreement to the exact wording of the text. Strabo reports that it read:
Passer-by, I am Cyrus, who gave the Persians an empire, and was king of Asia.
Grudge me not therefore this monument.
Another variation, as documented in Persia: The Immortal Kingdom, is:
O man, whoever thou art, from wheresoever thou cometh, for I know you shall come, I am Cyrus, who founded the empire of the Persians.
Grudge me not, therefore, this little earth that covers my body.
The design of Cyrus' tomb is credited to Mesopotamian or Elamite ziggurats, but the cella is usually attributed to Urartu tombs of an earlier period. In particular, the tomb at Pasargadae has almost exactly the same dimensions as the tomb of Alyattes II, father of the Lydian King Croesus; however, some have refused the claim (according to Herodotus, Croesus was spared by Cyrus during the conquest of Lydia, and became a member of Cyrus' court). The main decoration on the tomb is a rosette design over the door within the gable. In general, the art and architecture found at Pasargadae exemplified the Persian synthesis of various traditions, drawing on precedents from Elam, Babylon, Assyria, and ancient Egypt, with the addition of some Anatolian influences.
Pasargadae was first archaeologically explored by the German archaeologist Ernst Herzfeld in 1905, and in one excavation season in 1928, together with his assistant Friedrich Krefter. Since 1946, the original documents, notebooks, photographs, fragments of wall paintings and pottery from the early excavations are preserved in the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, in Washington, DC. After Herzfeld, Sir Aurel Stein completed a site plan for Pasargadae in 1934. In 1935, Erich F. Schmidt produced a series of aerial photographs of the entire complex.
From 1949 to 1955, an Iranian team led by Ali Sami worked there. A British Institute of Persian Studies team led by David Stronach resumed excavation from 1961 to 1963. It was during the 1960s that a pot-hoard known as the Pasargadae Treasure was excavated near the foundations of 'Pavilion B' at the site. Dating to the 5th-4th centuries BC, the treasure consists of ornate Achaemenid jewellery made from gold and precious gems and is now housed in the National Museum of Iran and the British Museum. After a gap, work was resumed by the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization and the Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée of the University of Lyon in 2000.
Sivand Dam controversy
There has been growing concern regarding the proposed Sivand Dam, named after the nearby town of Sivand. Despite planning that has stretched over 10 years, Iran's own Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization was not aware of the broader areas of flooding during much of this time.
Its placement between both the ruins of Pasargadae and Persepolis has many archaeologists and Iranians worried that the dam will flood these UNESCO World Heritage sites, although scientists involved with the construction say this is not obvious because the sites sit above the planned waterline. Of the two sites, Pasargadae is the one considered to be more threatened. Experts agree that the planning of future dam projects in Iran will merit an earlier examination of the risks to cultural resource properties.
Of broadly shared concern to archaeologists is the effect of the increase in humidity caused by the lake. All agree that the humidity created by it will speed up the destruction of Pasargadae, yet experts from the Ministry of Energy believe it could be partially compensated for by controlling the water level of the reservoir.
Construction of the dam began April 19, 2007.
In 1930, the Brazilian poet Manuel Bandeira published a poem called "Vou-me embora pra Pasárgada" ("I'm off to Pasargadae" in Portuguese), in a book entitled Libertinagem. It tells the story of a man who wants to go to Pasargadae, described in the poem as a utopian city. This poem has become one of the Portuguese language's classics.
The following is an extract, in the original then in a translation:
Vou‐me embora pra Pasárgada
Vou-me embora pra Pasárgada
I'm off to Pasargadae
I'm off to Pasargadae
The "prison of Solomon", another part of the ruined compound, which may be the tomb of Cambyses I
- 2,500 year celebration of Iran's monarchy
- Achaemenid architecture
- Cities of the ancient Near East
- History of Iran
- Iranian architecture
- Tang-e Bolaghi
- Ka'ba-ye Zartosht, modeled after the "Prison of Solomon"
- Ancient Pasargadae threatened by construction of dam, Mehr News Agency, 28 August 2004, retrieved Sep 15, 2006.
- Discovered Stone Slab Proved to be Gate of Cambyses’ Tomb, CHN.
- Hogan, C Michael (Jan 19, 2008), "Tomb of Cyrus", in Burnham, A, [The entire design is old persian as they did in Chogazanbil for more than 1200 years earlier. Mesapotamian and babylonian have to prove if the remains of ziggurats are in fact theirs. http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=18264 The Megalithic Portal] Check
- Ferrier, Ronald W (1989), The Arts of Persia, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-03987-5.
- Lendering, Jona, Pasargadae, Livius.
- Herzfeld, E (1929), Bericht über die Ausgrabungen von Pasargadae 1928 (in German), 1, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran, pp. 4–16,
- Stein, A (1936), An Archaeological Tour in Ancient Persis, Iraq, 3, pp. 217–20.
- Schmidt, Erich F (1940), Flights Over Ancient Cities of Iran (PDF), University of Chicago Oriental Institute, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-918986-96-6.
- Ali-Sami (1971) [March 1956], Pasargadae. The Oldest Imperial. Capital of Iran, 4, Rev. RN Sharp transl (2nd ed.), Shiraz: Learned Society of Pars; Musavi Print. Office.
- Stronach, David (1963), "First Preliminary Report", Excavations at Pasargadae, Iran, 1, pp. 19–42.
- ———————— (1964), "Second Preliminary Report", Excavations at Pasargadae, Iran, 2, pp. 21–39.
- ———————— (1965), "Third Preliminary Report", Excavations at Pasargadae, Iran, 3, pp. 9–40.
- British Museum Collection
- Boucharlat, Rémy (2002), Pasargadae, Iran, 40, pp. 279–82.
- Sivand Dam Waits for Excavations to be Finished, Cultural Heritage News Agency, 26 February 2006, retrieved Sep 15, 2006.
- Date of Sivand Dam Inundation Not Yet Agreed Upon, Cultural Heritage News Agency, 29 May 2006, retrieved Sep 15, 2006.
- Bandeira, Manuel (2009). "Libertinagem" [Salacity]. In Seffrin, André (organizer). Manuel Bandeira: poesia completa e prosa, volume único [Manuel Bandeira: complete poetry and prose, unique volume] (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro [(City) "River of January"], RJ [(State) "River of January"], Brasil [Brazil]: Editora Nova Aguilar [New Aguilar Press]. pp. XXIII, 118–119.
- Sivand Dam’s Inundation Postponed for 6 Months, Cultural Heritage News Agency, 29 November 2005, retrieved Sep 15, 2006.
- Fathi, Nazila (November 27, 2005), "A Rush to Excavate Ancient Iranian Sites", The New York Times; fully accessible at Fathi, Nazila (27 November 2005), "SF Gate", The San Francisco Chronicle.
- Ali Mousavi (September 16, 2005), "Cyrus can rest in peace: Pasargadae and rumors about the dangers of Sivand Dam", History, Iranian.[dead link]
- Pasargadae Will Never Drown, Cultural Heritage News Agency, 12 September 2005, retrieved Sep 15, 2006.
- Matheson, Sylvia A, Persia: An Archaeological Guide.
- Seffrin, André (2009), Manuel Bandeira: poesia completa e prosa, volume único [Manuel Bandeira: complete poetry and prose, unique volume], Rio de Janeiro: Editora Nova Aguilar, ISBN 978-85-210-0108-9.
- Stronach, David (1978), Pasargadae: A Report on the Excavations Conducted by the British Institute of Persian Studies from 1961–63, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-813190-9.
- Media related to Pasargadae at Wikimedia Commons
- "Pasargadae Excavation Documentation and Fragments of Wall Paintings from Pasargadae", Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.
- "Records of Pasargadae", Ernst Herzfeld Papers, 5: Drawings and Maps, Washington, DC: Collections Search Center, S.I.R.I.S., Smithsonian Institution.
- Tall_e Takht (pictures).
- World Heritage Center, Unesco.
- "Pasargadae", History, Iran Chamber Society.
- "European languages", Save Pasargadae From Destruction
- "Pasargad", Land of Aryan, ATSpace.
- Pasargad (virtual reconstruction of Pasargadae), Persepolis3D.
- Persepolis & Pasargad (photo gallery) (in German), M Heße, 2009.
- Pasargadae, Ancient History Encyclopedia
- Pasargadae, Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran