Patient education

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A Radiographer explains an x-ray to a coal miner participating in screening. Patient education can include explaining the results of diagnostic tests.

Patient education is a planned interactive learning process designed to support and enable expert patients[1] to manage their life with a disease and/or optimise their health and well-being.[2][3]

Overview[edit]

Education may be provided by any healthcare professional who has undertaken appropriate training education, education on patient communication and education is usually included in the healthcare professional's training. However, further training is required to develop specialist skills needed to facilitate self-management and behaviour change.[3][4]

Health education is also a tool used by managed care plans, and may include both general preventive education or health promotion and disease or condition specific education.[5]

Important elements of patient education are skill building and responsibility: patients need to know when, how, and why they need to make a lifestyle change. Group effort is equally important: each member of the patient's health care team needs to be involved. It can also help the patients by a better lifestyle, it give them the ability to learn new information.

The value of patient education can be summarized as follows:

  • Improved understanding of medical condition, diagnosis, disease, or disability.
  • Improved understanding of methods and means to manage multiple aspects of medical condition.
  • Improved self-advocacy in deciding to act both independently from medical providers and in interdependence with them.
  • Increased adherence – Effective communication and patient education increases patient motivation to adhere to treatments.
  • Patient outcomes – Patients more likely to respond well to their treatment plan – fewer complications.
  • Informed consent – Patients feel you've provided the information they need to make informed decisions
  • Empowered to make shared decision - Patients understanding of the evidence of benefits and risks of interventions, helps them to truly weigh the trade-offs they are (un)willing to make.[6]
  • Increased health literacy and confidence to navigate the health systems.[7]
  • Utilization – More effective use of medical services – fewer unnecessary phone calls and visits.[7]
  • Satisfaction and referrals – Patients more likely to stay with your practice and refer other patients.[8]
  • Risk Management – Lower risk of malpractice when patients have realistic expectations.[9]
  • Race and health – Target education to help reduce the disproportionate burden on populations at increase risk of mortailty.[10]

The competencies of a health educator include the following:[11]

  • Incorporate a personal ethic in regards to social responsibilities and services towards others.
  • Provide accurate, competent, and evidence-based care.
  • Practice preventive health care.
  • Focus on relationship-centered care with individuals and their families.
  • Incorporate the multiple determinants of health when providing care.
  • Be culturally sensitive and be open to a diverse society.
  • Use technology appropriately and effectively.
  • Be current in the field and continue to advance education.

There are many areas where patient education can improve the outcomes of treatment.

  • For example, in patients with amputations, patient education has been shown to be effective when approached from all angles by the healthcare team (nurse, primary care physician, prosthetist, physical therapist, occupational therapist etc.). Support groups have been shown to be a helpful method for dealing with depression in this population. Preoperative patient education helped patients with their decision-making process by informing them of factors related to pain, limb loss, and functional restriction faced after amputation.[12]
  • In the case of arthritis, patient education was found to be administered through three methods, including individual face to face meetings with healthcare professionals, patient groups, online support programs. Category I evidence was found for individual, face to face counselling. Meeting with rheumatologists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, nurses, and other healthcare providers was found to be effective in creating adherence to treatment, medication, and for improving overall patient health.[3]
  • In the case of rheumatoid arthritis, patient education has been shown as an effective non-pharmacological treatment.[13] It is recommended that patient education should be the start point and underpin all self-management interventions.[14][4]
  • The role of patient organisations in providing support and structured guidance for people with arthritis is widely valued by professionals[15] and patients.[16]
  • It is important to consider patient factors that may help improve outcomes of patient education patient. These are patient activation, illness perceptions, anxiety, participants’ knowledge about their condition, engagement with routine check-ups and positive health behaviours.[17][18][19][20][21][22] These factors may be also be targets for patient education.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Cordier JF (2014). "The expert patient: towards a novel definition". Eur Respir J. 44 (4): 853–7. doi:10.1183/09031936.00027414. PMID 25271227. S2CID 315598. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  2. ^ "iv. Patient Education and Counseling for Prevention". Archived from the original on April 21, 2014.
  3. ^ a b c Zangi, Heidi A.; Ndosi, Mwidimi; Adams, Jo; Andersen, Lena; Bode, Christina; Boström, Carina; van Eijk-Hustings, Yvonne; Gossec, Laure; Korandová, Jana; Mendes, Gabriel; Niedermann, Karin (June 2015). "EULAR recommendations for patient education for people with inflammatory arthritis". Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 74 (6): 954–962. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-206807. ISSN 1468-2060. PMID 25735643. S2CID 2370392.
  4. ^ a b Bennett, Sarah E.; Zangi, Heidi A.; Larsson, Ingrid; Beauvais, Catherine; Boström, Carina; Domján, Andrea; van Eijk-Hustings, Yvonne; Van der Elst, Kristien; Fayet, Françoise; Ferreira, Ricardo J. O.; Fusama, Mie (2022-06-08). "Assessing acceptability and identifying barriers and facilitators to implementation of the EULAR recommendations for patient education in inflammatory arthritis: a mixed-methods study with rheumatology professionals in 23 European and Asian countries". Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 81 (10): annrheumdis–2022–222253. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2022-222253. ISSN 1468-2060. PMID 35676076. S2CID 249521050.
  5. ^ Peter R. Koongstvedt, "The Managed Health Care Handbook," Fourth Edition, Aspen Publishers, Inc., 2001, page 788 ISBN 0-8342-1726-0
  6. ^ Jones, Bethan; Bennett, Sarah; Larsson, Ingrid; Zangi, Heidi; Boström, Carina; Van Der Elst, Kristien; Fayet, Françoise; Fusama, Mie; Herrero Manso, María del Carmen; Hoeper, Juliana Rachel; Kukkurainen, Marja Leena; Kwok, Suet Kei; Frãzao-Mateus, Elsa; Minnock, Patricia; Nava, Tiziana; Pavic Nikolic, Milena; Primdahl, Jette; Rawat, Roopa; Schoenfelder, Mareen; Sierakowska, Matylda; Voshaar, Marieke; Wammervold, Edgar; Van Tubergen, Astrid; Ndosi, Mwidimi (Apr 2022). "Disseminating and assessing implementation of the EULAR recommendations for patient education in inflammatory arthritis: a mixed-methods study with patients' perspectives". RMD Open. 8 (1): e002256. doi:10.1136/rmdopen-2022-002256. ISSN 2056-5933. PMC 9036425. PMID 35459751.
  7. ^ a b Buchbinder, Rachelle; Batterham, Roy; Ciciriello, Sabina; Newman, Stan; Horgan, Ben; Ueffing, Erin; Rader, Tamara; Tugwell, Peter S.; Osborne, Richard H. (August 2011). "Health Literacy: What Is It and Why Is It Important to Measure?". The Journal of Rheumatology. 38 (8): 1791–1797. doi:10.3899/jrheum.110406. ISSN 0315-162X. PMID 21807802. S2CID 27792650.
  8. ^ "Krames Patient Education". Archived from the original on 2000-10-14. Retrieved 2020-05-01.
  9. ^ Patient Education Institute, Research evidence
  10. ^ Israel, Elliot; Cardet, Juan-Carlos; Carroll, Jennifer K.; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L.; She, Lilin; Rockhold, Frank W.; Maher, Nancy E.; Fagan, Maureen; Forth, Victoria E.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Arias Hernandez, Paulina (2022-04-21). "Reliever-Triggered Inhaled Glucocorticoid in Black and Latinx Adults with Asthma". New England Journal of Medicine. 386 (16): 1505–1518. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2118813. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 35213105. S2CID 247106044.
  11. ^ Bastable, Susan B. (2011). Health Professionals as Educator. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Barlett Learning, LLC. p. 6.
  12. ^ Pantera, E.; Pourtier-Piotte, C.; Bensoussan, L.; Coudeyre, E. (2014). "Patient education after amputation: Systematic review and experts' opinions". Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 57 (3): 143–158. doi:10.1016/j.rehab.2014.02.001. PMID 24726790.
  13. ^ Brosseau, Lucie; Rahman, Prinon; Poitras, Stéphane; Toupin-April, Karine; Paterson, Gail; Smith, Christine; King, Judy; Casimiro, Lynn; Angelis, Gino De (2014). "A Systematic Critical Appraisal of Non-Pharmacological Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II". PLOS ONE. 9 (5): e95369. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095369. PMC 4026323. PMID 24840205.
  14. ^ Nikiphorou, Elena; Santos, Eduardo José Ferreira; Marques, Andrea; Böhm, Peter; Bijlsma, Johannes Wj; Daien, Claire Immediato; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Ferreira, Ricardo J. O.; Fragoulis, George E.; Holmes, Pat; McBain, Hayley (October 2021). "2021 EULAR recommendations for the implementation of self-management strategies in patients with inflammatory arthritis". Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 80 (10): 1278–1285. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2021-220249. ISSN 1468-2060. PMC 8458093. PMID 33962964.
  15. ^ Nikiphorou, Elena; Santos, Eduardo José Ferreira; Marques, Andrea; Böhm, Peter; Bijlsma, Johannes Wj; Daien, Claire Immediato; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Ferreira, Ricardo J. O.; Fragoulis, George E.; Holmes, Pat; McBain, Hayley (October 2021). "2021 EULAR recommendations for the implementation of self-management strategies in patients with inflammatory arthritis". Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 80 (10): 1278–1285. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2021-220249. ISSN 1468-2060. PMC 8458093. PMID 33962964.
  16. ^ Jones, Bethan; Bennett, Sarah; Larsson, Ingrid; Zangi, Heidi; Boström, Carina; Van der Elst, Kristien; Fayet, Françoise; Fusama, Mie; Herrero Manso, María Del Carmen; Hoeper, Juliana Rachel; Kukkurainen, Marja Leena (April 2022). "Disseminating and assessing implementation of the EULAR recommendations for patient education in inflammatory arthritis: a mixed-methods study with patients' perspectives". RMD Open. 8 (1): e002256. doi:10.1136/rmdopen-2022-002256. ISSN 2056-5933. PMC 9036425. PMID 35459751.
  17. ^ Hendriks, Michelle; Rademakers, Jany (2014). "Relationships between patient activation, disease-specific knowledge and health outcomes among people with diabetes; a survey study". BMC Health Services Research. 14 (1): 393. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-393. ISSN 1472-6963. PMC 4175625. PMID 25227734.
  18. ^ Rask, Kimberly J.; Ziemer, David C.; Kohler, Susan A.; Hawley, Jonathan N.; Arinde, Folakemi J.; Barnes, Catherine S. (2009). "Patient Activation Is Associated With Healthy Behaviors and Ease in Managing Diabetes in an Indigent Population". The Diabetes Educator. 35 (4): 622–630. doi:10.1177/0145721709335004. ISSN 0145-7217. PMID 19419972. S2CID 3692863.
  19. ^ Hibbard, Judith H.; Greene, Jessica; Becker, Edmund R.; Roblin, Douglas; Painter, Michael W.; Perez, Debra J.; Burbank-Schmitt, Edith; Tusler, Martin (2008). "Racial/Ethnic Disparities And Consumer Activation In Health". Health Affairs. 27 (5): 1442–1453. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.27.5.1442. ISSN 0278-2715. PMID 18780935.
  20. ^ Jones, Bethan; Ndosi, Mwidimi; Hunt, Andrew; Harcourt, Diana; Dures, Emma (2021-11-05). "Factors associated with patient activation in inflammatory arthritis: a multisite cross-sectional study". Rheumatology Advances in Practice. 5 (Supplement_2): ii35–ii44. doi:10.1093/rap/rkab053. ISSN 2514-1775. PMC 8570153. PMID 34755027.
  21. ^ Korpershoek, Y. J. G.; Bos-Touwen, I. D.; Ginkel, JM de Man-van; Lammers, J.-Wj; Schuurmans, M. J.; Trappenburg, J. C. A. (2016-08-01). "Determinants of activation for self-management in patients with COPD". International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 11 (1): 1757–1766. doi:10.2147/COPD.S109016. PMC 4976914. PMID 27536087.
  22. ^ Goodworth, Marie-Christine R; Stepleman, Lara; Hibbard, Judith; Johns, Lisa; Wright, Dustin; Hughes, Mary D; Williams, Mitzi J (2016). "Variables associated with patient activation in persons with multiple sclerosis". Journal of Health Psychology. 21 (1): 82–92. doi:10.1177/1359105314522085. ISSN 1359-1053. PMID 24591120. S2CID 23376047.

References[edit]

  • Cordier JF. The expert patient: towards a novel definition. Eur Respir J. 2014 Oct;44(4):853-7. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00027414. PMID 25271227
  • Doak, C. C., Doak, L. G., & Root, J. H. (1996). Teaching patients with low literacy skills http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/healthliteracy/doak.html
  • London, F. (2009). No Time To Teach: The Essence of Patient and Family Education for Health Care Providers. Atlanta: Pritchett & Hull
  • Rankin, S. H., Stallings, K. D., & London, F. (2005). Patient Education in Health and Illness (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • Bastable, S.B, Grambet, P., Jacobs, K., Sopczyk, D.L. (2011). Health professionals as educator: Principles of teaching and learning. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.