Pasteurella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria. Pasteurella species are nonmotile and pleomorphic. Most species are catalase- and oxidase-positive. The genus is named after the French chemist and microbiologist, Louis Pasteur, who first identified the bacteria now known as Pasteurella multocida as the agent of chicken cholera.
- See: Pasteurellosis
Many Pasteurella species are zoonotic pathogens, and humans can acquire an infection from domestic pet bites. P. multocida is the most frequent causative agent in human Pasteurella infection. Common symptoms of pasteurellosis in humans include swelling, cellulitis, and bloody drainage at the site of the wound. Infections may progress to nearby joints where it can cause swelling and arthritis.
Pasteurella cells occur in many cats' mouths, a large percentage of dogs' mouths, and frequently in rabbits. This is in perfectly normal and otherwise healthy animals. The common occurrence of the bacteria is a reason to be medically proactive and defensive (antibacterial treatments are often necessary) if a bite occurs.
P. multocida is also known to cause morbidity and mortality in rabbits. The predominant syndrome is upper respiratory disease. P. multocida can be endemic among rabbit colonies and is often transmitted through nasal secretions. P. multocida can survive several days in water or moist areas.
Pasteurella multocida is highly sensitive to enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, chloramphinicol, ampicillin
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