Pasha: Difference between revisions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
(List of notable pashas)
(Replaced content with 'Pasha also known as Mohammed Abdul Hamid Pasha. Is the most eligible bachlor in India. He is currently working in Smart Connect.')
Line 1: Line 1:
{{otheruses1|the rank/title used in the Ottoman Empire}}
+
Pasha also known as Mohammed Abdul Hamid Pasha. Is the most eligible bachlor in India. He is currently working in Smart Connect.
 
'''Pasha''' or '''pacha''', formerly '''bashaw''', ({{lang-tr|paşa پاشا}}, {{lang-fa|پاشا}}, {{lang-ar|باشا}}, {{lang-hy|Փաշա}}) was a high rank in the [[Ottoman Empire]] political system, typically granted to [[governor]]s and [[general]]s. As an [[honorific|honorary title]], "Pasha" in one of its various ranks is equivalent to the British title of "[[Lord]]".
 
 
==Linguistics==
 
Etymologists variously derive the word ''pasha'' from the [[Turkish language|Turkish]] ''baş ağa'' (Big Brother) <ref>[http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=pasha&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary - Pasha]</ref> (in some dialects ''pash''), "head lord", "[[tribal chief]]" etc. (more likely for an officer). Old Turkish had no fixed distinction between /b/ and /p/. As first used in western Europe, the title appeared in writing with the initial "b". The English forms ''bashaw'', ''bassaw'', ''bucha'' etc., general in the 16th and 17th century, derive through the medieval [[Latin]] and [[Italian language|Italian]] word ''bassa''.
 
 
==Role in Ottoman political system==
 
[[Image:Ottoman tui 1877 romanian capture.jpg|thumb]]
 
The Ottoman [[sultan]] of [[Turkey]] and (by delegation) the viceroyal [[khedive of Egypt]] had the right to bestow the title of ''Pasha''. The title appears, originally, to have applied exclusively to military commanders, but subsequently it could distinguish any high official, and also unofficial persons whom the court desired to honour.
 
 
It was also part of the official style of the [[Kapudan Pasha]] (Great Admiral of the entire Ottoman fleet).
 
 
Pashas ranked above [[Bey]]s and [[Agha]]s, but below [[Khedive]]s and [[Vizier]]s.
 
 
Three grades of Pasha existed, distinguished by the number of yak- or horse-tails (three, two and one respectively; a symbol of Turco-Mongol tradition) or peacock tails, which the bearers were entitled to display on their standard as a symbol of military authority when on campaign. Only the Sultan himself was entitled to four tails, as sovereign commander in chief.
 
 
The following military ranks entitled the holder to the style Pasha (lower ranks were styled Bey or merely [[Effendi]]):
 
*The [[Vizier-i-Azam]] (Grand Vizier, the prime minister, but also often taking the field as Generalissimo instead of the Sultan)
 
*[[Mushir]] (Field marshall)
 
*[[Ferik]] (army Lieutenant-general or navy Vice-admiral)
 
*[[Lewa]]=[[Liva]] (major general or Rear-admiral)
 
*The [[Kizlar Agha]] (chief black eunuch, the highest officer in the [[Topkapı Palace]]; three tails, as commander of the [[baltacı]] corps of the halberdiers in the imperial army
 
*Istanbul's [[Shaikh ul-Islam]], the highest Muslim clergyman, of cabinet rank.
 
 
If a Pasha governed a provincial [[Territory (country subdivision)|territory]], it could be called a ''[[pashaluk]]'' after his military title, besides the administrative term for the type of jurisdiction, e.g. ''[[eyalet]], [[vilayet]]''. Both [[Beylerbey]]s (governors-general) and [[Wāli|Valis]] (the most common type of Governor) were entitled to the style of Pasha (typically with two tails). The word ''pashalik'' designated any [[province]] or other jurisdiction of a Pasha.
 
 
Ottoman authorities conferred the title upon both [[Muslim]]s and [[Christian]]s without distinction. They also frequently gave it to foreigners in the service of the [[Turkish people|Turks]] or of the [[Egyptians]], e.g. [[Hobart Pasha]].
 
 
==Honorific==
 
In usage, the title followed the given name. Although the word serves as a non-hereditary title, English speakers have commonly used the word ''pasha'' as if it formed part of a personal name, as for instance in [[Ibrahim Pasha]] or [[Emin Pasha]], similar to the practice of referring to a [[British Peer]] as Lord X, since in both cases it substitutes for a more precise rank title.
 
 
The sons of a Pasha were styled '''Pashazada or Pasha-zade''', which means just that.
 
 
In modern [[Egyptian Arabic|Egyptian]] and (to a lesser extent) [[Levantine Arabic]], it is used as an honorific closer to "Sir" than "Lord," especially by older people.
 
 
==List of notable pashas==
 
*[[Abaza Family]] - Egyptian Pashas and [[Bey]]s
 
*[[Abbas I of Egypt]]
 
*[[Abbas II of Egypt]]
 
*[[Ahmed Pasha]] (Claude Alexandre de Bonneval)
 
*[[Müezzinzade Ali Pasha]] — Ottoman admiral
 
*[[Ali Pasha]] — statesman
 
*[[Ahmed 'Urabi|Urabi Pasha]]
 
*[[Barbarossa (Ottoman admiral)|Barbarossa Khair ad-Din Pasha]]
 
*[[Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha]]
 
*[[Emin Pasha]]
 
*[[Enver Pasha]]
 
*[[Essad Pasha]]
 
*[[Fakhri Pasha]]
 
*[[Fuad Pasha]]
 
*[[Glubb Pasha]] (John Bagot Glubb)
 
*[[Charles George Gordon|Gordon Pasha]]
 
*[[Hagop Kazazian Pasha]]
 
*[[Ibrahim Pasha]]
 
*[[Ismet Pasha]] (İsmet İnönü)
 
*[[Jafar al-Askari]]
 
*[[Jamal Pasha]]
 
*[[Kazazian Pasha]]
 
*[[Uluj Ali|Kilic Ali Pasha]]
 
*Multiple members of the [[Köprülü]] family, especially [[Kara Mustafa|Kara Mustafa Pasha]]
 
*[[Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha]]
 
*[[Otto Liman von Sanders|Liman von Sanders Pasha]]
 
*[[Mahmud Dramali Pasha]] - Ottoman General
 
*[[Mehmet Ali]]
 
*[[Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic|Mehmed Pasha Sokolović]]
 
*[[Antoine Ignace Melling|Melling Pasha]]
 
*[[Midhat Pasha]]
 
*[[Mustafa Pasha]]
 
*[[Mustafa Reshid Pasha]]
 
*Mustafa Kemal Pasha, subsequently known as [[Mustafa Kemal Atatürk]], founder of the post-Ottoman Turkish republic
 
*[[Nubar Pasha]]
 
*[[Osman Pasha]]
 
*[[Piyale Pasha]]
 
*[[Riyad Pasha]] — Egyptian statesman
 
*[[Said Pasha]]
 
*[[Sinan Pasha]]
 
*[[Sulejman Pasha]]
 
*[[Sultan al-Atrash]]
 
*[[Talat Pasha]]
 
*[[Tewfik Pasha]]
 
*[[Turhan Pasha Përmeti]]
 
*[[Tusun Pasha]]
 
*[[Valentine Baker]]
 
*[[Mehmet Vehib Kaçı|Wehib Pasha]]
 
*[[Henry Felix Woods|Woods Pasha]]
 
*[[Youssef Wahba]] Pasha (three yaks); Mirmiran, Roumeli[[Beylerbey]] — Egyptian Prime Minister
 
*[[Yusuf Karamanli]] Pasha of Tripoli
 
 
==See also==
 
{{commons2|Pashas}}
 
*[[Ottoman Empire]]
 
*[[Ottoman titles]]
 
 
==Notes==
 
{{Reflist}}
 
 
==References==
 
* {{1911}}
 
* AllAboutTurkey.com - [http://www.allaboutturkey.com/harem.htm ''The Ottoman harem'']
 
 
[[Category:Pashas| ]]
 
[[Category:Noble titles]]
 
[[Category:Turkish titles]]
 
[[Category:Words of Turkish origin]]
 
[[Category:Titles in Afghanistan]]
 
[[Category:Noble titles of Egypt]]
 
[[Category:Titles in Iran]]
 
[[Category:Titles in Pakistan]]
 
[[Category:Titles of national or ethnic leadership]]
 
 
<!-- interwiki -->
 
[[ar:باشا]]
 
[[be:Паша]]
 
[[bs:Paša]]
 
[[cs:Paša]]
 
[[de:Pascha (Titel)]]
 
[[et:Paša]]
 
[[el:Πασάς]]
 
[[es:Pachá]]
 
[[eo:Paŝao]]
 
[[fr:Pacha (titre)]]
 
[[it:Pascià]]
 
[[he:פאשה]]
 
[[la:Bassa]]
 
[[lv:Pašā]]
 
[[lt:Paša]]
 
[[hu:Pasa]]
 
[[mk:Паша]]
 
[[nl:Pasja (titel)]]
 
[[ja:パシャ]]
 
[[pl:Pasza (urząd)]]
 
[[pt:Paxá]]
 
[[ru:Паша (титул)]]
 
[[sl:Paša]]
 
[[fi:Pašša]]
 
[[sv:Pascha]]
 
[[tr:Paşa]]
 

Revision as of 00:18, 16 December 2008

Pasha also known as Mohammed Abdul Hamid Pasha. Is the most eligible bachlor in India. He is currently working in Smart Connect.