Patria AMV

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Patria AMV
Patria AMV Karlovac 2009 8.jpg
Croatian Patria AMV armed with a Protector remote weapon station
TypeArmoured personnel carrier
Place of originFinland
Service history
In service2007–present[1]
Used bySee Operators below
WarsWar in Afghanistan
Saudi Arabian–led intervention in Yemen[2]
Production history
DesignerPatria
Specifications
Weight16,000 to 27,000 kg (35,000 to 60,000 lb)
Length7.7 m (25 ft)
Width2.8 m (9 ft 2 in)
Height2.3 m (7 ft 7 in)
Crew2–3 (commander, driver, optional gunner)
8–12 passengers[3]

Main
armament
Up to 105 mm gun or twin 120 mm mortars in turret
EngineDI 12 Scania Diesel or DC 12 Scania Diesel
405 kW (543 hp) or 360 kW (480 hp)
Power/weight15.6 kW/t (21.2 PS/t) (max weight), 25.3 kW/t (34.4 PS/t) (min weight)
Suspension8×8 wheeled
independent hydropneumatic suspension
Operational
range
600–850 km (370–530 mi)
Speedover 100 km/h (60 mph) on land
up to 10 km/h (6.2 mph) in water

The Patria AMV (Armored Modular Vehicle) is an 8×8 multi-role military vehicle produced by the Finnish defence industry company Patria.

The main feature of the AMV is its modular design, which allows the incorporation of different turrets, weapons, sensors, or communications systems on the same carriage. Designs exist for different APC vehicles (armoured personnel carrier) and IFV versions (infantry fighting vehicle), communications versions, ambulances and different fire support versions, armed with large caliber mortar and gun systems. The vehicle has a very good level of mine protection and can withstand explosions of up to 10 kilograms (22 lb) TNT. The AMV has protection levels up to 30 mm APFSDS frontal arc. Another important feature is the very good mobility (combining speed, agility, and crew comfort) in rough terrain, enabled by the sophisticated but rugged hydropneumatic suspension adjusting each wheel individually.[4]

History[edit]

Croatian AMV, rear compartment (turret-less)

The AMV stems from an investigation, made by the Finnish Army HQ in 1995, on different armored vehicle concepts. In 1996, Patria Vehicles began to develop different concept vehicles, and found the 8×8 one to be most suitable as a replacement for the 6×6 Sisu Pasi. The Finnish Defence Forces (FDF) ordered an official concept study in 1999, which was ready by 2000. Patria continued to develop the vehicle and the first AMV prototype was ready for testing in November 2001. Two evaluation samples were ordered by the FDF in December 2001, and were delivered in 2003. Later the same year, the FDF ordered 24 AMOS-equipped Patria AMVs for delivery 2006–09. The FDF also said that they were looking to order some 100 units, equipped with remote-controlled weapon stations, later placing an order for 62. In December 2002, the Polish Defence Ministry placed an order for 690 vehicles, making Patria the leading manufacturer of IFV in the 15–27 tonne range in Europe. Subsequent deals were made all over Europe, as well as in South Africa and the United Arab Emirates—in many places being locally produced. In 2004, the AMV became the first 4th generation combat vehicle of its kind to enter serial production.[5]

The design was based on experience gained from building the Pasi and on customer feedback on that vehicle. It was entirely designed in 3D virtual environments before construction and subsequent successful testing of the prototype showed that it fulfilled all the expectations.[5]

The vehicle was initially designed in 6×6, 8×8 and 10×10 variants, but the 10×10 variant was later dropped.[6]

Versions[edit]

Finnish AMV with AMOS mortar turret
A South African Badger tank destroyer variant along with a 30mm x 173 cannon and a 60mm mortar that can be mounted in a modular combat turret.

Patria AMV (first version)[edit]

The AMV is offered in three main variants: a basic platform, a high roof platform and a heavy weapon platform.

  • The AMV basic platform includes APC, IFV, C2, ambulance, reconnaissance, mortar carrier, FCV, ATGM and MGS vehicles. The basic platform can also be provided as an extended Basic L platform with increased internal volume.
  • The AMV high roof platform features a larger and higher rear compartment, which allows more space-requiring work to be done inside the vehicle. The AMV SP is suitable for C3, large ambulance and workshop vehicles.
  • The AMV heavy weapon platform features a stronger structure, enabling the fitting of heavy weapon systems e.g. Patria AMOS 120 mm mortar turret or Mobile Gun System.

Patria AMVXP[edit]

In 2013 Patria launched new concept version of AMV. In June 2014 Patria announced the name for its next generation 8x8 armoured vehicles, Patria AMVXP, which stands for Extra Payload, Extra Performance and Extra Protection.[7]

In November 2017, Slovakia was the first country to receive this new variant of the AMV under a joint program with Finland in an effort to replace its Soviet-based BVP-1 and BVP-2 infantry fighting vehicles.[8]

National variants[edit]

  • The Slovenian variant "SKOV Svarun" uses a specially designed hydraulic door. The new door also features additional carrying space for ammunition, two RPG-type anti-tank weapons and a general purpose machinegun.[9]
  • The South African 'Badger' variant, equipped with an underfloor armour package from Land Mobility Technologies (LMT) and Denel Land Systems's Modular Combat Turret (MCT). Offered in Section, Fire Support, Mortar, Command and Missile sub-variants.[10]
  • The UAE variant is slightly lengthened (0.4 m longer) to allow fitting of the more spacious BMP-3 turret and the same number of soldiers as the original AMV model.[11][12]

United States - Havoc[edit]

Patria and Lockheed Martin agreed to cooperate in the competition for the US Marines MPC (Marine Personnel Carrier) program that was set to replace the LAV-25. The USMC planned to obtain 600 MPC vehicles.[13] Patria was to deliver the AMV 8×8 vehicle. Lockheed Martin Systems Integration was responsible for the MPC offer, as well as system integration, survivability systems, the US production line, and networking and logistics.[14] In August 2012, the Marines gave Lockheed a developmental contract for their vehicle, called the Havoc.[15]

For protection against mine attacks, the Havoc would have used a 'subframe' rather than a V-hull.[16] On 3 April 2013, the Havoc successfully completed amphibious testing as part of its evaluation for the MPC program.

The Marine Personnel Carrier was put on hold in June 2013,[17] restarted in February 2014,[18] and then restructured as Phase 1 of the Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) program,[19] which included the previous MPC competitor entries.[20]

During the summer of 2013, the Havoc successfully completed protection systems testing during a series of blast tests. The vehicle completed all threshold and objective protection system testing, with instrumentation indicating that no disabling injuries would have resulted to any of the three crew members and nine dismounted Marines. Lockheed also delivered a report demonstrating the high degree of commonality between the Havoc and other Marine Corps vehicles, aimed at reducing cost, training requirements, and logistics needs.[21]

The Lockheed Havoc AMV completed the Nevada Automotive Test Center's Butte Mountain Trail course in September 2014. Lockheed planned to offer the Havoc in the Marine Corps' ACV Phase 1 program, and give them 16 vehicles to test once a Request for Proposals (RFP) was released in early 2015.[22] However, in July 2015 partnership between Patria and Lockheed Martin came to an end, and Havoc was not offered to the Amphibious Combat Vehicle program.[23]

Service[edit]

Slovenian AMVs
South African Badger with a DLS MCT-30 turret

The Polish Army has ordered 690 vehicles in 2003, including 313 AMVs with the Italian Oto Melara 30 mm Hitfist-30P turret and 377 AMVs in various other configurations to be delivered between 2004 and 2013. Some of the Polish vehicles were deployed in Afghanistan. The Polish vehicles are known as KTO Rosomak ("wolverine") in Polish Army service. In 2013 the Polish army ordered 307 more vehicles, including 122 AMVs and 80 mortars, totaling 997 units making Poland the largest operator by a fair margin.

The Finnish Army has ordered 24 AMVs fitted with the AMOS mortar system and 62 AMVs fitted with Protector (RWS) remote weapon system for the .50 M2HB QCB heavy machine gun or the GMG grenade machine gun. The standard version is known as XA-360 in Finnish Army service, while the AMOS version is known as XA-361.

In June 2006, the Slovenian Ministry of Defence declared that the Patria AMV would be the new armoured fighting vehicle of the Slovenian Armed Forces. Patria will supply 135 vehicles, some equipped with the NEMO mortar, some with Elbit 30 mm remote controlled weapon station and the rest with Kongsberg Protector turrets. Allegations in the Finnish media that Patria used bribery to secure the Slovenian contract led to a scandal and a criminal investigation in Finland and may have contributed to the defeat of Prime Minister Janez Janša in the 2008 Slovenian parliamentary elections. Due to the financial crisis, the defence budget was cut several times. At first, the contract to supply 135 vehicles should have been amended to have less vehicles with better armament. Later on, the defence ministry suffered from even bigger financial cuts. In 2012, the Defence Minister announced the termination of the contract, by which time 30 vehicles had been received. More armored vehicles and higher calibre weapons are to be bought in the mid-term future.

In May 2007, the South African Denel Land Systems was awarded a contract to build an improved version of the AMV, with a high level of ballistic and mine protection for the South African National Defence Force. The AMV will replace South-African Ratels as part of the "Project Hoefyster" (Horseshoe). Five different versions are included: Command, Mortar, Missile, Section and Fire Support vehicles.[24] In November 2013, Denel Land Systems and Patria announced that they have signed an agreement regarding Patria AMV 8x8 armoured wheeled vehicle serial production and delivery to South Africa. The agreement includes 238 vehicles, out of which 5 pre-series vehicles have already been delivered during the development phase.[25]

In July 2007, the Croatian Ministry of Defence selected the Patria AMV as the new armoured fighting vehicle of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia in their first international tender in its history.[26] 84 AMVs will be supplied. Initially, the plan called for 84 8×8 vehicles and 42 6×6 vehicles. The Croatian Ministry of Defence has approved the purchase of 84 Patria AMV 8×8 vehicles. The 6×6 configuration idea was scrapped, and the remaining 42 vehicles were decided to be 8×8s. The purchase of the remaining 42 AMVs was made in December, 2008. Due to the financial crisis, the contract was slightly amended in April 2010. There was an initial plan of shelving the order by a half (64 vehicles were mentioned) but it was decided that the total of 126 units would remain on order. However, in order to somewhat decrease the cost of the deal, the most expensive variants like the NEMO or engineering units will probably be replaced by less costly APC variants. On the other hand, the production will be speeded up and all vehicles are to be delivered by the end of 2012.

The Republic of Macedonia government announced in 2006 that it would procure the same type as that which the Croatian military would choose after test trials in 2007—as this would be a less expensive than conducting trials of their own. The configuration of Patria vehicles that eventually won the competition will be similar to those in Slovenian service, but probably in smaller numbers. However, any contract has not been published.[26]

In January 2008, Patria announced that the United Arab Emirates armed forces had ordered the AMV, equipped with the BMP-3 turret. The number of vehicles is yet to be announced.

On 30 January 2008, it was announced that Patria has offered to deliver 30 first AMVs within four months of ordering, if the Czech Army chooses AMV as its next APC. The Czech army had earlier chosen the Austrian Steyr Pandur as their next APC, but the Czech government withdrew from the deal at the end of last year, citing Steyr's failure to fulfill the commitments ensuing from the contract.[27]

In August 2010, Patria sold 113 AMVs to Sweden in a deal worth 250 million Euros. The deal included an option for another 113 vehicles in the future.

Combat history[edit]

Polish version of Patria AMV known as KTO Rosomak type M1M in Afghanistan
War in Afghanistan (2001–2014)
  • The Polish Land Forces contingent, which is a part of the International Security Assistance Force, has been operating 35 (later raised to 50) KTO Rosomak vehicles (including 5 medevac) in Afghanistan since 2007. The APCs were equipped with additional steel-composite armor. In early 2008, a Polish Rosomak serving in Afghanistan (the version with upgraded armor) was attacked by Taliban rebels. The vehicle was hit three times with RPG-7 rockets but it managed to fire back and returned to base without any help required.[28] In June 2008, a Rosomak was attacked by Taliban and was hit in its frontal armor with an RPG. The armour was not penetrated. Rosomaks have also been attacked by mines and improvised explosive devices.[29][30] In 2009, the first soldier was reported killed inside a Rosomak after an IED exploded under the vehicle. Similar attacks occurred before, but without casualties.[31]
  • In October 2010, a platoon of Svarun vehicles was sent to Afghanistan to support the Slovenian OMLT.[32]
European Union mission in Chad (2008–09)
European Union Force Chad/CAR used 16 KTO Rosomak (including 2 medevac).[33]
Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen (2015-present)
United Arab Emirates Army used 8×8 Patria AMVs fitted with remotely operatred turrets in an offensive along the west coast of Yemen.[34]

Operators[edit]

Map of Patria AMV operators in blue

Current operators[edit]

 Croatia
126 units currently entering service, 84 ordered in 2007 and additional 42 in December 2008, first 4 vehicles delivered in December 2008. Due to a military budget cut, the order was slightly amended in April 2010, but the total number of 126 units was not changed. All vehicles are to be delivered by late 2012.[35][36]
 Finland
62 standard APCs equipped with Kongsberg turrets and 18 armoured wheeled mortar carriers equipped with the AMOS mortar system.
 Poland
997 APCs and amphibious AFVs. Designated KTO Rosomak (Kołowy Transporter Opancerzony Rosomak) /transl. wheeled armored personnel carrier "Wolverine"/ or XC-360P. Deliveries of the vehicle are to be completed by 2019. In 2013 order for 359 IFVs and 331 base vehicles was increased by 307 units—including 122 IFV with new turret.[37] In 2013 there were 570 vehicles in service[38] In January 2015, the Polish army ordered 200 additional vehicles.[39] This will bring the total up to 977 vehicles in 2019.
 Slovakia
Slovakia announced an order for 81 vehicles based on AMV XP variant. A prototype has been delivered as of November 2017.[40][41][8]
 Slovenia
Initial order of 135 AFVs, of which 12 will be equipped with NEMO mortars. Due to a military budget cut, a new contract for less vehicles is in evaluation process. Its Slovenian designation is SKOV 8×8 Svarun (Srednje kolesno oklepno vozilo (SKOV) 8×8 'Svarun' / transl.: Medium wheeled armored vehicle 8×8 "Svarun"). In September 2012, the deal was shrunk to encompass only the 30 vehicles that had already been delivered, due to economic and legal questions.[42]
 South Africa
238 units. Designated Badger.[43] There will be five versions: a standard infantry carrier, a command car, fire support variant, mortar carrier and tank hunter.[44]
Swedish Patria AMV
 Sweden
Sweden made an order for 113 vehicles, and had an option for the same number of vehicles,[45] but a Swedish court ordered the competition to be re-done.[46] On August 13, 2010 the new competition ended in the same result as the original competition with Sweden ordering 113 vehicles from Patria.[47] The first vehicles were delivered on March 5, 2013.[48]
 United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates Army ordered[49] an initial evaluation batch of 15 vehicles.[50] Some of these vehicles will be equipped with the Patria Nemo turret while others will be equipped with BMP-3 turrets and have therefore been slightly modified, including a somewhat longer hull.[51] In January 2016, the General Headquarters of the UAE armed forces ordered 40 Patria AMV hulls with the option of 50 more.[52][53] The vehicles were shipped in June 2016 from Patria's Polish production line.[54] The Patrias are used in Yemen in combat operations.[55]

Potential future operators[edit]

  • United Kingdom British Army — The Patria AMVXP is currently being considered as an option for the British Army’s new Mechanised Infantry Vehicle (MIV) requirement.[56]
  • Bulgaria Bulgarian Land Forces — The Patria AMV and more recently (as of 2017) Patria AMVXP is a strong contender for the order in the new Bulgarian project for a new type of wheeled IFV.[57] The project initially called for a total of 238 vehicles in different variants (of them 100 in combat variant, the rest in combat support (reconnaissance, combat engineer etc.) and combat service support variants (MedEvac etc.)). In the end of 2016 the Bulgarian Ministry of Defence re-examined the conditions and out of budget considerations reduced the number of combat vehicles to 90. Additionally the requirement that the combat, CS and CSS variants should be of one standard platform was dropped. The new baseline of the project calls for 90 combat vehicles and 108 supporting vehicles for a total cost of 1.22 billion BGN or about €600 million. RfI-letters have been sent to General Dynamics Land System – MOWAG (for the Piranha V and the Pandur II), NEXTER Group (for the VBCI), Patria Oy (for the Patria AMV and Patria AMVXP, both have been demonstrated in the country[58]), Rheinmetall Defence AG (for the Boxer), Textron (a joint offer together with Rheinmetall Defence AG for the Boxer in the combat role and Commando Select assembled in Bulgaria in the combat support and combat service support roles. Textron also offered its own 6x6 prototype in the combat role, but due to its still unproven status it is considered the weakest alternative), Iveco-Leonardo Defence System (for the B1 Centauro in the updated 120mm B2 version) and Krauss-Maffei Wegman GmbH (also for the Boxer). In the beginning of 2017 the defence minister in the Gerdzhikov caretaker government has decided, that RfI-letters should be sent to 7 additional companies, but of them only Otokar (for the Arma), FNSS (for the Pars) and WMZ (for the KTO Rosomak) were credible contenders. The forerunners in the competition as of the end of 2017 are the Piranha V, the Patria AMVXP and the Otokar Arma. Patria Group has expressed willingness to involve Bulgarian defence sector companies as subcontractors in the production not only of eventual Bulgarian vehicles, but also for export markets.[59][60]

Failed Bids[edit]

  • Australia Australian Army — BAE Systems Australia and Land 400 bid partner Patria were confirmed as one of two tenders selected to take part in the 12-month Risk Mitigation Activity for the Australian Army’s Land 400 Phase 2 combat reconnaissance vehicle program. The other tender was the German-Dutch BOXER IFV.[61] The German BOXER was announced as the winner on 13 March 2018.

Evaluation-only operators[edit]

Total: 1,906 vehicles ordered.[citation needed]

Museum exhibits[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Puolustusvoimat hankkii raivaamispanssareita". verkkouutiset.fi (in Finnish). Suomen Kansallisverkko Oy. 22 December 2004. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
  2. ^ Mac Dougall, David; Huuhtanen, Elias (17 September 2018). "Investigation: Finnish-made Patrias, some with Russian heavy weapons, deployed in Yemen battle zone". News Now Finland. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
  3. ^ Gerard O'Dwyer. "Patria Wins Swedish AMV Contract". Defense News. Retrieved 2009-06-26.
  4. ^ https://www.patria.fi/sites/default/files/file_attachments/patria_amv_xp_brochure_lowres.pdf
  5. ^ a b "Sotataloustietoutta VIII" (PDF). Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  6. ^ Panssariseminaari 2006[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ "Patria News: Patria AMV XP sets a new standard for the future armoured wheeled vehicles (2014-06-17). Retrieved: 2 June 2014". Patria Oy. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  8. ^ a b Fiorenza, Nicholas (21 November 2017). "Slovakia receives new version of AMV XP under joint IFV programme with Finland". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  9. ^ Photo of the Svarun vehicle with new door. "Slovenian Armed Forces"
  10. ^ Denel Land Systems promotional brochure (PDF). Jane's Information Group
  11. ^ "IHS Events, Webinars, Training and User Groups". Janes.com. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
  12. ^ "SOFEX 2010 - Galleries". Janes.com. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
  13. ^ "Patria vahvoilla Yhdysvaltain merijalkaväen ajoneuvokaupoissa. YLE Uutiset 18.10.2007". Yle Uutiset. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  14. ^ Patrian AMV tarjolla Yhdysvaltain merijalkaväelle. Seppälä, Jarmo: Tekniikka ja Talous 18.10.2007 Archived 2008-03-04 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ Personnel carrier development contracts awarded - Militarytimes.com, September 10, 2012
  16. ^ Wasserbly, Daniel. "Details emerge on competitors for the USMC's Marine Personnel Carrier." Janes, 28 September 2012.
  17. ^ Commitment to Swimming Vehicle Throws Off Marines’ Tight Modernization Schedule - Nationaldefensemagazine.org, October 2013
  18. ^ Marines Budget Scramble: Commandant Resurrects MPC, ACV In Limbo - Breakingdefense.com, 17 February 2014
  19. ^ Freedberg Jr., Sydney J. (2 April 2014). "A Sneak Peek At Marines' New Amphibious Combat Vehicle". breakingdefense.com. Breaking Media, Inc. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  20. ^ Marines upgrading, replacing amphibs under new strategy - Militarytimes.com, 24 September 2014
  21. ^ Havoc 8x8 Demonstrates High Levels of Crew Protection in Marine Corps' Blast Testing - Deagel.com, 24 September 2013
  22. ^ Lockheed Martin's Havoc 8x8 Armored Modular Vehicle successfully completed automotive tests - Armyrecognition.com, 24 September 2014
  23. ^ Lockheed Martin Ends Collaboration with Patria on Havoc & Will Present its Own Design for ACV - Armyrecognition.com, 11 July 2015
  24. ^ "Defense Aerospace: Denel Lands Biggest Contract In Its History". Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  25. ^ "Patria.fi: Denel and Patria announce an Agreement on Armoured Wheeled Vehicles to South Africa (14.11.2013)". Patria Oy. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  26. ^ a b Finci dobivaju posao za nabavu oklopnih vozila - 24 July 2007
  27. ^ Patria offers Czechs to supply first 30 APCs within four months - ČeskéNoviny.cz
  28. ^ Afghanistan: 14 lipca dotrą dodatkowe pancerze dla Rosomaków. Archived 2008-01-17 at the Wayback Machine.
  29. ^ www.eu.org: European armoured vehicles: current programmes: http://wyborcza.pl. Archived 2009-09-03 at the Wayback Machine.
  30. ^ "Dajcie nam rosomaki". Wyborcza.pl. 1999-10-15. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
  31. ^ To pierwszy żołnierz, który zginął w Rosomaku. (PL)
  32. ^ "Solemn line-up marking the departure of the 14th contingent to Afghanistan". Slovenskavojska.si. Archived from the original on 2012-07-24. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
  33. ^ Informacje nt. misji w Czadzie.
  34. ^ "Patria AMV 8x8 armored combat proven in Yemen with UAE army". 10 December 2017. Archived from the original on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  35. ^ Order for additional 126 vehicles possible after 2014. Id=2A3C8C5384384D33A7C4BA1F53061AC0&groupid=DE8140FCDD1C41ADA5CE28E1A5674A41&layout=2005_eng&tabletarget=data_1&pid=CF52E1D41C9B4E47BEBF84BA37461E71 Patria's press release August, 2007[dead link]
  36. ^ Patria's press release January, 2009[dead link]
  37. ^ Kolejne Rosomaki dla WP (in Polish)
  38. ^ Będą kolejne Rosomaki dla Sił Zbrojnych RP Archived 2013-07-16 at the Wayback Machine. (in Polish)
  39. ^ [1]
  40. ^ [2] Army recognition
  41. ^ Kominek, Jiri (15 November 2017). "Slovakia to procure Patria AMVs without tender". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  42. ^ [3] Turun Sanomat
  43. ^ Engineering News 1.6.2007
  44. ^ DefenceWeb: Denel orders Saab computers for Hoefyster, 26.6.2009
  45. ^ Patria press release 25.6.2009[permanent dead link]
  46. ^ www.fmv.se Press release[permanent dead link]
  47. ^ Swedish FMV press release[permanent dead link]
  48. ^ Sweden Receives First Batch of AMV 8×8 Wheeled Armored Vehicles - Deagel.com, March 5, 2013
  49. ^ Patria.fi: Patria’s AMV vehicle selected for United Arab Emirates (29.1.2008)[permanent dead link]
  50. ^ Artem Defence
  51. ^ Image of Patria AMV with BMP-3 turred at IDEX 2007
  52. ^ "UAE orders Patria AMVs | IHS Jane's 360". www.janes.com. Retrieved 2016-01-30.
  53. ^ United Arab Emirates has ordered Finnish-made Patria AMV 8x8 armoured vehicles - Armyrecognition.com, 28 January 2016
  54. ^ Rosomak APC For The UAE. Agreement Finalized. Improved Armour, No Amphibious Capabilities. defence24.com
  55. ^ https://www.armyrecognition.com/december_2017_global_defense_security_news_industry/patria_amv_8x8_armored_combat_proven_in_yemen_with_uae_army.html
  56. ^ [4]
  57. ^ SEENews (24 Nov 2017). "Finland's Patria Offers To Supply AMVs to Bulgarian Army".
  58. ^ Defence Aerospace (24 Nov 2017). "Patria Touts Amphibious Capabilities of AMV in Bulgaria".
  59. ^ "Patria Group Wants to Manufacture IFVs in Bulgaria".
  60. ^ Bloomberg TV (24 Nov 2017). "The Finnish Company Patria Will Cooperate With Bulgarian Firms".
  61. ^ "Boxer CRV and Patria AMV35 test Australia Land 400 80806173". Army Recognition. 8 June 2017. Archived from the original on 25 September 2017. Retrieved 2017-12-06.
  62. ^ "Lockheed Martin Introduces New ACV Candidate at Modern Day Marine Show". Army Recognition. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  63. ^ http://www.panssarimuseo.fi/index-kuvat/Museonkesa2011-7.pdf

External links[edit]