|• Body||Patna Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||presently vacant|
|• Municipal commissioner||Jai Singh|
|Area(2001) [A 1]|
|• Urban||135.79 km2 (52.43 sq mi)|
|• Metro||234.70 km2 (90.62 sq mi)|
|• City||99.45 km2 (38.40 sq mi)|
|Elevation||53 m (174 ft)|
|• Density||16,925/km2 (43,840/sq mi)|
|• Urban||2,046,652 (IN: 18th)|
|• Metro||2,231,554 [A 1]|
|• City||1,683,200 (IN: 19th)|
|• Spoken||Hindi, English, Magadhi|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-BR-PA|
|Vehicle registration||BR 01|
|Sex ratio||1.13  ♂/♀|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Patna Sahib and Pataliputra|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Digha (181), Bankipur (182), Kumhrar (183), Patna Sahib (184), Fatuha (185), Danapur (186), Maner (187), Phulwari-SC (188)|
|Planning agency||Bihar Urban Infrastructure Development Corporation|
|Precipitation||1,100 millimetres (43 in)|
|Avg. annual temperature||26 °C (79 °F)|
|Avg. summer temperature||30 °C (86 °F)|
|Avg. winter temperature||17 °C (63 °F)|
Patna // ( Hindi pronunciation (help·info)) is the capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India. The second largest city in eastern India, had an estimated population of 1.68 million in 2011, making it the 19th largest city in India. Its urban agglomeration is the 18th largest in India, with over 2 million people. Patna also serves as seat of Patna High Court.
One of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world. Patna was founded in 490 BCE by the king of Magadha. Ancient Patna, known as Pataliputra, was the capital of the Magadha Empire under the Haryanka, Nanda, Mauryan, Shunga, Gupta and Pala. Pataliputra was a seat of learning and fine arts. Its population during the Maurya period (around 300 BCE) was about 400,000.
The modern city of Patna is situated on the southern bank of the Ganges. The city also straddles the rivers Sone, Gandak and Punpun. The city is approximately 35 km long and 16 km to 18 km wide. In June 2009, the World Bank ranked Patna second in India (after Delhi) for ease of starting a business. As of 2011-12, Patna had the highest per capita gross district domestic product in Bihar, at ₹63,063. Using figures for assumed average annual growth, Patna is the 21st fastest growing city in the world and 5th fastest growing city in India by the City Mayors' Foundation. Patna registered an average annual growth of 3.72% during 2006-2010.
The Buddhist, Hindu, and Jain pilgrim centres of Vaishali, Rajgir, Nalanda, Bodh Gaya, and Pawapuri are nearby and Patna City is also a sacred city for Sikhs as the last Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, was born here.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Economy
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Government and public services
- 6 Transport and connectivity
- 7 Culture
- 8 Tourism
- 9 Education
- 10 Sports
- 11 Media
- 12 Notable people
- 13 See also
- 14 Note
- 15 References
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
Origin of name
The name of this city has changed with time. It is one of the oldest cities of India. There are several theories regarding the source of the modern name Patna (Devanagari:पटना) :
- It is etymologically derived from Patan (Devanagari: पIतन), the name of the Hindu goddess, Patan Devi.
- Patan Devi Mandir is still situated in old Patna near gulzarbagh mandi & another patna devi mandir is situated near takht shree harmandar sahib patna city.
- Many believe Patna derived its name from Patli, a tree variety that was found in abundance in the historic city. (which is also seen on the state tourism's logo)
- The place appears in Chinese traveller Fa Hien's records as Pa-lin-fou.
- The city has been known by various names during its more than 2,000 years of existence – Pataligrama, Pataliputra, Kusumapura, Kusumdhwaja Pushpapuram, Padmavathi, Azimabad and the present-day Patna.
Legend describes the origin of Patna to a mythological King Putraka who created Patna by magic for his queen Patali, literally "trumpet flower", which gives it its ancient name Pataligrama. It is said that in honour of the queen's first-born, the city was named Pataliputra. Gram is Sanskrit for village and Putra means son. Legend also says that the Emerald Buddha was created in Patna (then Pataliputra) by Nagasena in 43 BCE.
Patna became significant around the year 490 BCE when Ajatashatru, the king of Magadha, wanted to shift his capital from the hilly Rajagrha to a more strategically located place to combat the Licchavis of Vaishali. He chose the site on the bank of the Ganges and fortified the area. Gautama Buddha passed through this place in the last year of his life. He prophesied a great future for this place, but at the same time, he predicted its ruin from flood, fire and feud.
Megasthenes, the Indo-Greek historian and ambassador to the court of Chandragupta Maurya, gave one of the earliest account of the city. He wrote that the city was situated on the confluence of the rivers Ganga and Arennovoas (Sonabhadra — Hiranyawah) and was 14 kilometres (9 mi) long and 2.82 kilometres (1.75 mi) wide. Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador to India, described the city as the greatest city on earth during its heyday. The Shungas ultimately retained control of Pataliputra and ruled for almost 100 years. The Shungas were then followed by the Kanvas and eventually the Guptas.
A number of Chinese travellers came to India in pursuit of knowledge and recorded their observations about Pataliputra in their travelogues, including those of a Chinese Buddhist Fa Hien, who visited India between 399 and 414 CE, and stayed here for many months translating Buddhist texts.
Pataliputra as a capital of the Magadha Empire.
Gupta and Mughal empires
In the years that followed, many dynasties ruled the Indian subcontinent from the city, including those of the Gupta empire and the Pala kings. With the disintegration of the Gupta empire, Patna passed through uncertain times. Bakhtiar Khilji captured Bihar in the 12th century and destroyed many ancient seats of learning, and Patna lost its prestige as the political and cultural center of India.
Guru Gobind Singh (22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708), the tenth Guru of the Sikhs, was born as Gobind Rai in Patna to Teg Bahadur, the ninth Guru of the Sikhs, and his wife Gujri. His birthplace, Patna Sahib, is one of the most sacred pilgrimages for Sikhs.
The Mughal period was a period of unremarkable provincial administration from Delhi. The most remarkable period during these times was under the Pashtun emperor Sher Shah Suri, who revived Patna in the middle of the 16th century. He built a fort and founded a town on the banks of the Ganges. Sher Shah's fort in Patna does not survive, although the Sher Shah Suri Masjid mosque, built in Afghan architectural style, does. Mughal emperor Akbar came to Patna in 1574 to crush the Afgha Chief Daud Khan. Akbar's navratna and state's official historian and author of "Ain-i-Akbari" Abul Fazl refers to Patna as a flourishing centre for paper, stone and glass industries. He also refers to the high quality of numerous strains of rice grown in Patna, famous as Patna rice in Europe.
By 1620, the city of Patna was being described as the "chefest mart towne of all Bengala (i.e. largest town in Bengal) in northern India, "the largest town in Bengal and the most famous for trade". This was before the founding of the city of Calcutta. Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb acceded to the request of his favourite grandson, Prince Muhammad Azim, to rename Patna as Azimabad, in 1704 while Azim was in Patna as the subedar. Patna or Azimabad did see some violent activities, according to Phllip Mason, writing in the book "The Men Who Ruled India". "Aurangzeb had restored the poll-tax (Jazia) on unbelievers and this had to be compounded for. In Patna, Peacock the Chief of the factory, was not sufficiently obliging and was seized, forced to walk through the town bare-headed and bare-footed and subjected to many other indignities before he paid up and was released." However, very little changed during this period other than the name. With the decline of the Mughal empire, Patna moved into the hands of the Nawabs of Bengal, who levied a heavy tax on the populace but allowed it to flourish as a commercial centre. The mansions of the Maharaja of Tekari Raj dominated the Patna river front in 1811-12.
During the 17th century, Patna became a centre of international trade. In 1620, the English East India Company established a factory in Patna for trading in calico and silk. Soon this became a trading centre for saltpetre. Francois Bernier, in Travels in the Mogul Empire (1656–1668), says "...a prodigious quantity of saltpetre was imported from Patna. It was carried down the Ganges with great facility, and the Dutch and English send large cargoes to many parts of the Indies, and to Europe". This trade encouraged other Europeans, principally the French, Danes, Dutch and Portuguese, to compete in the lucrative business. Peter Mundy, writing in 1632, described Patna as "the greatest mart of the eastern region". After the decisive Battle of Buxar of 1764, Patna fell into the hands of the East India Company and continued as a trading centre.
In 1912, when the Bengal Presidency was partitioned, Patna became the capital of the British province of Bihar and Orissa, although in 1935 Orissa became a separate entity with its own capital.
Indian independence movement
People from Patna were involved in the Indian independence movement. Most notable were the Champaran movement against the Indigo plantation and the 1942 Quit India Movement. National leaders who have come from the city include Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, the first President of the Constituent Assembly of India; Dr. Sachidanand Sinha; Dr. Rajendra Prasad; Bihar Vibhuti (Anugrah Narayan Sinha); Basawon Singh (Sinha); Loknayak (Jayaprakash Narayan); Sri Krishna Sinha; Sheel Bhadra Yajee and Sarangdhar Sinha (Singh)
Patna is located on the south bank of the Ganges River in Eastern India. The total area of Patna is 136 km2 (53 sq mi). Of this, the municipal area spans 99 km2 (38 sq mi), while the suburban area spans 36 km2 (14 sq mi). The exact cartographic co-ordinates of Patna are . It has an average elevation of 53 m (174 ft). A characteristic of the geography of Patna is its confluence of rivers. A narrow strip of somewhat high land about 8 kilometers in width along the southern bank of the Ganges having very fertile soil and alluvial fertile plains in the remaining portions.
During the British Raj, Patna was part of the Bengal Presidency. After Nalanda district was split from Patna district in 1976, Patna does not contain of any hilly regions. It has an entirely alluvial and flat region. The land in the district is too fertile to be left for wild growth. The district is devoid of any forest wealth of consequences. The alluvial text of land yields rice, sugarcane and other foodgrains. The area under cultivation is studded with mango orchads and bamboo clumps. In the fields adjoining the Ganges weeds such as ammannia, citriculari, hygrophile and sesbania grow. But palmyra and date palm and mango orchards are found near habitations. Dry shrub jungles are sometimes seen in the villages away from the rivers. Trees commonly met with are bel, siris, jack fruits and the red cotton tree It is joined by four other rivers: Ghaghara, Gandak, Punpun and Sone. Patna is unique in having four large rivers in its vicinity. It is the largest riverine city in the world. The bridge over the river Ganges named Mahatma Gandhi Setu is 5575m long and is the longest river bridge in the India.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Patna has a Humid subtropical climate under the Köppen climate classification: (Cwa) with extremely hot summers from late March to early June, the monsoon season from late June to late September and chilly winter nights and foggy or sunny days from November to February  Highest temperature ever recorded was 46.6 °C (115.9 °F), in the year 1966, the lowest ever was 1.1 °C (34 °F), on 9 January 2013, and highest rainfall was 204.5 mm (8.05 in), in the year 1997.
The table below details historical monthly averages for climate variables.
|Climate data for Patna|
|Record high °C (°F)||30.0
|Average high °C (°F)||23
|Daily mean °C (°F)||16.2
|Average low °C (°F)||9.3
|Record low °C (°F)||1.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||15.2
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||12.2
|Avg. rainy days||1.3||1.2||0.7||1.0||2.7||6.5||14.9||12.8||10.2||3.3||0.6||0.7||55.9|
|Source #1: India Meteorological Department (Period 1901–2000, record high and low up to 2010) (rainfall 1971-2000|
|Source #2: worldweather.org|
Pollution is a major concern in Patna. According to the CAG report, tabled in the Bihar Legislative Assembly in April 2015, respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) level (PM-10) in Patna was 355, three-and-a-half times higher than the prescribed limit of 100 micro-gram per cubic metre, primarily due to high vehicular and industrial emissions and construction activities in the city. In May 2014, a World Health Organization survey declared Patna the second most air polluted city in India, only after Delhi, with the survey calculating the airborne particulate matter in the state capital's ambient air (PM-2.5) to be 149 micro-grams, six times more than the safe limit, which is 25 micro-grams. Severe air pollution in the city has caused a rise in pollution-related respiratory ailments, such as lung cancer, asthma, dysentery and diarrhea. The dense smog in Patna during winter season results in major air and rail traffic disruptions every year.
Patna has long been a major agricultural center of trade, its most active exports being grain, sugarcane, sesame, and medium-grained Patna rice. There are multiple sugar mills still in existence in and around Patna. It is an important business and luxury brand center of eastern India.
As of 2011, the economy of Patna has seen sustained economic growth. In particular, the economy has been spurred by growth in the Fast Moving Consumer Goods industry, the service sector, along with Green revolution businesses. In 2009, the World Bank stated Patna as the second best city in India to start up a business. As of 2010, the per capita income of Patna was ₹37737.
|Note: Huge population decline after 1814 due to the decrease
in the river borne trade, persistent unhealthiness and repeated
epidemics of plaque.
A resident of Patna is referred to via the demonym Patnaite According to 2011 provisional census data, Patna city had a population of 1,683,200 (before expansion of the city limits) within the corporation limits, with 894,158 men and 789,042 women. 11.32 per cent of the population was under six years of age, with 102,208 boys while 88,288 are girls. The sex ratio of 882 females per 1,000 males was lower than the national average of 944. The urban agglomeration had a population of 2,046,652 of which 1,087,864 are males and 958,788 are females. Patna metropolitan region constitutes the second largest metropolitan region in Eastern India. The religion data in 2001 indicated a majority of Hindus. The city has large communities of Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Jains and Buddhism in the city. The overall literacy rate is 84.71%, with the male literacy rate being 87.71% and the female literacy rate being 81.33%.
Hindi is the official language of the state of Bihar but many other languages are spoken. The native dialect is Magadhi or Magahi, named after Magadha, the ancient name of Bihar. English is widely spoken by Patnaites, and other widely spoken dialects and languages include Bhojpuri, Maithili, Bengali, Urdu and Oriya.
Government and public services
The civic administration of Patna is executed by several government agencies, and consists of overlapping structural divisions. At least five administrative definitions of the city are available; listed in ascending order of area, those are:
- Patna division
- Patna district (also the Patna Police area),
- the Patna Metropolitan Region (also known as Patna Planning area)
- "Greater Patna" or PRDA area, which adds to the PMC area a few areas just adjacent to it
- Patna Municipal Corporation area (or "Patna city main").
The Patna Municipal Corporation, or PMC, oversees and manages the civic infrastructure of the city's 72 wards, which accommodates a population of 1.7 million as per 2011 Census. The municipal corporation consists of democratically elected members, each ward elects a Councillor to the PMC. The PMC is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs of the metropolis. As Patna's apex body, the corporation discharges its functions through the mayor-in-council, which comprises a mayor, a deputy mayor, and other elected members of the PMC. The Mayor is usually chosen through indirect election by the councillors from among themselves. The functions of the PMC include water supply, drainage and sewerage, sanitation, solid waste management, street lighting, and building regulation. The Municipal Commissioner is the chief Executive Officer and head of the executive arm of the Municipal Corporation. All executive powers are vested in the Municipal Commissioner who is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer appointed by the state government. Although the Municipal Corporation is the legislative body that lays down policies for the governance of the city, it is the Commissioner who is responsible for the execution of the policies. The Commissioner is appointed for a fixed term as defined by state statute. The powers of the Commissioner are those provided by statute and those delegated by the Corporation or the Standing Committee. As of 2015, the JDU controls the PMC; the mayor's position is presently vacant, while the deputy mayor is Rupnarayan Mehta. The current commissioner is Jai Singh.
The Patna Municipal Corporation was ranked 4th out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. It scored 3.6 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.
The revenue district of Patna come under the jurisdiction of a District Collector. The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central Government, and oversee the national elections held in the city.
The Patna Metropolitan Region, which is the city's urban agglomeration. The agency currently overseeing the latter, the Bihar Urban Infrastructure Development Corporation Limited (BUIDCO) and Bihar'S Ministry of Urban Development and Housing Corporation, is responsible for the statutory planning and development of Greater Patna. However, the Patna Metropolitan Development Authority (PMDA) would be principal agency for development and planning, it will be superseding agency for the former Patna Regional Development Authority (PRDA), which was dissolved in 2006.
In addition to city government, numerous commissions and state authorities—including the Ministry of Tourism, the Bihar Health Department, the Bihar Water Resources Department, National Ganga River Basin Authority, Bihar State Pollution Control Board and the Bihar Public Service Commission—play a role in the life of Patnaites. As the capital of Bihar, Patna plays a major role not only in state politics but in central politics as well.
As the seat of the Government of Bihar, The city has several federal facilities, including the Raj Bhavan: Governor’s house, the Bihar Legislative Assembly; the state secretariat, which is housed in the Patna Secretariat; and the Patna High Court. The Patna High Court is one of the oldest High Court in India. The Patna High Court has jurisdiction over the state of Bihar. Patna also has lower courts; the Small Causes Court for civil matters, and the Sessions Court for criminal cases. The Patna Police, commanded by Senior Superintendent of Police, is overseen by the Bihar Government's Home Department. The Patna district elects two representatives to India's lower house, the Lok Sabha, and 14 representatives to the state legislative assembly. However, there are total three lok sabha seats falls under Patna district.
Ground water fulfills the basic need of the people, administered by Patna Jal Parishad under Patna Municipal Corporation. The public water supply system comprises 98 tube wells that pump water directly to the distribution mains. Around 23 overhead reservoirs of which only the one’s at Agam Kuan, Gulzarbagh Press, Guru Gobind Singh Hospital and High Court serves the city. The sewerage system in Patna was set up in 1936. At present there are four sewage treatment plants located at Saidpur, Beur, Pahari and Karmali Chak.
Electricity supply to the city is regulated and distributed by the Bihar State Power Holding Company Limited. The city forms the Patna Electricity Supply Unit (PESU) Circle, which is further divided into two wings namely Patna East (consists Kankarbagh, Patna City, Gulzarbagh, Bankipore, Rajendra Nagar Divisions) and Patna West (Consists Danapur, New Capital, Pataliputra, Gardanibagh, Dak Bunglow divisions).
Direct–to–home (DTH) is available via DD Free Dish, Airtel digital TV, Dish TV, Tata Sky, Videocon d2h, Sun Direct and Reliance Digital TV. Cable companies include Darsh Digital Network Pvt. Ltd., SITI Maurya Cablenet Pvt. Ltd etc. The Conditional Access System for cable television was implemented in March 2013.
Patna comes under the Patna Telecom District of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet services provider. Both Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code division multiple access (CDMA) mobile services are available. Apart from telecom, BSNL also provides broadband internet service. Among private enterprises, Bharti Airtel, Reliance, Idea Cellular, Aircel, Tata DoCoMo, Tata Teleservices, Virgin Mobile, Uninor, Vodafone and Videocon Telecom are the leading telephone and cell phone service providers in the city.
Patna was the second Indian city, after Bangalore, which offered free WiFi connectivity to its citizens in February this year. By surpassing the previous record-holder, Beijing in China, Patna's WiFi zone is the world's longest free WiFi zone, which covers a 20-km stretch from NIT Patna on Ashok Rajpath to Danapur.
Transport and connectivity
Patna is located about 100 km from the national East – West Highway corridor. The NH 30, NH 31 and NH 2 passes through the town. The Ashok Rajpath, Patna-Danapur Road, Bailey Road, Harding Road and Kankarbagh old bypass Road are the major corridors.
Patna was one of the first places in India to use horse-drawn trams for public transport. Public transportation today is provided for by buses, auto rickshaws and local trains. Auto rickshaws are said to be the lifeline of the city. BSRTC has started City bus service on all major routes of Patna.
There is an airport, Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport, which is classified as a restricted international airport. The arrival of several low-cost carriers and a number of new destinations have caused a growth in air traffic in recent years, as has an improvement in the situation with regard to law and order. For the period April to December 2009 the airport ranked first in a survey of 46 airports in the country in terms of percentage growth of domestic passengers as well as domestic aircraft movement. The Airport Authority of India (AAI) has proposed to develop a civil enclave at Bihta Air Force Station to serve as the new airport for Patna. The military airfield lies 40 kilometres (25 mi) southwest of Patna, in Bihta.
Patna is served by several railway stations in different parts of the city. The Patna Junction railway station is the main railway station of the city, and one of the busiest railway stations in India. Patna lies in between New Delhi and Kolkata on Howrah–Delhi main line, which is one of the busiest rail route in India. Patna Junction is directly connected to most of the major cities in India. The city has three additional major railway stations: Rajendra Nagar Terminal (adjacent to Kankarbagh), Danapur (near western outskirts) and Patna Sahib (in Patna City area). Danapur is the divisional headquarters of East Central Railway zone's Danapur railway division. Patna is well connected with neighbouring Gaya, Jehanabad, Bihar Sharif, Rajgir, Islampur through daily passenger and express train services. In 2009, the construction of India's longest road-cum-rail bridge, Ganga Rail–Road Bridge was underway on the banks on the Ganges nearby and will connect Digha, Patna to Pahleja Ghat in Sonepur. The bridge is expected to be completed in 2015, when completed it will be 4.55 kilometres (2.83 mi) long and therefore the longest road cum rail bridge in India and one of the longest in the world.
The city is served by several major road highways and state highways, including National Highways 19, 30, 31, and 83. Asia's longest river bridge, the Mahatma Gandhi Setu (built 1982), is located in Patna and connects the city to Hajipur across the Ganga. In recent times, the bridge has been witnessing major traffic chaos and accidents due to exceeding number of vehicles passing over it and regularly over loading the structure. A new six lane road bridge across the Ganges parallel to Mahatma Gandhi Setu is proposed which would connect Kacchi Dargah in Patna City to Bidupur in Vaishali district, which will be the longest bridge in India after completion.
Patna is 1,015 kilometres (631 mi) East from Delhi, 1,802 kilometres (1,120 mi) North East from Mumbai and 556 kilometres (345 mi) North West from Kolkata. Luxury bus service between Patna and several neighboring cities is provided by the Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation and the Bihar State Road Transport Corporation. Auto Rikshaws are a popular mode of transportation. Prepaid auto services operated by an all-women crew was started in 2013 in Patna, which is the first of its kind in India. Radio Taxi services are also available within city limit as well as outskirts.
Three-wheelers (auto-rickshawas) are main mode of transportation inside city. These are called Tempo by locals. Do not be surprised if you do not find buses on all the roads. For last 5-6 years some private parties and state government has started mini-buses. But not on all roads. Patna is highly populated and has narrow roads. Thus Tempos are the most efficient ways.
Patna Metro is a planned rapid transit system for the city. It would be owned and operated by state run Patna Metro Rail Corporation. It will be constructed on Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode, estimated to cost ₹11545 crore (US$2 billion). It will have 5 lines with a total planned length of 60 kilometres (37 mi) km, which will be built in 3 phases. Patna Monorail Project covering the municipal area is also underway.
The Ganges – navigable throughout the year – was the principal river highway across the vast north Indo-Gangetic Plain. Vessels capable of accommodating five hundred merchants were known to ply this river in the ancient period; it served as a conduit for overseas trade, as goods were carried from Pataliputra out to the seas and to ports in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. The role of the Ganges as a channel for trade was enhanced by its natural links – it embraces all the major rivers and streams in both north and south Bihar.
In recent times, Inland Waterways Authority of India has declared the Ganges between Allahabad and Haldia to be a national inland waterway and has taken steps to restore its navigability. The National Waterway-1, the longest Waterway in India, stretches 1620 km in the River Ganga from Allahabad to Haldia via Varanasi, Munger, Bhagalpur passes through Patna. This National Waterways has fixed terminal at Patna. In September 2014, a luxury cruise called ‘MV Rajmahal’ from Patna to Varanasi was launched by the state-based Assam Bengal Navigation Company (ABN).
Patna’s native dialect is Magahi or Magadhi. The ancestor of Magadhi, from which its name derives, Magadhi Prakrit, was created in the ancient kingdom of Magadha, the core of which was the area of Patna south of the Ganges. It is believed to be the language spoken by Gautama Buddha. It was the official language of the Mauryan court, and the edicts of Ashoka were composed in it.
Patna shares many cultural roots with neighbouring Bengal. Patna has many buildings adorned with Indo-Islamic and Indo-Saracenic architectural motifs. Several well-maintained major buildings from the colonial period have been declared "heritage structures"; others are in various stages of decay. Established in 1917 as the Bihar’s first museum, the Patna Museum houses large collections that showcase Indian natural history and Indian art. The Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Library and Sinha Library are historic public libraries of Patna.
Several theatres are located in or near the central part of the city, including the Bhartiya Nritya Kala Mandir, the Rabindra Parishad, Premchand Rangshala and the Kalidas Rangalaya, which is home to the Bihar art theatre. Kalidas Rangalaya also hosts the Patliputra Natya Mahotsav, a dance festival. But in the last two decades, the popularity of commercial theatres in the city has declined.
The Patna School of Painting or Patna Qalaam, some times also called Company style, is an offshoot of the well-known Mughal Miniature school of painting, which flourished in Bihar during the early 18th to the mid-20th centuries. The practitioners of this art form were descendants of Hindu artisans of Mughal painting who facing persecution under the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and who found refuge, via Murshidabad, in Patna during the late 18th century. The Patna painters differed from the Mughal painters, whose subjects included only royalty and court scenes, in that they included as subjects bazaar scenes, scenes of Indian daily life, local dignitaries, festivals and ceremonies, and nature scenes. The paintings were executed in watercolours on paper and on mica, but the style was generally of a hybrid and undistinguished quality. It is this school of painting that inspired the formation of the College of Arts and Crafts, Patna, under the leadership of Shri Radha Mohan, which is an important centre of fine arts in Bihar.
A regular Bihari meal consists of daal, bhaat (rice), roti, tarkari (vegetables) etc. Bihari cuisine is predominantly vegetarian because traditional Bihar society, influenced by Buddhist and Hindu values of non-violence, did not eat eggs, chicken, fish and other animal products. However, there is also a tradition of meat-eating, and fish dishes are especially common due to the number of rivers in Bihar. There are also numerous Bihari meat dishes, with chicken and mutton being the most common.
Some dishes which Bihar is famous for include Sattu Paratha, which are Parathas stuffed with fried chickpea flour, chokha (spicy mashed potatoes), fish curry and Bihari Kebab, Postaa-dana kaa halwaa, Malpua, Dal Pitha (Bihari version of momos), Kheer Makhana (fox nut), Thekua/Khajuria (type of snack) etc.
Though Bihari women traditionally wear the sari, the shalwar kameez and Western attire is gaining acceptance among younger women. Western-style dress has greater acceptance among men, although the traditional dhoti and kurta are seen during festivals. Chhath, also called Dala Chhath, is an ancient and major festival in Bihar. It is celebrated twice a year: once in the summer, called the Chaiti Chhath, and once about a week after Deepawali, called the Kartik Chhath. Durga Puja, held in September–October, is Patna's another important festival; it is an occasion for glamorous celebrations. Among the city's other festivals, are Saraswati Puja, Eid, Holi, Christmas, Vismkarma Puja, Makar Sankranti, Raksha Bandhan and Rath Yatra. Cultural events include the Patna Book Fair, Patna Sahib Mahotsav, the Patna Film Festival, Bihar Diwas and the Rajgir Mahotsav, Vaishali Mahotsav and the Sonepur Cattle Fair in neighbouring cities.
Patna is home to many tourist attractions and it saw about 2.4 million tourists (including day visitors) in 2005. Tourists visiting the city accounted for 41% of the total for Bihar province, although Bodh Gaya was the most popular destination for foreign visitors.
The cultural heritage of Bihar is reflected in its many ancient monuments. Kumhrar and Agam Kuan are the sites of the ruins of the Ashokan Pataliputra. Didarganj Yakshi remains as an example of Mauryan art.
Takht Sri Patna Sahib is one of the Five Takhts of Sikhism and consecrates the birthplace of the tenth Guru of the Sikhs, Gobind Singh. There are five other Gurdwaras in Patna which are related to different Sikh Gurus; these are Gurdwara Pahila Bara, Gurdwara Gobind Ghat, Gurdwara Guru ka Bagh, Gurdwara Bal Leela and Gurdwara Handi Sahib.
Recently, the Bihar government announced plans to build a state-of-the-art art landmark museum in Patna at a cost of approximately ₹530 crores on a site of 13.9 acres at Bailey Road. 5 firms have been shortlisted for the architectural design.
Schools in Patna are either government schools (run by the state or central government) or private schools (run by trusts or individuals), many of which are religious. The schools are affiliated either with the Bihar School Examination Board (BSEB), the All-India Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) or the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) boards. Hindi and English are the primary languages of instruction. A 2012 survey found 1,574 schools: of these, 78% were private unaided schools (most of them at affordable cost), 21% government schools and 1% private aided.
Under the 10+2+3/4 plan, students complete ten years of schooling and then enroll in schools that have a higher secondary facility and are affiliated with the Bihar State Intermediate Board, the All-India Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the NIOS or the CBSE, where they select one of three streams: arts, commerce, or science. This is followed by either a general degree course in a chosen field of study, or a professional degree course, such as law, engineering and medicine.
Patna has important government educational institutions like Central University of Bihar, Patna University, Chanakya National Law University, Aryabhatta Knowledge University, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, National Institute of Technology, Patna, Patna Medical College, All India Institute of Medical Sciences Patna, National Institute of Fashion Technology Patna, Chandragupt Institute of Management etc. A large number of students across India come to Patna to get the admissions in these institutions.
Patna University was established in 1917 and is the seventh oldest modern university in the Indian Sub-continent. Patna also has a variety of other universities, as well as many primary and secondary schools.
Nalanda University (also known as Nalanda International University) is a newly established university located in Rajgir, around 100 kilometres (62 mi) from Patna. The University, created as a revival of an ancient center of learning at Nalanda, began its first academic session on September 1, 2014. It will attract students from across the globe.
There are several cricket grounds located across the city, including the Moin-ul-Haq Stadium. The stadium features a swimming pool and a cricket academy. This stadium has served as venue for two one-day international cricket matches and several national sport events.
Patna hosted the first ever woman's Kabaddi world cup. It was held at the Patliputra Sports Complex, Kankarbagh from 1 March to 4 March 2012. Hosts India won the World Cup defeating Iran in the finals. Patna also hosted the seven league matches of new Pro Kabaddi League with its home team as Patna Pirates at the Pataliputra Sports Complex in Kankarbagh from August 7 to 10 in 2014.
The beginning of the 20th century was marked by a number of notable new publications. A monthly magazine named Bharat Ratna was started from Patna in 1901. It was followed by Ksahtriya Hitaishi, Aryavarta from Dinapure, Patna, Udyoga and Chaitanya Chandrika. Udyog was edited by Vijyaanand Tripathy, a famous poet of the time and Chaitanya Chandrika by Krishna Chaitanya Goswami, a literary figure of that time. The literary activity was not confined to Patna alone but to many districts of Bihar.
Many national media agencies, including the Press Trust of India and Doordarshan's regional offices are based in the city. The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Economic Times and The Telegraph are the four principal English language daily newspapers which have Patna editions. The Hindu, The Pioneer and The Indian Express, though not printed in the city, are other English language daily newspaper available in the city. The city's Hindi newspapers include Hindustan Dainik, Dainik Jagran, Dainik Bhaskar, Prabhat Khabar, Aaj and Rashtriya Sahara – all these newspapers have editions from Patna. There are also daily Urdu newspapers like Qomi Tanzim and Farooqi Tanzeem published in Patna. There is also the Hindi and English mixed Newspaper Tabloid Inext.
Patna is also served by several AM and FM radio stations. The city hosts several radio stations, including the state-owned All India Radio's Vividh Bharati and private channels like Radio Mirchi, FM 105 etc. The All India Radio, Patna (officially Akashvani Patna Kendra) was established in the year 1948.
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... the greatest city in India is that which is called Palimbothra, in the dominions of the Prasians, where the streams of the Erannoboas and the Ganga unite,—the Ganga being the greatest of all rivers, and the Erannoboas being perhaps the third largest of Indian rivers, though greater than the greatest rivers elsewhere; but it is smaller than the Ganga where it falls into it. Megasthenes informs us that this city stretched in the inhabited quarters to an extreme length on each side of eighty stadia, and that its breadth was fifteen stadia, and that a ditch encompassed it all round, which was six hundred feet in breadth and thirty cubits in depth, and that the wall was crowned with 570 towers and had four-and-sixty gates....
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