|The golden-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla) belongs to the bunting family, not the true sparrows.|
and see text
Passerida is, under the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, one of two parvorders contained within the suborder Passeri (standard taxonomic practice would place them at the rank of infraorder). While more recent research suggests that its sister parvorder, Corvida, is not a monophyletic grouping, the Passerida as a distinct clade are widely accepted.
Systematics and phylogeny
The Passerida quite certainly consist of the 3 major subclades outlined by Sibley & Ahlquist (1990). However, their content has been much revised. In addition, it has turned out that not all passeridan lineages neatly fit into this arrangement. The kinglets are so distinct that they might actually form a separate infraorder, as they are only slightly less basal than the Corvoidea or the Picathartidae. See Jønsson & Fjeldså (2006) for details on phylogeny.
- Leiothrichidae: laughingthrushes and allies
- Pellorneidae: fulvettas, ground babblers
- Timaliidae: babblers, scimitar babblers
- Zosteropidae: white-eyes
- Sylviidae: sylviid babblers
- Cettiidae: cettia bush warblers and allies
- Scotocercidae: streaked scrub warbler
- Erythrocercidae: yellow flycatchers
- Aegithalidae: bushtits
- Hyliidae: not recognised by Gill and Donsker who consider the genera Hylia and Pholidornis as Incertae sedis.
- Phylloscopidae: leaf warblers and allies.
- Pycnonotidae: bulbuls
- Hirundinidae: swallows, martins
- Bernieridae: Madagascan warblers
- Donacobiidae: black-capped donacobius
- Locustellidae: grassbirds and allies
- Acrocephalidae: reed warblers and allies
- Pnoepygidae: cupwings
- Cisticolidae: cisticolas and allies
- Macrosphenidae: crombecs, African warblers
- Alaudidae: larks
- Panuridae: bearded reedling
- Nicatoridae: nicators
- Cinclidae: dippers
- Muscicapidae: Old World flycatchers and chats. Monophyly needs confirmation.
- Turdidae: thrushes and allies. Monophyly needs confirmation.
- Buphagidae: oxpeckers. Formerly usually included in Sturnidae.
- Sturnidae: starlings and possibly Philippine creepers. Placement of latter in Muscicapoidea seems good, but inclusion in Sturnidae requires confirmation; possibly distinct family Rhabdornithidae.
- Mimidae: mockingbirds and thrashers
- Passeridae: true sparrows
- Prunellidae: accentors
- Motacillidae: wagtails and pipits
- Urocynchramidae: Przewalski's finch. Recently split from Fringillidae; tentatively placed here.
- Estrildidae: estrildid finches (waxbills, munias, etc.)
- Ploceidae: weavers. Certain members of Ploceidae, such as the long-tailed widowbird are well known for their elaborate sexual ornaments.
- Viduidae: indigobirds and whydahs
- Nine-primaried oscines
- Peucedramidae: olive warbler
- Fringillidae: true finches. Includes the Hawaiian honeycreepers
- Emberizoidea: New World nine-primaried oscine radiation
- Icteridae: grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles
- Parulidae: New World warblers
- Icteriidae: yellow-breasted chat
- Phaenicophilidae: Hispaniolan tanagers
- Zeledoniidae: wrenthrush
- Teretistridae: Cuban warblers
- Thraupidae: tanagers and allies
- Mitrospingidae: mitrospingid tanagers and allies
- Rhodinocichlidae: rosy thrush tanager
- Calyptophilidae: chat-tanagers
- Nesospingidae: Puerto Rican tanager
- Spindalidae: spindalises
- Cardinalidae: cardinals
- Emberizidae: buntings
- Passerellidae: American sparrows
- Calcariidae: snow buntings and longspurs
Passerida incertae sedis
Rather basal Passerida, most of which seem to constitute several small but distinct superfamilies. Most occur in Asia, Africa and North America.
- Possible superfamily "Dicaeoidea" – sunbirds and flowerpeckers
- Possible superfamily Bombycilloidea – waxwings and allies
- Possible superfamily Paroidea – titmice and allies
- Possible superfamily Sittoidea or Certhioidea – wrens and allies.
- Possible monotypic superfamily N.N.
- Promeropidae: sugarbirds
- Possible monotypic superfamily N.N.
- Family N.N.: hyliotas. Recently split from Sylviidae.
- Possible superfamily Reguloidea – kinglets. Tentatively placed here.
- Regulidae: kinglets
Probably not Passerida
These have been assigned to the Passerida in recent times, often based on DNA-DNA hybridization data. However, they are probably more basal among the songbirds and would belong either to the Corvoidea or the allied basal lineages. Most of them are either African or Wallacean groups.
- Chloropseidae: leafbirds
- Aegithinidae: ioras
- Picathartidae: rockfowl
- Melanocharitidae: berrypeckers and longbills
- Paramythiidae: tit berrypecker and crested berrypeckers
- Platysteiridae: wattle-eyes or puffback flycatchers
- Fregin, Silke; Haase, Martin; Olsson, Urban; Alström, Per (2012). "New insights into family relationships within the avian superfamily Sylvioidea (Passeriformes) based on seven molecular markers". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 12 (157): 1–12. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-157.
- Alström, Per; Olsson, Urban; Lei, Fumin (2013). "A review of the recent advances in the systematics of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea" (PDF). Chinese Birds. 4 (2): 99–131. doi:10.5122/cbirds.2013.0016.
- Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2018). "Family index". World Bird List Version 8.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
- Barker, F. K.; Burns, K. J.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, S. M.; Lovette, I. J. (2013). "Going to extremes: Contrasting rates of diversification in a recent radiation of New World passerine birds". Systematic Biology. 62: 298–320. doi:10.1093/sysbio/sys094.
- Barker, F. K.; Burns,, K. J.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, S. M.; Lovette, I. J. (2015). "New insights into New World biogeography: An integrated view from the phylogeny of blackbirds, cardinals, sparrows, tanagers, warblers, and allies". The Auk. 132 (2): 333–348. doi:10.1642/AUK-14-110.1.
- del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E., eds. (2019). "Passeriformes". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
- Jønsson, Knud A. & Fjeldså, Jon (2006): A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds (Aves: Passeri). Zool. Scripta 35(2): 149–186. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2006.00221.x
- Harshman, John (2008). Passerida. Version 23 June 2008 (under construction). in The Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
- Sibley, Charles Gald & Ahlquist, Jon Edward (1990): Phylogeny and classification of birds. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn.