Patentee (locomotive)

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Adler May 2008 Fuerth 3.jpg
Replica of the Patentee type Adler.
Type and origin
Power type Steam
Builder Robert Stephenson and Company
Build date 1834
 • Whyte 2-2-2
Gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
Couplers buffers and chain
Operators Liverpool and Manchester Railway

The Patentee locomotive was a revolutionary 2-2-2 steam locomotive type introduced by Robert Stephenson and Company in 1833, as an enlargement of their 2-2-0 Planet type. The wheel arrangement of two leading wheels on one axle, two powered driving wheels on one axle, and two trailing wheels on one axle provided more stability and enabled a larger firebox than the earlier 0-2-2 and 2-2-0 types.[1]

One of the earliest examples, Adler, the first successful locomotive to operate in Germany, was a Patentee supplied by Robert Stephenson and Company in component form in December 1835. Other examples were exported to the Netherlands (notably Arend in 1839), Russia and Italy.[2] Another, Le Belge, was the first steam railway locomotive built in Belgium, constructed in 1835 by John Cockerill under license from Stephenson's company. By 1838 the type had become the standard passenger design by Robert Stephenson and Company.[3]


  1. ^ Hamilton Ellis, The pictorial encyclopaedia of railways, Hamlyn, 1968, p.37.
  2. ^ Ellis, The pictorial encyclopaedia of railways, p.37.
  3. ^ Science Museum, The British Railway Locomotive 1803-1853, H.M.S.O, 1958, p.13.