Patellofemoral pain syndrome
|Patellofemoral pain syndrome|
Diagram of the bones of the lower extremity. Rough distribution of areas affected by PFPS highlighted in red: patella and distal femur.
|Classification and external resources|
|Specialty||Orthopedics, sports medicine|
|Patient UK||Patellofemoral pain syndrome|
Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a syndrome characterized by pain ranging from severe to mild discomfort seemingly originating from the contact of the posterior surface of the patella (back of the kneecap) with the femur (thigh bone).
The causes of PFPS are unclear, but there are several theories. Which tissues give rise to the pain is debated. Similarly, there is no consensus as to what is the best way of treating PFPS, and there is not enough evidence to support any particular management approach.
- 1 Definition
- 2 Signs and symptoms
- 3 Causes
- 4 Diagnosis
- 5 Treatment
- 6 Epidemiology
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
There is no universally accepted definition. Selected definitions include:
- "anterior knee pain involving the patella and retinaculum that excludes other intraarticular and peri-patellar pathology"
Patellofemoral pain syndrome vs. chondromalacia patellae
Chondromalacia patellae is a term sometimes treated synonymously with PFPS. However, there is general consensus that PFPS is a term that applies only to individuals without cartilage damage, thereby distinguishing it from chondromalacia patellae, a condition characterized by softening of the patellar articular cartilage. Despite this academic distinction, the diagnosis of PFPS is typically made clinically, based only on the history and physical examination rather than on the results of any medical imaging. Therefore it is unknown whether most persons with a diagnosis of PFPS have cartilage damage or not, making the difference between PFPS and chondromalacia theoretical rather than practical. It is thought that only some individuals with anterior knee pain will have true chondromalacia patellae.
Signs and symptoms
- Knee pain - the most common symptom is diffuse peripatellar pain (vague pain around the kneecap) and localized retropatellar pain (pain focused behind the kneecap). Affected individuals typically have difficulty describing the location of the pain, and may place their hands over the anterior patella or describe a circle around the patella (the "circle sign"). Pain is usually initiated when load is put on the knee extensor mechanism, e.g. ascending or descending stairs or slopes, squatting, kneeling, cycling, running or prolonged sitting with flexed (bent) knees. The latter feature is sometimes termed the "movie sign" or "theatre sign" because individuals might experience pain while sitting to watch a film or similar activity. Descending stairs may be worse than ascending.[medical citation needed] The pain is typically aching with occasional sharp pains.
- Crepitus (joint noises) may be present
- Giving-way of the knee may be reported
Unless there is an underlying pathology in the knee, swelling is usually mild to nil.[medical citation needed]
The cause of PFPS is thought to be increased pressure on the patellofemoral joint. There are several theorized mechanisms relating to how this increased pressure occurs:
- Increased levels of physical activity
- Malalignment of the patella as it moves through the femoral groove
- Quadriceps muscle imbalance
- Tight anatomical structures, e.g. retinaculum or iliotibial band.
The cause of pain and dysfunction often results from either abnormal forces (e.g. increased pull of the lateral quadriceps retinaculum with acute or chronic lateral PF subluxation/dislocation) or prolonged repetitive compressive or shearing forces (running or jumping) on the PF joint. The result is thinning and softening (chondromalacia) of the articular cartilage under the patella and/or on the medial or lateral femoral condyles, synovial irritation and inflammation and subchondral bony changes in the distal femur or patella known as "bone bruises". Secondary causes of PF Syndrome are fractures, internal knee derangement, osteoarthritis of the knee and bony tumors in or around the knee.
The pain from prolonged sitting is thought to occur because of the constant pull of the quadriceps muscle on the knee cap while sitting, which causes its impaction against the hard and unyielding surfaces of the bones of the knee joint.[medical citation needed]
Patellofemoral grinding test.
As patellofemoral pain syndrome is the most common cause of anterior knee pain in the outpatient, a variety of treatments for patellofemoral pain syndrome are implemented. However, there is little supporting evidence. Most patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome respond well to conservative therapy.
There is consistent but very low quality evidence that exercise therapy for PFPS reduces pain, improves function and aids long-term recovery. However, there is insufficient evidence to compare the effectiveness of different types of exercises with each other, and exercises with other forms of treatment.
- Type of muscle activity (concentric, eccentric or isotonic)
- Type of joint movement (dynamic, isometric or static)
- Reaction forces (closed or open kinetic chain)
Concentric muscle activity involves contraction (shortening) of the muscle(s). During eccentric activities muscles lengthen in an actively controlled manner. During isotonic activity the muscle tension remains the same.
Static/isometric exercises are those in which the position of the knee does not change, whereas dynamic exercises involves a change in the position of the knee. Isokinetic exercises are where the lower leg moves at a predetermined fixed speed, requiring an isokinetic dynamometer to control velocity.
The majority of exercise programs intended to treat PFPS are designed to strengthen the quadriceps muscles. Emphasis during exercise may be placed on coordinated contraction of the medial and lateral parts of the quadriceps as well as of the hip adductor, hip abductor and gluteal muscles. Many exercise programs include stretches designed to improve lower limb flexibility. Electromyographic biofeedback allows visualization of specific muscle contractions and may help individuals performing the exercises to target the intended muscles during the exercise. Electrostimulation may be used to apply external stimuli resulting in contraction of specific muscles and thus exercise.
A 2011 systematic review stated that evidence supports the use of quadriceps exercise for managing patellofemoral pain syndrome and that quadriceps strengthening is considered to be the "gold" standard treatment for patellofemoral pain syndrome. Quadriceps strengthening is commonly suggested because the quadriceps muscles help to stabilize the patella. Quadriceps weakness and quadriceps muscle imbalance may contribute to abnormal patellar tracking. If the strength of the vastus medialis muscle is inadequate, the usually larger and stronger vastus lateralis muscle will pull sideways (laterally) on the kneecap. Strengthening the vastus medialis to prevent or counter the lateral force of the vastus lateralis is one way of relieving PFPS. Moderate evidence supports the addition of hip abductor and external rotator strengthening, as well as exercises targeting hip flexion and hip extension. When executing these exercises, proper form is very important in order to ensure that the musculature is activated in such a way that will not lead to further injury. Inflexibility has often been cited as a source of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Stretching of the laterial knee has been suggested to help. Furthermore, the use of a foam roller may help to add flexibility and relieve pain from sore or stiff muscles in the leg.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat PFPS, however there is only very limited evidence that they are effective. NSAIDs may reduce pain in the short term, overall however, after three months pain is not improved. There is no evidence that one type of NSAID is superior to another in PFPS, and therefore some authors have recommended that the NSAID with least side effects and which is cheapest should be used.
Glycosaminoglycan polysulfate (GAGPS) inhibits proteolytic enzymes and increases synthesis and degree of polymerization of hyaluronic acid in synovial fluid. There is contradictory evidence that it is effective in PFPS.
Magnetic resonance imaging rarely can give useful information for managing patellofemoral pain syndrome and treatment should focus on an appropriate rehabilitation program including correcting strength and flexibility concerns. In the uncommon cases where a patient has mechanical symptoms like a locked knee, knee effusion, or failure to improve following physical therapy, then an MRI may give more insight into diagnosis and treatment.
Patellofemoral pain syndrome may also result from overuse or overload of the PF joint. For this reason, knee activity should be reduced until the pain is resolved. Those with pain originating from sitting too long should straighten the leg or walk periodically. Those who engage in high impact activity such as running should consider a nonimpact activity such as swimming or aerobics on an elliptical machine.
Ice and medication
To reduce inflammation, ice can be applied to the PF joint after an activity. The ice should be kept in place for 10 to 15 minutes. Additionally anti-inflammatory drugs such as NSAIDs can also be taken immediately after an activity or judicious use during daily activities and for those people whose symptoms aren't controlled with ice.
Braces and taping
Knee braces are ineffective in treating PFPS. The technique of McConnell taping involves pulling the patella medially with tape (medial glide). Findings from some studies suggest that there is limited benefit with patella taping or bracing when compared to quadriceps exercises alone.
Low arches can cause overpronation or the feet to roll inward too much increasing the Q angle and genu valgum. Poor lower extremity biomechanics may cause stress on the knees and ultimately patellofemoral pain syndrome. Stability or motion control shoes are designed for people with pronation issues. Arch supports and custom orthotics may also help to improve lower extremity biomechanics.
There is no evidence to support the use of acupuncture, low-level laser therapy, or chiropractic patellar mobilization to treat PFPS. Most studies touting the benefits of alternative therapies for PFPS were conducted with flawed experimental design, and therefore did not produce reliable results.
Specific populations at high risk of primary Patellofemoral Syndrome include runners, bicyclists, basketball players, young athletes and females.
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- Patellofemoral pain syndrome at DMOZ
- Patient handout for patellofemoral pain syndrome by the American Academy of Family Physicians
- Runner's Knee Prescribe Treatments for patellofemoral syndrome on PrescribeExercise.com
- Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome by the Institute for Physical and Sports Therapy
- Patellofemoral Joint Syndromes Treatment & Management at eMedicine