Patria Pasi

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Pasi (Sisu/Patria XA series)
A Norwegian XA-185
Type6×6 Amphibious armoured personnel carrier
Place of originFinland
Service history
In service1984–present
WarsMali War
Russo-Ukrainian War
Production history
ManufacturerSisu-Auto (1984 - 1997)
Patria (1997 - 2003)
Produced1984 - 2003
No. built1,300 (estimate)
Specifications (XA-180)
Mass13.5 tonnes (13.3 long tons; 14.9 short tons)
Length7.35 m (24.1 ft)
Width2.9 m (9 ft 6 in)
Height2.77 m (9 ft 1 in)
Crew2 (+16 passengers)

Armor6-12 mm
12.7 mm NSV or M2 browning machine gun
EngineXA-180: Valmet 611 DSBJA diesel
XA-200: Valmet 612 DWIBIC (EURO 2), 6 in-line cylinders, turbo-charged, intercooled diesel
XA-180: 236 hp (176 kW)
XA-200; 271 hp (202 kW) at 2100 rpm, max torque 1080 Nm at 1600 rpm
Power/weight17.48 hp/tonne
Suspensionparabolic leaf-springs with hydraulic shock absorbers
850 km
Maximum speed ~105 km/h on land
9 km/h in water (XA-180/185)

The Patria Pasi (earlier known as the Sisu Pasi) is a Finnish-made six-wheeled armoured personnel carrier (APC) originally designed for Finnish Defence Forces. The first variant was produced in 1983 and serial production began in 1984. It was designed to operate with ease of use, simple structure and low-cost maintenance. The basic appearance and configuration of the Pasi is similar to most other wheeled APCs. The XA-180 and XA-185 are fully amphibious while other variants are not.


In 1980, Sisu produced an XA-180 prototype for Finnish Army tests. It competed against two other prototypes, and was declared the winner of the trials in 1983. In December 1983, the Finnish Army ordered a first batch of fifty XA-180s. Nine were reserved for UN duties. The vehicle proved quite successful and more orders followed.

The vehicle's widely known nickname "Pasi", also a common given name of Finnish men, stems from the Finnish designation "panssari-Sisu" (English: armoured Sisu). The main superstructure is mainly manufactured from 6 to 12 mm of armoured steel. The bottom is mine-strengthened. The front windows are bullet-resistant and equipped with protective hatches. The vehicle has continuous six-wheel drive and good capabilities for off-road driving. It can take inclines up to a maximum of 60°.

The Pasi has no standard armament, but is equipped with a rotating turret structure for eventual installations of light/heavy machine guns or autocannons. It has 8 BMP style firing ports on the sides and rear. Therefore, passengers, usually a squad of infantry, can fire their weapons from the cover of the armor.

The Pasi is popular in peacekeeping missions due to its mobility, non-aggressive appearance, and good protection against mines and improvised explosive devices (IED). The vehicle offers a good combination of armament, comfort, mine protection, protection against shrapnel and small calibre fire, road speed, short time of learning how to drive, and an acceptable terrain mobility. It offers more internal space compared to other similar APCs like the Fuchs or the BTR-80.

The early variants of the Pasi (such as the XA-180 and XA-185) were manufactured by Sisu Auto until 1997, when its defense subsidiary Sisu Defence Oy was acquired by Patria.[1] The later variants (such as the XA-202 and XA-203) were then manufactured by Patria until 2003, when the then new Patria AMV entered serial production.[2] By then, over 1,300 Pasis had been produced.

Operational service[edit]

The Pasi has seen service in several conflict areas, including Afghanistan, Bosnia, Croatia, Eritrea, Golan Heights, Iraq, Kosovo, Lebanon, Macedonia, Namibia, Liberia, Somalia and Chad.

The Pasi has been used by the Finnish police in sieges and SWAT operations.

In 2018, Estonia deployed five XA-188s to Mali as part of Estonia's contribution to Operation Barkhane.[3]

In 2022, Finland reportedly donated an unknown number of XA-180/185s to Ukraine as part of a military and humanitarian aid package following the escalations of the ongoing Russo-Ukrainian War.[4] At least seven have been lost in combat.[5]


Sisu XA-180
Original six-wheeler, carries crew of 2 and 16 troops. Empty weight ca. 12 tonnes.
Sisu XA-185
Upgraded version, carries crew of 2 and 18 troops. Has a more powerful engine and improved power transmission. Used as an ambulance in the Norwegian Army.
Patria XA-186
Upgraded armour. Armoured and equipped with machine-assisted gun turret (.50 BMG). Cannot swim because of the heavy armour. Empty weight ca 19 tonnes. Engine and transmission same as XA-185.
Patria XA-188
Used by the Royal Netherlands Army.[6]
Patria XA-202/203
The 200 series looks a little different from older variants due to increased armour. It lacks amphibious capabilities but can wade through water that is up to 1.5 m deep. The improved armour protects the passengers against up to 14.5 mm small arms fire. It is equipped with modern optical aids like periscopes and night vision. The armor upgrade was initiated after the realisation that the previous armor was inadequate, even modern armor-piercing 7.62 mm ammunition could pierce the older XA-180 and XA-185 models in certain areas. The XA-202 was originally developed for Communications and Command. The XA-203 variant was made as a temporary replacement for the earliest XA-185s, and is intended to be replaced by Patria AMVs in Finnish service.

In addition to standard variants, there are numerous sub-versions for specific missions, e.g. ambulance, command & communications, electronic warfare, air defence, radar surveillance, firefighting and anti-tank variants among others.


A map of Pasi operators in blue, with former operators in red
An Estonian XA-180 in Afghanistan
A Finnish XA-202
A Swedish XA-203 of South Scanian Regiment (P 7), Scania, Sweden
A Dutch XA-188 in Afghanistan

There are five original customers of the Pasi: Estonia, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden, while a large number have been leased to other military forces of the world.

Current operators[edit]

Also the following versions exist:

    • VIPA (ViestiPasi, communication vehicle using the YVI-2, Yhtymän Viestijärjestelmä, "brigade and corps level communication system")
        • ELSO (ELektroninen SOdankäynti, ELINT, electronic warfare) sub-version of VIPA.
      • EPA (EsikuntaPAsi, brigade command post vehicle)
      • KOPA (KOmentoPAsi, battalion command post vehicle)
      • SUTI (SUojeluTIedustelu), NBC reconnaissance vehicle
      • TUPA (TUlenjohtoPAsi, fire observer and artillery command post vehicle)
    • XA-203, the last generation APC replacing the oldest vehicles of the XA-185 series, except for regular APCs and ambulances,
      • Ambulance
    • Units used by the Finnish police are on loan from the Finnish military to police special unit and used in extreme situations.
  •  Ghana: In UN service.
  •  Norway: Norwegian Armed Forces. 75 vehicles.
    • XA-185, in service with several units primarily in the ambulance configuration.
    • XA-186, in service with the HMKG and Basesett 1 located at Ørland Main Air Station. In 1994–1996, 22 wagons of the XA-186 model were manufactured in Norway. Of these, 18 were crew cars, two control cars, one ambulance and one repair vehicle. Norway is the only operator of the XA-186 worldwide.[9]
    • XA-203N, formerly in service with the 2nd Battalion. 30 vehicles converted to MRSP (ambulance configuration) after 2017.
  •  Russia: Russian Armed Forces. 1 captured from Ukrainian Army [10]
  •  Sweden: Swedish Army. ~200 vehicles in total.
    • Pansarterrängbil XA-180/XA-185, XA-180(/185) armed with 12,7x99mm HMG. 70 vehicles delivered from 1988, mainly in UN service.[11]
    • Pansarterrängbil 202, XA-202S as command and control vehicles, Swedish special variant[citation needed]
    • Pansarterrängbil 203A, XA-203 equipped with the turret from Pbv 302 APC's, armed with a 20 mm gun, in 7 configurations like ambulance (unarmed), AT-missile, CBRN-detection, field repairs and so forth.[12]
    • Pansarterrängbil 203B, the turret is replaced with the weapon-station Protector Nordic.
  •  Ukraine: Ukrainian Army. Unknown number of vehicles donated during the Russo-Ukrainian war.[13][14] Due to ongoing war between Russia and Ukraine, 5 units were destroyed, 1 was damaged and abandoned and one was captured by Russian forces.[15]
  •  UN: A large number of Sisu XA-180 vehicles are used by UNIFIL forces in southern Lebanon.

Former operators[edit]

  •  Denmark: The Danish Army leased eleven XA-185s, including ambulance versions, for use with UN troops, 4 were used in Bosnia, 4 in Kosovo, 3 for training purpose in Denmark.[16][17]
  •  Ireland: The Irish Army had two XA-180s, formerly as training vehicles for soldiers preparing for service in South Lebanon. Retired in 2012.
  •  Netherlands: The Dutch Army and Netherlands Marine Corps purchased 90 XA-188s, 81 of which were later sold to Estonia.
    • XA-188 GVV (early 200-series variant) Used by army and marines, equipped with GPS and satcom, armament MG or .50cal
    • XA-188 GWT Ambulance


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Archived 16 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine Profile of the XA-188
  2. ^ "Agility on the street and off road". Patria. 17 June 2015. Production of the six-wheeled Pasi was discontinued in 2003 when the new 8x8 Patria AMV entered serial production, but the faithful Pasi will continue to serve for decades to come.
  3. ^ "Estonian infantry unit to deploy to Mali in August". 27 July 2018.
  4. ^ "Finnish made armorued vehicles spotted in Ukraine". 28 September 2022.
  5. ^ "Attack on Europe: Documenting Ukrainian Equipment Losses During the 2022 Russian Invasion of Ukraine".
  6. ^ Profile of the XA-188
  7. ^ "Die Fahrzeuge der UNDOF". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  8. ^ "Press Gets Glimpse of New Armored Personnel Carriers". 24 November 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  9. ^ "Mye gjenbruk i Gardens oppgraderte ledelsesvogner". 16 May 2023.
  10. ^ "Attack on Europe: Documenting Ukrainian Equipment Losses During the 2022 Russian Invasion of Ukraine".
  11. ^ "Pansarterrängbil 180 (Patgb180) - Sisu". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  12. ^ "Pansarterrängbil 203 (Patgb203) - Patria". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  13. ^ @UAWeapons (15 September 2022). "#Ukraine: Another previously unseen donation to the Ukrainian Army has appeared- several Sisu XA-180/185 amphibious…" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  14. ^ Oryx. "Answering The Call: Heavy Weaponry Supplied To Ukraine". Oryx. Retrieved 17 September 2022.
  15. ^ "Attack on Europe: Documenting Ukrainian Equipment Losses During the 2022 Russian Invasion of Ukraine".
  16. ^ "SIPRI Arms Transfers Database". Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  17. ^ "News on Army vehicle procurements - Danish Army Vehicles Homepage". Retrieved 7 July 2023.

External links[edit]