The Passamaquoddy (Peskotomuhkati or Pestomuhkati in the Passamaquoddy language) are a First Nations (Native American) people who live in northeastern North America, primarily in New Brunswick, Canada and Maine, United States of America. The Passamaquoddy had a purely oral history before the arrival of Europeans. Among the tribes of the loose Wabanaki Confederacy, they occupied coastal regions along the Bay of Fundy, Passamaquoddy Bay and Gulf of Maine and along the St. Croix River and its tributaries. In winter they dispersed and hunted inland; in the summer, they gathered more closely together on the coast and islands, and primarily harvested seafood, including porpoise. The name "Passamaquoddy" is an Anglicization of the Passamaquoddy word peskotomuhkati, the prenoun form (prenouns being a linguistic feature of Algonquian languages) of Peskotomuhkat (pestəmohkat), the name they applied to themselves. Peskotomuhkat literally means "pollock-spearer" or "those of the place where pollock are plentiful", reflecting the importance of this fish. Their method of fishing was spear-fishing rather than angling or using nets.
The Passamaquoddy were pushed off their original lands repeatedly by European settlers since the 17th century and were eventually limited in the United States to the current Indian Township Reservation, at , in eastern Washington County, Maine. It has a land area of 96.994 km² (37.450 sq mi) and a 2000 census resident population of 676 persons. There are also Passamaquoddy living on off-reservation trust lands in five Maine counties; these lands total almost four times the size of the reservation proper. They are located in northern and western Somerset County, northern Franklin County, northeastern Hancock County, western Washington County, and several locations in eastern and western Penobscot County. Their total land area is 373.888 km² (144.359 sq mi). There was no resident population on these trust lands as of the 2000 census. The Passamaquoddy also live in Charlotte County, New Brunswick; they maintain active land claims but have no legal status in Canada as a First Nation. Some Passamaquoddy continue to seek the return of territory now comprised in St. Andrews, New Brunswick, which they claim as Qonasqamkuk, a Passamaquoddy ancestral capital and burial ground.
The Passamaquoddy population in Maine is about 2,500 people. About 500 people, mostly if not all over the age of fifty, speak the Malecite-Passamaquoddy language, shared (other than minor differences in dialect) with the neighboring and related Maliseet people. It belongs to the Algonquian branch of the Algic language family. The University of Maine published a comprehensive Passamaquoddy Dictionary in 2008. Another resource for the language is the online Passamaquoddy-Maliseet Language Portal, which includes many videos, subtitled in English and Passamaquoddy, of native speakers conversing in the language.
While the Passamaquoddy population in Canada is much smaller than that in Maine, it has a formal structure and a chief, Hugh Akagi. It is not, however, recognized by the Canadian government as constituting a first nation. The fact that Chief Akagi was able to speak for the Passamaquoddy at events marking the 400th anniversary of French settlement of St Croix Island (the first French effort at permanent settlement in the new world) indicated that they had made some progress in being recognized formally.
Special political status in Maine
The Passamaquoddy, along with the neighboring Penobscot Nation, are given special political status in the U.S. state of Maine. Both groups are allowed to send a nonvoting representative to the Maine House of Representatives. Although these representatives cannot vote, they may sponsor any legislation regarding Native American affairs, and may co-sponsor any other legislation.
- Francis Joseph Neptune, Ex Sakom
- Clayton Cleaves, Ex Sakom
- Frederick Moore III, Sakom (Chief)
- Vera Francis, Leptanet Sakom (Vice Chief)
- Marla Dana, Tribal Council Member
- Darren Paul, Tribal Council Member
- Newell Lewey, Tribal Council Member
- Philip Farrell II, Tribal Council Member
- Madonna Soctomah, Tribal Council Member
- John Dana, Tribal Council Member
- Simon Dumont, freestyle skier
- Mary Mitchell Gabriel, basketmaker, winner of a 1994 National Heritage Fellowship
- Clara Neptune Keezer, basketmaker, winner of a 2002 National Heritage Fellowship
- David Moses Bridges, Master Birch-Bark Canoe Builder. Winner, 2005 First Peoples Fund, Community Spirit Award. 2007, Maine Arts Commission Traditional Arts Fellowship.
- Donald Soctomah, former tribal state representative, Tribal Historic Preservation Officer
- Jeremy Frey, basketmaker, winner of the Best of Show award at the 53rd Heard Museum Guild Indian Fair
- Eric "Otter" Bacon, birch bark and ash basket maker, Winner of 53rd Heard Museum Guild Indian Market 2nd place Traditional baskets and SWAIA Indian Market 2nd place in basket category.
- Molly Neptune Parker (Jeanette Katherine Parker), basketmaker, winner of 2012 National Heritage Fellowship
- George Neptune, basketmaker, grandson of Molly Neptune Parker.
Maps showing the approximate locations of areas occupied by members of the Wabanaki Confederacy (from north to south):
- Joint Tribal Council of the Passamaquoddy Tribe v. Morton (1st Cir. 1975)
- Sockabasin, Allen J. 2007. An Upriver Passamaquoddy. Thomaston, Maine: Tilbury House.
- Erickson, Vincent O. 1978. "Maliseet-Passamaquoddy". In Northeast, ed. Bruce G. Trigger. Vol. 15 of Handbook of North American Indians, ed. William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, pg. 135. Cited in Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pg. 401.
- Maliseet - Passamaquoddy Dictionary
- Rudin, Ronald. Remembering and Forgetting in Acadie: A Historian's Journey through Public Memory (Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 2009).
- "Native heritage source of strength for world-class athlete". Indian Country Today Media Network. 13 February 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- "NEA National Heritage Fellowships". National Endowment for the Arts. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- Indian Township Reservation and Passamaquoddy Trust Land, Maine United States Census Bureau
- Passamaquoddy Tribal Government Web Site (Pleasant Point)
- Passamaquoddy Tribal Government Web Site (Indian Township)
- Passamaquoddy-Maliseet Language Portal (includes dictionary and videos)
- The Boston Globe Magazine, October 27, 1985 issue, article by Peter Anderson
- Contribution to Passamaquoddy Folk-Lore, by J. Walter Fewkes, reprinted from the Journal of American Folk-Lore, October–December, 1890, from Project Gutenberg
- Passamaquoddy Origins
- Acadian Commemorative Website
- , "An Unlikely Handshake Alters the Course of Maine's History," Portland Press Herald, July 5, 2014.