|Latin: Congregatio Passionis Iesu Christi|
|Founded||22 November 1720|
|Founder||Paul of the Cross|
|Founded at||Castellazzo, Italy|
|Type||Clerical Religious Congregation of Pontifical Right (for Men)|
|1,940 members (1,477 priests)|
|Joachim Xavier Rego|
|The Poor of Jesus|
The Passionists, formally known as the Congregation of the Passion of Jesus Christ (Latin: Congregatio Passionis Iesu Christi; abbreviated CP), are a Catholic clerical religious congregation of Pontifical Right for men founded by Paul of the Cross in 1720 with a special emphasis on and devotion to the Passion of Jesus Christ. A known symbol of the congregation is the labeled emblem of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, surmounted by a cross and is often sewn into the attire of its congregants.
Paul of the Cross who was born in 1694 in Ovada, wrote the rules of the Congregation between 22 November 1720 & 1 January 1721, and in June 1725 Pope Benedict XIII granted Paul the permission to form his congregation. Paul and his brother, John Baptist Danei, were ordained by the pope on the same occasion (7 June).
After serving for a time in the hospital of St. Gallicano, in 1737 they left Rome with permission of the Pope and went to Mount Argentario, where they established the first house of the institute. They took up their abode in a small hermitage near the summit of the mount, to which was attached a chapel dedicated to Saint Anthony. They were soon joined by three companions, one of whom was a priest, and the observance of community life according to the rules began there and is continued there to the present day. Paul of the Cross and his companions – they now totalled six priests and two brothers – began a retreat.
In 1769, Clement XIV granted full rights to the Passionists as enjoyed by the other religious institutes, making them not an order but a congregation. The congregation historically has had two primary goals: Preaching Missions and contemplative life, with an attempt to blend the two. Its founder had attempted to combine aspects of the contemplative orders, such as the Trappist monks, together with the dynamic orders, such as the Jesuits.
Both the members and the works of the congregation are entrusted to the protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary under the title of Our Lady of Sorrows, as patroness of the congregation, with Saint Michael and Saint Joseph as co patrons. Every Passionist religious is required to honour them, together with the founder, Paul of the Cross, and the other saints of the congregation, whose feasts they celebrate in community.
On June 11, 1741, they first affixed the emblem or "sign" of the Passion (Jesu XPI Passio) on their black tunics. The professed renewed their vows, and the new members pronounced their first vows.
"We seek the unity of our lives and our apostolate in the Passion of Jesus." The Passionate express their participation in the Passion by a special vow, by which they bind themselves to keep alive the memory of the Passion of Christ. They strive to foster awareness of its meaning and value for each person and for the life of the world. They seek to incorporate this vow into our daily lives by living the evangelical counsels.
Traditionally, their main apostolate has been preaching missions and retreats. According to Paul of the Cross, they were founded in order to "teach people how to pray", which they do through activities such as retreats and missions, spiritual direction, and prayer groups. Today they often also assist local churches in pastoral works, including saying masses, hearing confessions, and visiting the sick. Due to the continuing shortage of priests throughout the world, the Passionists today are sometimes designated as parish priests and curates of various parishes. The Passionists hold many retreat and conference centers around the world.
Unlike the La Sallians or the Gabrielites, Passionists do not usually open schools and universities, except seminaries for their own students wishing to become brothers and priests. There are some schools sponsored and run by the Passionists, like the St. Gemma Galgani School, (which includes primary, junior high and high school-level education) in Santiago (Chile), but these are more the exception than the rule. The Passionists are involved in social welfare projects and education mainly in the various mission territories assigned to them.
Though Passionists are not required to work in non-Christian areas as missionaries, their Rule allows its members to be posted to missionary work, such as mainland China (before the Communists took over in 1949), India, and Japan, and in many other nations in Africa, Asia, Latin America and elsewhere as dictated by the pope or at the invitation of a local Bishop.
There are 2,179 Passionists in 61 countries on the five continents, led by a superior general who is elected every six years. He is assisted by six consultors in governing the congregation. The congregation is divided into provinces, vice-provinces and missions. The Congregation is also divided into groups of provinces, vice-provinces and missions called configurations. The presidents of the six configurations constitute the Extended General Council which meets with the Superior General and his consultors annually.
There are six configurations in the world:
- MAPRES: The Configuration of Mary Presented In The Temple which includes Italy, France and Portugal and related mission territories.
- CCH: The Configuration of Charles Houben which includes Ireland, England, Scotland, Wales, Germany, Poland, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Ukraine, Holland, Sweden and related mission territories;
- CJC: The Configuration of Jesus Crucified which includes Mexico, Brazil, the United States, Argentina, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Canada, Uruguay, Paraguay and related mission territories
- PASPAC: The Configuration of the Passionists in Asia Pacific which includes Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Korea, Japan, Indonesia, India, China and Vietnam and related mission territories;
- CPA: The Configuration of the Passionists of Africa, which includes Kenya, Tanzania, the Republic of the Congo, South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and related mission territories;
- SCOR: The Configuration of the Sacred Heart which includes Spain, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Chile, Panama, Honduras, Guatemala, Cuba, El Salvador, Bolivia, Nicaragua and related mission territories.
The official name of the institute is "The Congregation of the Passion of Jesus Christ". The superior general resides in Rome (Piazza Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, 13, 00184 Roma; tel. 06 772711). The founder is buried in a chapel attached to the Basilica of Saints John and Paul, and the General Headquarters also hosts an international house of studies for Passionists from around the world.
Characteristics of the Congregation
Passionist monasteries are referred to as "retreats". The members of the congregation are not allowed to possess land, and the congregation collectively can only own the community house and a bit of land attached to it. They rely completely on their own labor and on contributions from the faithful in order to maintain themselves financially. The habit worn by members is a rough wool tunic bearing the words "Jesu XPI Passio", meaning "Passion of Jesus Christ", and the congregation was historically discalced, wearing sandals rather than shoes.
With regard to Popular Piety, the Congregation is also known for promoting devotion to the Passion among the faithful by the use of Black Scapulars usually worn by aspirants to the Passionist way of life. Different devotional practices such as Confraternities of the Passion, Devotion to the Five Wounds of Christ, The Seven Sorrows of The Blessed Virgin Mary, Stations of the Cross and various forms of the Office in honour of the Passion are still widely promoted among its members.
Saints and Blesseds of the Congregation of the Passion
Canonised members of the Congregation
- Paul of the Cross, founder of the congregation
- Vincent Strambi, proto-bishop
- Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows, student
- Gemma Galgani, a lay Passionist aspirant
- Innocencio of Mary Immaculate, a martyr of the Spanish Civil War
- Charles of Mount Argus, a Dutchman who ministered and died in Co, Dublin in Ireland
- Maria Goretti, instructed by the Passionists in preparation for First Holy Communion, also Postulators of her cause for sainthood
Beatified members of the Congregation
- Eugene Bossilkov, Bulgarian Bishop and Martyr
- Lorenzo Maria of Saint Francis Xavier, Missionary
- Isidore of Saint Joseph, lay brother
- Dominic Barberi, notable for having received John Henry Newman into the Catholic faith
- Bernard Mary of Jesus, Superior General and Novitiate classmate of St Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows
- Grimoaldo of the Purification, student
- Pius of Saint Aloysius, student
- The twenty-six Catholic Martyrs of Daimiel
Other notable members
- John Moynihan Tettemer (Father Ildefonso), appointed consultor general of the order in 1914
- Kieran Creagh is an Irish Passionist priest who was shot in South Africa
- Martin J. Newell is an English Passionist priest, anti-war protester and climate activist
- Brian D'Arcy is an Irish Passionist priest, a writer, newspaper columnist, broadcaster, and preacher.
- Edward L. Beck is an American Passionist priest and CNN commentator.
- Gabriele Amorth priest and exorcist of the Diocese of Rome who performed tens of thousands of exorcisms over his sixty plus years as a priest. As the appointed exorcist for the diocese of Rome, Amorth was the Chief Exorcist of the Vatican.
- Thomas Berry cultural historian, teacher, Fordham University, author “Dream of the Earth”, “The Great Work”, “The Universe Story”.
The Passionist Sisters (the Sisters of the Cross and Passion) is an institute founded in 1852 by Father Gaudentius Rossi, an early Passionist priest, in collaboration with Elizabeth Prout. In its beginnings, it was called "Sisters of the Holy Family", and was later included under the Passionist family.
Due to their separate raisings guided by members of the congregation, Maria Goretti and Gemma Galgani are traditionally counted in the ranks of the Passionist Sisters, even though they died before they could formally enter the institute (Maria was murdered, Gemma died of tuberculosis).
- "Congregation of the Passion (C.P.)".
- "Congregation of the Passion (C.P.)".
- "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Passionists". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
- Pettinelli, Derek. "Five facts about the Passionists", Catholic Digest, 19 October 2017
- "Passionist sign". THE PASSIONISTS OF HOLY CROSS PROVINCE.
- "Congregatio Passionis Jesu Christi". Passiochristi.org. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
- The Statistics of the Congregation of the Passion of Jesus Christ: Passionist International Bulletin, Rome, Spring 2014
- The 2012 General Chapter of the Congregation of the Passion of Jesus Christ: Acts of the Chapter, Rome, 2013.
- International Website of the Passionists (English, Spanish, Italian)
- Passionists Australia, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea
- Passionists in the Philippines
- Passionists in Chile (Spanish, under construction)
- Passionists in France
- Website of the Sisters of the Cross and Passion
- Website of the Passionists of St. Paul of the Cross Province, North America
- Website of the Passionists of Holy Cross Province, North America
- Passionists in the U.K.