Patiala State

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Patiala State
Princely State of British India
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Location of Patiala
Patiala State in a 1911 map of Punjab
 -  Established 1627
 -  Independence of India 1948
 -  1931 1,625,000 
Today part of Punjab, India
Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Patiala State [1] was a princely state during the British Raj in India.


Patiala State was established by Muslim Dogars and Sidhu Sikh Jats. Patiala state was established by two friends, Ala Sing Sidhu, a Sikh Jat, and Lakhna Dogar, a Muslim, in about 1721. Initially, they captured 24 villages and then enhanced further by conquering more and more adjacent areas. From the beginning of Patiala State until 1857, the Raja used to be a Sikh, from the family of Ala Sing Sidhu and the Army Commander, a Muslim, from the family of Lakhna Dogar—most likely because of an oral understanding and agreement of the two founders. The renowned commanders (Sipah Salar) of Patiala State, from Lakhna Dogar's family were: Lakhna Dogar, Sadar Deen Dogar, Shaira Dogar, Kaima Dogar, Saida Dogar, Karim-Buksh Dogar and Kala Dogar,who was commander-in-chief of Patiala in Sikh-English war fought at Mudhki.From(1845-1862) Patiala was ruled by Jat ruler Maharaja Narendra Singh who fortified the city of Patiala by constructing ramparts and ten gates around it as listed below.

Darshani gate – Main entrance of Qila Mubarak Lahori gate Nabha gate Samana gate Sirhindi gate Sheranwala gate Safabadi gate Sunami gate Top Khana Gate Ghalori Gate The royal house is now headed by His Highness Maharajadhiraj Captain Amarinder Singh, Mahendra Bahadur of Patiala who also served as the Chief Minister of Punjab from 2002 to 2007. The royals are considered cultural and political icons in Patiala.

Maharaja Karam Singh who ruled from 1813 to 1845 (the Sikh Kingdom of Patiala in Punjab) was also known as a traitor. He joined the British East India Company and helped the British during the First Anglo Sikh wars against the Sikh Empire of Maharajah Ranjit Singh of Punjab which was larger and extended from Tibet Kashmir, plains of Punjab to Peshawar near the Afghan borders.

Brief History[edit]

The family claims descent from the Bhatti founder of Jaisalmer, Jaisal. His third son Rai Hem, left the family domains after the usual quarrel and carved out a small principality for himself around Bhatinda and Bhatner. His successor in the fourth degree, Khiwa, fell on hard times ad was forced to move to Kot Ladwa, where he married a girl from the Jat Basehra caste, against the clan traditions of the Rajputs. Thereafter many quarrels ensued between his descendants at the Bhattis. The Mughals appointed his descendant Mehraj in 1526. This office became hereditary amongst his descendants until Phul, the Sikh ancestor of the dynasty, which came to rule over Patiala, Jind and Nabha.[2]

Early history[edit]

The history of Patiala state starts off with the ancestor of the Sikh Patiala Royal House, Mohan Singh being harassed by neighbouring Bhullars and Dhaliwals farmers . They would not allow Mohan to settle there. He was a follower of Guru Hargobind Sahib and the Guru appealed on behalf of Mohan but to no avail. The result was an armed struggle and the Bhullars and Dhaliwals were defeated by the Guru's men, which allowed Mohan to establish the Village of Meharaj in 1627.[3]

Battle of Mehraj[edit]

Mohan fought against the Mughals at the Battle of Mehraj 1631 on the side of Guru Hargobind Sahib.[citation needed] Mohan and his eldest son Rup Chand were later killed in a fight against the Bhatti's (a tribe who also claim to be the descendants of Rawal Jaisal of Jaisalmer, but also an enemy of the Phulkians ). Kala, Mohan's younger son succeeded the "chaudriyat", and was guardian to Rup Chand's sons Phul and Sandali.


When Kala died, Phul formed his own village (Phul), five miles from Meharaj (under the blessings of Sikh Guru's) in 1663. Nabha and Jind trace their ancestry to the devout Sikh Phul. It was one of the first Sikh Kingdoms of Punjab to be formed. Apparently the appellation of dynasty "Phulkian" is derived from their common founder. One of his sons, Chota Ram, was baptized and blessed by Guru Gobind Singh. His son Ala Singh assumed the leadership in 1714 when Banda Bahadur was engaged in the fierce battle against the Mughals. A man with vision and courage, Ala Singh's general, Gurbaksh Singh Kaleka, carved out an independent principality from a Zamindari of 30 villages. Under his successors, it expanded into a large state, touching the Shivaliks in north, Rajasthan in the south and upper courses of the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers while confronting the most trying and challenging circumstances.

Baba Ala Singh[edit]

In the middle of the eighteenth century, Baba Ala Singh, unlike many of his contemporaries, displayed tremendous shrewdness in dealing with the Marathas and Afghans, and successfully established a state which he had started building up from its nucleus Barnala. He became traitor to the Sikhs, who made him a Sardar from a peasant and fought on the side of Ahmad Shah Abdali against the Sikhs .

Qila Mubarak[edit]

The main gate of the Qila Mubarak at night. Architect Atit Kumar and Balwinder kaur have prepared conservation plan of Darbar Hall, Qila Mubarak

In 1763 Baba Ala Singh laid the foundation of the Patiala fort known as Qila Mubarak, around which the present city of Patiala developed. After the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 in which the Marathas were defeated, the writ of the Afghans prevailed throughout Punjab. It is at this stage that the rulers of Patiala began to acquire ensigns of royalty. Ahmad Shah Abdali bestowed upon Ala Singh furm and banner, and the title of Maharaja of Patiala. After his death, his grandson Amar Singh succeeded and received the title of Raja-I-Rajaan. He was also allowed to strike coins.

Treaty with the British[edit]

After forty years of ceaseless struggle with the Marathas and Afghans, the borders of the Patiala state witnessed the blazing trails of Ranjit Singh in the north and of the British in the east. Bestowed with the grit and instinct of survival, making self-preservation a priority the Raja of Patiala entered into a treaty with the British against Ranjit Singh in 1808, thus becoming collaborators in the empire building process of the British in the sub-continent of India. The subsequent rulers of Patiala, such as Karam Singh, Narinder Singh, Mahendra Singh, Rajinder Singh, Bhupinder Singh and Yadvindra Singh were puppets in the hands of British.

Maharaja Bhupinder Singh[edit]

Maharaja Bhupinder Singh (reign: 1900 to 1938) gave Patiala a prominent place on the political map of India and in the field of international sports. Particularly in the Game of Polo with the World's best Polo Back Player, General Chanda Singh on his side who later went on to play for England and Spain upon the requests of King Edward VII and King Alfonso winning both the Kings a Prestigious Polo Cup. The Maharaja was also fond of dog kennels and he and the Maharaja of Jind were equally interested in a range of dog breeds. His son Maharaja Yadavindra Singh was the first Indian prince to sign the Instrument of Accession, thus facilitating the process of national integration after independence in 1947. In recognition of his services, he was appointed the Rajpramukh of the newly established state of Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), from its founding in 1948 until its merger with Punjab in 1956. The downtown area of Patiala is Adalat Bazaar, which means 'the court corridor', because this was used as the administrative building by one of the caretakers, before Maharaja Bhupinder Singh had reached the age of majority. The Royal Family are Jats of the Sidhu family, of which Rajmata Mohinder Kaur is the oldest member.


The rulers of Patiala bore the title 'Maharaja-e Rajgan' from 1810 onward.[4]


  • 29 Mar 1761 - 22 Aug 1765 Ala Singh (b. 1691 - d. 1765)
  • 22 Aug 1765 - 1767 Amar Singh (b. 1748 - d. 1781)

Raja-e Rajgan[edit]

  • 1767 - 5 Feb 1781 Amar Singh (s.a.)
  • Feb 1781 - 1810 Sahib Singh (b. 1774 - d. 1813)

Maharaja-e Rajgan[edit]

  • 1810 - 26 Mar 1813 Sahib Singh (s.a.)
  • 26 Mar 1813 - 23 Dec 1845 Karam Singh (b. 1797 - d. 1845)
  • 26 Mar 1813 - 1823 Maharani Aus Kaur (f) -Regent (b. 1772 - d. af.1823)
  • 23 Dec 1845 - 13 Nov 1862 Narendra Singh (b. 1823 - d. 1862) (from 25 Jun 1861, Sir Narendra Singh)
  • 13 Nov 1862 - 14 Apr 1876 Mohendra Singh (b. 1852 - d. 1876) (from 28 May 1870, Sir Mohendra Singh)
  • 13 Nov 1862 - 26 Feb 1870 Jagdish Singh -Regent (chairman of regency council)
  • 14 Apr 1876 - 9 Nov 1900 Rajendra Singh (b. 1872 - d. 1900) (from 21 May 1898, Sir Rajendra Singh)
  • 14 Apr 1876 - Oct 1890 Sir Deva Singh -Regent (b. 1834 - d. 1890) (chairman of regency council)
  • 9 Nov 1900 - 23 Mar 1938 Bhupindra Singh (b. 1891 - d. 1938) (from 12 Dec 1911, Sir Bhupindra Singh)
  • 9 Nov 1900 - 3 Nov 1910 Sardar Gurmukh Singh -Regent (chairman of regency council)
  • 23 Mar 1938 - 15 Aug 1947 Yadavindra Singh (b. 1913 - d. 1974) (from 1 Jan 1942, Sir Yadavindra Singh)

See also[edit]


Coordinates: 31°07′N 77°38′E / 31.117°N 77.633°E / 31.117; 77.633