Pathankot district

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Pathankot district
ਪਠਾਣਕੋਟ ਜ਼ਿਲ੍ਹਾ
पठानकोट जिला
District of Punjab
Located in the northwest part of the state
Location in Punjab, India
Coordinates: 32°16′01″N 75°38′36″E / 32.266814°N 75.643444°E / 32.266814; 75.643444Coordinates: 32°16′01″N 75°38′36″E / 32.266814°N 75.643444°E / 32.266814; 75.643444
Country  India
State Punjab
Named for Pathania Rajput
Headquarters Pathankot
Government
 • Deputy commissioner Sukhvinder Singh
 • Senior Superintendent of Police R.K. Bakshi (PPS)
 • Member of Parliament Vinod Khanna
Area[1]
 • Total 929 km2 (359 sq mi)
Population (2011)[2]
 • Total 626,154
 • Density 670/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
Languages
 • Regional Punjabi, Hindi, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Vehicle registration PB-35 / PB-68
Largest City Pathankot
Website http://pathankot.gov.in/

Pathankot district (Punjabi: ਪਠਾਣਕੋਟ ਜ਼ਿਲ੍ਹਾ), is a district of Indian Punjab, located in the north zone of the state. Pathankot city is the district headquarters. The district was created on 27 July 2011.

Geography[edit]

It is located in the foothills of the Sivalik Hills. It shares international borders with the Narowal District of Pakistani Punjab. It also shares borders with the Kathua District of Jammu and Kashmir and Chamba and Kangra districts of Himachal Pradesh. Hoshiarpur district shares a boundary with Pathankot in Eastern Punjab. The two main rivers – Beas and Ravi, pass through the district.

History[edit]

In the vedic period monarchy was the form of government but from the Mahabharta period onwards we find traces of republic form of government in our country according to Mahabharta the present Himachal Pradesh was divided into a number of small tribal republics Panini (5th century B.C.)in his ashtadhayai mentioned some of the republics settled there. The Janpadas mentioned in the Mahabharta and also known to Panini are the Trigarthas, the kulutas and kulindas. In Shanti Parva and Sabha Parva of the Mahabharta (chapter 52)the name of the Audambra is found mentioned at the end of the list of republic Janpadas.

It is stated that the rajas of Audumbra accompanied the rajas of kashmira, darda and trigarta to pay Nazaranas to the pandava king Yudhishtra (Mahabharta 2-52-13).the reference of the Audumbras is also find mentioned is Vishnu Puran, vayu Puran, Brihat Samihta, Satpatha Brahma and Ganpatha etc.

The state of Audumbra was lying in between the two great rivers of Ancient times as Parushni or Aravati and Vipasa presently known as River Ravi & Beas comprising whole of the Nurpur Tehsil, Tehsil of Pathankot and a large tract of plains of district Gurdaspur with its capital at Pratishthan that is present Pathankot. Praishthan was probably one of the oldest sites in the Punjab ; Pratishthan (present Pathankot) was advantageously situated on the great commerce route of ancient times, which ran from Patliputra (Patna) of Magadha state to Takshashila and further to the central Asia under the foothills. During the invasion of Alexandra's in 326 B.C. the state of Audmbra was ruled by the Katha Kashatriyas, who enjoyed the highest reputation for still in the art of war. After crossing the river Ravi, Alexander entered the territory of Audumbra State and invested Sangala a strong hold of Kathas of whom Greek called Kathains or Kathoi. The Kathas fought with great dash and studborness so much so that even Pores had to come to the help of 'Alxander with his army of Elephants and 5000 soldiers and titled the scale of victory in his favour. 17,000 Kathas were killed and more than 70,000 were captured. This resolute resistance of the Kathas incensed Alexander to such an extent that Sangala was razed to ground. All this happened near the capital town of Pratisthan (the modern Pathankot). There is no trace of Sangala, HOWEVER A VILLAGE Sangram is available near Shahpur Kandi, Tehsil Pathankot. It may be the abbreviated forms of Sangala. The town Kathua on the east bank of Ravi and Kathgarh on western bank of River Beas seems to be inhabited by the Kathas to whom Greeks called Kathoi's. On reaching near Indoura (in District Kangra) - Kathgarh - Mirthal on the Beas, the army of Alexandera refused to go further on account of alarming reports of the Military strength of Magadh State. In deep disdain Alaxandra had to announce his historical retreat September 326 B.C. On the return of Alexandera, Audumbras again came into power and gained their strength. In the days of their prosperity Audumbra kings issued their coins. These early coins are thin pieces of copper either square or oblong. Their identity is marked by the symbols found on these coins such as Trident, Nandi Bull, Swastic and elephant etc. Some silver coins have also been issued by the Audumbra Kings. They were issued in the name of the community and king. These coins bear the name of the king as well as the state as Audumbrisa . Dharaghosa was probably the most famous and great king of the Audumbra republic. These coins remained in use till the fourth century A.D. Sir A. Cunnigham, first Director General of Archeological Survey of India discovered some Audumbra coins from Pathankot itself during the second half of the nineteenth century when he visited this place.

In 1905 A.D. one Jhet Pal Tomar a younger brother of Anang Pal Tomar a king of Delhi travelled to this place and after giving defeat to Kazbak Khan established his own state called Paithan an abbreviated form of Pratishthan.

Jhel Pal built a strong fort at Paithan (modern Pathankot) in the early 12th century which was demolished by the Britishers after the annexation of Punjab State. Another Fort at Shahpur (Kandi) was also built by a Pathania king named Bhakhat Mal in the 15th century.

It seens to be a tradition that the ruling chief bears the distinctive appellation or clan named derived in almost every instance from the name of the country or from its capital over which they ruled following the old tradition the chief of the Paithan also adopted the clan name of his capital as Pathania which in later time became Paithania.

The name of the city Paithan remained in use till 1759 A.D. The early Muhammadan historican, the Ain - I - Akbari, the Tuzuki - I - Jahangiri and Badshahnama, all called it Paithan. Thus it is mischievous to say that the city of Pathankot was founded by the some Pathan. Sir A. Cunnigham in his Archeological Survey report of 1872-72 clearly mentioned that it has no reference to the Pathans of Afghanisthan, but is a genuine Hindu word derived from Paithan. The district Gazetteer of Kangra 1924-25 also confirms the same.

The capital of Pathania state was shifted from Pathankot to Nurpur then called Dhahmeri in the year 1595 A.D. by Raja Basu. The Pathania regime ruled the state from Pathankot for about for about five hundred long years and later on from Nurpur up to 1815 A.D. when the state of Nurpur was annexed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. In 1603 A.D. the Pargana Pathankot had been severed from Nurpur and permanently annexed by Emperor Akbar and was handed over to Mirza Rustam Qandhari which remained under Mughal control up to 1759 A.D.

On the break up to Mughal empire one Ajaib Rai Puri who was posted as Kanugo at Pathankot has established himself as a king of Pathankot and Sujanpur. Mohalla Purian of Pathankot seems to have been inhabited by this clan. Ajaib Rai Kanugo was supplanted by Sardar Nand Singh Bhangi in 1761 A.D., who died in 1775 without a male child. His widow invited Tara Singh S/o Mutsada Singh of Fatehgarh Churian, Tehsil Batala of Kahnaya Misal to come & marry her daughter and succeed her husband and took the whole of Nand Singh's possession henceforth. Pathankot remained under the control of Kahnaya Misal till 1807 A.D. when Jaimal Singh had to yield his possession to Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The change of name from Paithan to Pathankot took place under the leadership of Sardar Gurbax Singh Kahnaya during the second half of the 19th century. Maharaja Rabjit Singh had 46 wife's Maharaja married a Mohamandan prostitute of Amritsar in 1802 A.D. with whom the fell in violent love. Moran enjoyed Ranjit Singh's confidence for many years and he had struck gold and silver coins in her name which were called Moran Shahi Sikkey. Suddenly in August 1811 A.D. Moran was sent to Pathankot in a Palkin which was granted to her as Jagir. It is believed that she spent last days of her life at Pathankot. After the defeat in the first Sikh- Anglo War, Pathankot along with 83 villages were attached with the newly created District of Kangra, by the Britishers in the year 18456 A.D. and remained as such till the formation of Distt. Gurdaspur which commenced in 1852 A.D. In 1853 A.D. Pathankot Tehsil was formed with its Headquarters at Pathankot. Pathankot got the Tehsil building Pathankot on 17 August 1947. Whole of the Indian nations celebrated Independence on 15 August 1947, but district Gurdaspur including Pathankot remained part of Pakistan for three days under Lord Mountbetan's 3 June Plan. Tricolour of India was hoisted atop of the tehsil building Pathankot on 17 August 1947. After Independence and the arrival of the refugees from Pakistan, new faces werte seen on the roads of Pathankot. The people have started to build their carrier a fresh in the new era. Pathankot has gone through a large number of changes and developments as well. It is called gateway of Himachal Pradesh and J & K states. Ranjit Sagar Dam the Pride of Punjab has been emerged about 30 km. north east of the town Nowadays Mamoon a suburb of Pathankot is heading towards a biggest army cantonment of Asia. Pthankot had already an Air Force Station and shall be coming on the air map of India very shortly. With the opening of civil aerodrome the hotel business of the town will be largely benefitted. Surprisingly enough, the town is totally devoid of any monumental evidence to speak of its rich past except a hogh ridge called Shimla Pahari where the historical fort once existed with some part of rouni around the Gulmohar Tourist Complex. A number of various buildings such as PWD Rest House. Gulmohar Tourist Complex, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Municipal Library. Lal Bahadur Shastri Park, Relay center of Doordarshan, and an office of central PWD are located at the site of the Fort.

Demographics[edit]

In the 1961 Census of India, 83.8% of the Pathankot Tehsil of the Gurdaspur district registered their language as Hindi and only 13.4% registered it as Punjabi.

Rank Language 1961 census[3]
1 Hindi 83.8%
2 Punjabi 13.4%
3 Other 2.8%

The district today[edit]

In past, It was a Tehsil of the District Gurdaspur. The present district was formed, as the 22nd district of the state, on 27 July 2011.[4][5] Pathankot includes the two sub-divisions of Pathankot and Dhar Kalan and the two sub tehsil of Narot Jaimal Singh and Bamial [5]

City and towns[edit]

There are two statutory towns Pathankot and Sujanpur in this district. The district also has 12 census towns, according to census 2011. The list of these cities and towns is shown below.[6]

  • Pathankot (Municipal Corporation)
  • Sujanpur (Municipal Council - Class 2)
  • Jugial
  • Mamun
  • Daulatpur
  • Narot Mehra
  • Ghoh
  • Manwal
  • Sarna
  • Bungal
  • Kot
  • Tharial
  • Malikpur
  • Dhaki
  • Dunera
  • Dharkalan

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "District profile". 
  2. ^ "Administrative divisions". 
  3. ^ http://14.139.60.114:8080/jspui/bitstream/123456789/955/8/Pathankot%20Tehsil%20(25-46).pdf
  4. ^ Naveen S. Garewal (27 July 2011). "Eye on urban voter, Fazilka, Pathankot made districts". The Tribune, Chandigarh. Retrieved 23 January 2012. 
  5. ^ a b News services (28 July 2011). "The state gets Fazilka and Pathankot districts". Indian Express. Retrieved 23 January 2012. 
  6. ^ List of cities and towns in Punjab