Patiala gharana

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The Patiala gharana (Urdu: پٹیالہ گھرانہ ‎) is one of the gharanas (singing schools or styles) of vocal Hindustani classical music. It was founded by Fateh Ali Khan and Ali Baksh Khan, and was initially sponsored by the Maharaja of Patiala, Punjab and was known for ghazal, thumri, and khyal styles of singing.


This gharana tends to favour pentatonic ragas for their ornamentation and execution of intricate taans. Ektaal and Teentaal are the most common taals chosen by members of this gharana. Besides khyal, exponents sing the Punjab-Ang thumri.

The special feature of Patiala is its rendering of taans. These are very rhythmic, vakra (complicated) and firat taans, and are not bound by the rhythmic cycle. Taans with clear aakar are presented not through the throat but through the naabhi (navel).

This gharana has been criticized for neglecting basic raga characteristics such as the primary development octave and for overusing ornaments and graces without considering the nature and mood of the raga.[1]

While singing khyal the khatka and murki are utilized, and the presentation of the khyal is embellished with bol-banav, bol-taan, sargam, meend and keeping to the laya and rhythmic cycle.



  1. ^, Patiala Gharana 'Profile' on Indian Raga website, published 12 June 2010, Retrieved 11 Feb 2016
  2. ^, Article on Patiala Gharana in Dawn newspaper, 'Classical music has healing effect on listeners', published 3 May 2008, Retrieved 11 Feb 2016
  3. ^ Sharma, Manorama (2006). Tradition of Hindustani Music (2006 ed.). New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. pp. 113–114, 160–161. ISBN 8176489999. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
  4. ^ Ganesh, Deepa (20 March 2003). "His master's voice". The Hindu. Retrieved 2 August 2017.