Patty Hearst

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Patty Hearst
PattyHearstmug.jpg
Hearst in 1975
Born Patricia Campbell Hearst
(1954-02-20) February 20, 1954 (age 64)
San Francisco, California, U.S.
Other names Patty Hearst
Patricia Campbell Hearst Shaw
Tania
Alma mater University of California, Berkeley
Occupation Author, actress
Known for Being kidnapped and indoctrinated by the Symbionese Liberation Army
Spouse(s)
Bernard Lee Shaw
(m. 1979; d. 2013)
Children 2, including Lydia Hearst
Parent(s)

Patricia Campbell Hearst (born February 20, 1954) is the granddaughter of American publishing magnate William Randolph Hearst, who became internationally known for events following her 1974 kidnapping and physical violation by a domestic American terrorist group known as the Symbionese Liberation Army. Hearst was found nineteen months after being abducted, by which time she was a fugitive wanted for serious crimes. She was held in custody, despite speculation that her family's resources would prevent her from spending time in jail. At her trial, the prosecution suggested that she had joined the Symbionese Liberation Army of her own volition. Hearst said she had been raped and threatened with death. She was found guilty of bank robbery. Hearst's sentence was commuted by President Jimmy Carter and she was later pardoned by President Bill Clinton.

Background[edit]

Family[edit]

Hearst's grandfather, William Randolph Hearst, created the largest newspaper, magazine, newsreel and movie business in the world. Her great-grandmother was philanthropist Phoebe Hearst. The family was associated with immense political influence and anti-Communism going back to before World War II.[1]

Early life[edit]

Hearst was born in San Francisco, California,[a] the third of five daughters of Randolph Apperson Hearst and Catherine Wood Campbell. She grew up primarily in Hillsborough. She attended Crystal Springs School for Girls in Hillsborough and the Santa Catalina School in Monterey. Patty attended Menlo College in Atherton, California prior to transferring to the University of California, Berkeley. Despite her wealthy grandfather, Patty Hearst's father was only one of a number of heirs, and did not have control of the Hearst interests. Her parents did not consider it necessary to take any measures for her personal security. At the time of her abduction, she was a sophomore at the University of California, Berkeley, studying art history, and living with her fiancé, Steven Weed.[4]

Kidnapping[edit]

On February 4, 1974, 19-year-old Hearst was kidnapped from her Berkeley, California, apartment. She was beaten and lost consciousness during the abduction. Shots were fired from a machine gun during the incident. An urban guerrilla group called the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) claimed responsibility for the abduction.[5]

SLA[edit]

The SLA was formed through contacts made by a study group, coordinated by a University of California, Berkeley professor. Its purpose was the tutelage of black inmates, and over time the ethos became increasingly radicalized. Eventually, black convicts came to be viewed as heroic political prisoners, victimized by a racist American society.[6]

On March 5, 1973, Donald DeFreeze escaped from prison. Radical penal activists and future SLA members Russell Little and William Wolfe took DeFreeze to Patricia Soltysik's house.[7] The SLA was led by DeFreeze, who, after a prison acquaintance named Wheeler left, was the only African American in the group. By the time the group became active, most of the members of the tiny group were women, some of whom have, like Soltysik and her roommate Nancy Ling Perry, been described as in lesbian relationships. The members included William and Emily Harris and Angela Atwood.

DeFreeze was suspected by many of being a government provocateur, but his race and prison time gave him unquestioned authority in the SLA. He also had sexual dominion over women in the group.[8][9] They acquired resources by robbing homes in the Bay Area. The first proposed operation, assassinating the head of the state penitentiaries, was cancelled because of possible repercussions for inmates; instead, Marcus Foster, a black educator regarded by the SLA as a fascist who had brought police onto school campuses, was targeted and killed.

DeFreeze's estimation of the military strength of the then dozen-strong SLA group was hyperbolic, and he gave himself a concomitantly grandiose title of 'field marshal'. Soltysik is believed to have created much of the SLA ideological material, which stated the organization was opposed to "racism, sexism, agism [sic], fascism, individualism, competitiveness, possessiveness and all other institutions that have made or sustained capitalism".[7]

Motives[edit]

Hearst's kidnapping was partly opportunistic as she lived close to the SLA hideout. According to testimony, the main intention was to leverage the Hearst family's political influence to free two SLA members arrested for the killing of Oakland's first black superintendent, Marcus Foster. Faced with the failure to free the imprisoned men, the SLA demanded that the captive's family distribute $70 worth of food to every needy Californian – an operation that would cost an estimated $400 million. In response, Hearst's father took out a loan and arranged the immediate donation of $2 million worth of food to the poor of the Bay Area. The distribution descended into chaos and the SLA refused to release Hearst.[7]

Hearst's account[edit]

According to Hearst's later testimony, she was in a closet blindfolded with her hands tied for a week, during which time DeFreeze repeatedly threatened her with death.[10] She was let out for meals and, blindfolded, began to join in the political discussions; she was given a flashlight and SLA political tracts to learn. Hearst was confined in the closet for weeks, after which she says, "DeFreeze told me that the war council had decided or was thinking about killing me or me staying with them, and that I better start thinking about that as a possibility." Hearst said "I accommodated my thoughts to coincide with theirs." Upon being asked for her decision, Hearst said she wanted to stay and fight with the SLA, and the blindfold was removed, allowing her to see her captors for the first time. After this she was given lessons on her duties, especially weapons drills, every day. Angela Atwood told Hearst that the others thought she should know what sexual freedom was like in the unit; she was then raped by William "Willie" Wolfe, and later by DeFreeze.[10][11][12][13]

Announcement[edit]

On April 3, 1974, two months after she was abducted, Hearst announced on an audiotape that she had joined the SLA and assumed the name "Tania"[14] (inspired by the nom de guerre of Haydée Tamara Bunke Bider, Che Guevara's comrade).[15][16]

Criminal activity as avowed SLA member[edit]

Bank robbery[edit]

Hearst yelling commands at bank customers[17]

On April 15, 1974, she was recorded on surveillance video wielding an M1 carbine while robbing the Sunset District branch of the Hibernia Bank at 1450 Noriega Street in San Francisco.[5] Hearst announced herself under her pseudonym of Tania.[18][19][20] Two men who entered the bank while the robbery was occurring were shot and wounded.[18][19][20] According to later testimony at her trial, a witness thought Hearst had been several paces behind the others when running to the getaway car.[18][19][20]

Within days, United States Attorney General William B. Saxbe said Hearst was a "common criminal" and "not a reluctant participant" in the bank robbery. James L. Browning Jr. said that all participation in the robbery may have been voluntary, contradicting an earlier comment of his in which he said that Hearst may have been coerced into taking part. The FBI agent heading the investigation had said SLA members were photographed pointing guns at Hearst during the robbery.[21] A grand jury indicted her for the robbery in June 1974.[22][23]

Rescue of Harris[edit]

On May 16, 1974, a store manager at Mel's Sporting Goods in Inglewood, California, observed a minor spur-of-the-moment theft by William Harris who had been shopping with Emily Harris, while Hearst waited across the road in a van. Accompanied by a female employee, the manager followed Harris out and confronted him. During the ensuing scuffle one of Harris' wrists was restrained, and his pistol fell out of his waistband.[24][25] Hearst, who had been taught to use guns by her father, discharged the entire magazine of an automatic carbine into the overhead storefront, causing the manager to dive behind a lightpost.[26][27] When he tried to shoot back with the pistol, Hearst, now firing single shots with another weapon, brought her fire closer, blasting fragments around him.[25][28][29]

Fugitive[edit]

Escaping from the area, Hearst and the Harrises hijacked two cars, abducting the owners. One, a young man, found Hearst so personable that he was reluctant to report the incident. At the trial he testified to her having discussed the effectiveness of cyanide-tipped bullets, and repeatedly asking if he was okay.[30] Police had surrounded their main base by the time they made their way back and on May 17, 1974, the six SLA members inside died in a gunfight. It was at first thought that Hearst had also perished. Subsequently her father publicly worried that she might be killed in revenge; to allay his fears, the abduction victim gave police a more complete account and a warrant was issued for Hearst's arrest for several felonies, including two counts of kidnapping.[13]

According to one account, Hearst and the Harrises (now the only survivors of the SLA unit that abducted her) bought a car blocks away while the siege was going on, but it broke down when they stopped in an African-American area, leaving them with a total of $50. They walked a few hundred yards from the car and hid in a crawlspace under a residential building. When a late night party started in the room above, Hearst readied her weapon saying "the pigs" were closing in on them; in whispers, the Harrises begged her to calm down. They spent the next two weeks in San Francisco flophouses disguised as derelicts.

With a few dollars left, Emily Harris was sent to a Berkeley rally called to commemorate the deaths of Angela Atwood and other founding members of the SLA who'd perished during the police siege. Harris recognised Atwood's acquaintance Kathy Soliah among the radicals, whom she'd known from civil rights pressure groups as well as a time they'd quit a waitressing job in protest of uniforms they considered demeaning. Soliah introduced the three fugitives to Jack Scott, a radical athletics coach who had been asking for an interview with the SLA. Scott agreed to provide help and money.[31] During a car ride to a rural hideout, Scott claimed Hearst was incredulous when an offer to take her "anywhere" was made. According to Scott's account, which Hearst later disputed, she had said "I want to go where my friends are going".[31] Scott was never charged for facilitating a revival of the SLA that eventually resulted in murder.[citation needed]

Involvement in later SLA crimes[edit]

Hearst helped make improvised explosive devices, one of which failed to detonate, in two unsuccessful attempts to kill policemen during August 1975.[32][33][34] Marked money found in the apartment when she was arrested linked Hearst to the SLA armed robbery of Crocker National Bank in Carmichael, California. She was the getaway car driver for the robbery in which Myrna Opsahl, who was at the bank making a deposit, was shot dead by a masked Emily Harris, thereby creating a potential for felony murder charges against Hearst, and making her a possible witness against Harris for a capital offense.[32][35][36]

Legal consequences[edit]

On September 18, 1975, Hearst was arrested in a San Francisco apartment with Wendy Yoshimura, another SLA member, by San Francisco Police Inspector Timothy F. Casey and FBI Special Agent Thomas J. Padden.[5][37][38] While being booked into jail, she listed her occupation as "Urban Guerilla" and asked her attorney to relay the following message: "Tell everybody that I'm smiling, that I feel free and strong and I send my greetings and love to all the sisters and brothers out there."[39][40]

Brainwashing claims[edit]

At the time of her arrest, Patty Hearst weighed only 87 pounds (40 kg) and was described by Dr. Margaret Singer in October 1975 as "a low-IQ, low-affect zombie".[41] Shortly after her arrest, there were some clear signs of trauma: her IQ was measured as 112, whereas it had previously been 130; there were huge gaps in her memory regarding her pre-Tania life; she was smoking heavily; she had nightmares.[42] Without a mental illness or defect, a person was held fully responsible for any criminal action not done under duress, defined as a clear and present threat of death or serious injury.[43][44] Securing an acquittal on the basis of brainwashing would be completely unprecedented.[45][46]

Louis Jolyon West was appointed by the court in his capacity as a brainwashing expert and worked without fee. After the trial, he wrote a newspaper article asking President Carter to release her from prison.[47]

Hearst reported "I spent fifteen hours going over my SLA experiences with Robert Jay Lifton of Yale University. Lifton, author of several books on coercive persuasion and thought reform, ... pronounced me a 'classic case' which met all the psychological criteria of a coerced prisoner of war. ... If I had reacted differently, that would have been suspect, he said."[48]

After some weeks Hearst repudiated her SLA allegiance.[12][49]

Her first lawyer, Terence Hallinan, had advised Hearst not to talk to anyone, including psychiatrists. He advocated a defense of involuntary intoxication: that the SLA had given her drugs that affected her judgment and recollection.[8][13][45][50] Her new lawyer, F. Lee Bailey, asserted a defense of coercion or duress affecting intent at the time of the offense.[51]—this was similar to the brainwashing-type excuse that Hallinan had warned was not a defense in law. Hearst gave long interviews to various psychiatrists.[43]

Trial[edit]

Hearst alone was arraigned for the Hibernia Bank robbery; the trial commenced on January 15, 1976. Judge Oliver Jesse Carter, who was a professional acquaintance of a junior member of the prosecution team, ruled Hearst's taped and written statements after the bank robbery while she was a fugitive with the SLA members were voluntary. He did not allow expert testimony that stylistic analysis indicated the 'Tania' statements and writing were not wholly composed by Hearst, and permitted the prosecution to introduce statements and actions of Hearst long after the Hibernia robbery as evidence of her state of mind at the time of the robbery. Carter allowed into evidence a recording made by jail authorities of a friend's jail visit with Hearst in which she used profanities and spoke of her radical and feminist beliefs, but did not allow tapes of the interviews of Hearst by psychiatrist Louis Jolyon West to be heard by the jury. Judge Carter appeared to be 'resting his eyes' during testimony favorable to the defense by West and others.[43][52]

According to Hearst's testimony, her captors had demanded she appear enthusiastic during the robbery and warned she would pay with her life for any mistake.[53] Her defense lawyer F. Lee Bailey provided photographs showing that SLA members including Camilla Hall had pointed guns at Hearst during the robbery.[53]

Testifying for the prosecution, Dr. Harry Kozol said Hearst had been "a rebel in search of a cause" and her participation in the robbery had been "an act of free will."[54][55] Prosecutor James L. Browning Jr. asked the other psychiatrist testifying for the prosecution, Dr. Joel Fort, if Hearst was in fear of death or great bodily injury during the robbery, to which he answered "No" as Bailey angrily objected.[56] Fort assessed Hearst as amoral, and said she had voluntarily had sex with Wolfe and DeFreeze, an accusation which Hearst denied both in court and outside.[43][57][58] Prosecutor Browning tried to show writings by Hearst indicated her testimony had misrepresented her interactions with Wolfe. She said she had been writing the SLA version of events, and had been punched in the face by William Harris when she refused to be more effusive about what she regarded as sexual abuse by Wolfe. Judge Carter allowed testimony from the prosecution psychiatrists about Hearst's early sexual experiences, though these had occurred years before her kidnapping and the bank robbery.[8][59]

In court Hearst made a poor impression and appeared lethargic; according to an Associated Press report this was attributable to drugs she was given by jail doctors.[8] Bailey was heavily criticized for his decision to put Hearst on the stand, then having her decline to answer questions in the presence of the jury. According to Alan Dershowitz, Bailey was wrong-footed by the judge appearing to indicate she would have Fifth Amendment privilege (the jury would not be present, or be instructed not to draw inferences) on matters subsequent to the Hibernian bank charges that she was being tried on, but then changing his mind.[43][60][61]

After a few months Hearst provided information, not under oath (sworn testimony could have been used to convict her) of SLA activities to the authorities. A bomb exploded at Hearst Castle in February.[62] After Hearst testified that Wolfe had raped her, Emily Harris gave a magazine interview from jail alleging Hearst retaining a trinket given to her by Wolfe was an indication that she had been in a romantic relationship with him. Hearst said she had kept the stone carving because it seemed to be a pre Columbian artifact of archeological significance. Harris's interpretation was used by the prosecutor James L. Browning Jr., and some jurors later said they regarded the carving, which Browning waved in front of them, as powerful evidence that Hearst was lying.[8][63]

In a closing prosecution statement that hardly made mention of Hearst having been kidnapped, prosecutor Browning suggested Hearst had taken part in the bank robbery without coercion.[64] Browning also suggested to the jury that the female SLA members, being into feminism, would not have allowed Hearst to be raped.[64] He said that Hearst having kept an Olmec carving given to her by Wolfe showed that she had lied about being subjected to rape by him.[43][64]

Bailey's closing defense statement was "But simple application of the rules, I think, will yield one decent result, and, that is, there is not anything close to proof beyond a reasonable doubt that Patty Hearst wanted to be a bank robber. What you know, and you know in your hearts to be true is beyond dispute. There was talk about her dying, and she wanted to survive."[57]

Conviction and sentencing[edit]

DeFreeze, Soltysik and Hearst (at right) during the bank robbery for which Hearst was tried.

On March 20, 1976, Hearst was convicted of bank robbery and using a firearm during the commission of a felony. She was given the maximum sentence possible of 35 years' imprisonment pending a reduction at final sentence hearing, which Carter declined to specify.[65]

Because Judge Carter had died, William Horsley Orrick Jr. decided on Hearst's sentence. He gave her seven years imprisonment, commenting that "rebellious young people who, for whatever reason become revolutionaries, and voluntarily commit criminal acts will be punished".[66]

Prison life[edit]

Hearst suffered a collapsed lung in prison (the beginning of a series of medical problems) and underwent emergency surgery, which prevented her from appearing to testify against the Harrises on eleven state charges including robbery, kidnapping, and assault; she was also arraigned for those charges.[67] Hearst, who was being held in solitary confinement for security reasons, was granted bail for an appeal in November 1976, on condition she was protected on bond. Dozens of bodyguards were hired by her father.[68]

Saying he considered that Hearst's actions had not been voluntary, Superior Court judge Talbot Callister gave her probation on the sporting goods store charge when she pleaded no contest.[66] California Attorney General Evelle J. Younger said if there was a double standard for the wealthy it was the opposite of what was generally believed, and though Hearst had no legal brainwashing defense there was a good deal of equity favoring her in the essential point that everything started with her kidnapping.[69]

Hearst's bail was revoked in May 1978 when appeals failed and the Supreme Court declined to hear her case.[65][66] The prison took no special security measures for Hearst's safety until she found a dead rat on her bunk the day William and Emily Harris were arraigned for her abduction. The Harrises were convicted on a simple kidnapping charge (as opposed to the more serious kidnapping for ransom or kidnapping with bodily injury); they were released after serving a total eight years each. Although there were some articles in legal journals about the issues in the case, the definition of duress in law remained unchanged.[45]

In the weeks before he was murdered in Jonestown, Guyana, Representative Leo Ryan was collecting signatures for Hearst's release,[70] mentioning his own Synanon mass death threats, comparisons to Manson, and questions of the Hearst case. Actor John Wayne, speaking after the Jonestown cult deaths, said it was odd that people had accepted the fact that Jim Jones had brainwashed 900 human beings into mass suicide, but would not accept that a group like the Symbionese Liberation Army could have brainwashed a kidnapped teenage girl.[65][71]

Commutation, release, and pardon[edit]

President Jimmy Carter's commutation of her federal sentence to the 22 months served freed Hearst eight months before she would have had a parole hearing. The 1979 release was under stringent conditions and she remained on probation for the state sentence on the sporting goods store plea.[72] President Ronald Reagan reportedly gave serious consideration to pardoning Hearst. She recovered full rights when President Bill Clinton granted her a pardon on January 20, 2001, his last day in office.[8][65][73][74]

Life after release[edit]

Two months after her release from prison, Hearst wed Bernard Lee Shaw (1945–2013),[75] a policeman whom she had met when he was part of a dozens-strong private security detail protecting her on bail. The marriage lasted until his death in 2013. They had two children, Gillian and Lydia Hearst-Shaw.[76][77] Hearst became prominent on the East Coast society and charitable fundraising scene, and was particularly involved with a foundation helping children suffering from AIDS.[78]

Media and other activities[edit]

Her memoir, titled Every Secret Thing, was published in 1981. In contradiction of assertions that she had been given immunity on the Crocker robbery, the book caused authorities to consider bringing a new prosecution against her.[79] In a 2009 interview for an NBC program on the case, she described the prosecutor's suggestions that she had been in a consensual relationship with Wolfe as an insult to rape victims and "outrageous".[80]

Dissatisfied with other documentaries made on the subject, she produced a special for the Travel Channel titled Secrets of San Simeon with Patricia Hearst, in which she took viewers inside her grandfather's mansion Hearst Castle, providing unprecedented access to the property.

Hearst has appeared in feature films for director John Waters, who cast her in Cry-Baby, Serial Mom, Pecker, A Dirty Shame, and Cecil B. DeMented. With Cordelia Frances Biddle, Hearst collaborated on the writing of a novel titled Murder at San Simeon (Scribner, 1996), based upon the death of Thomas H. Ince on her grandfather's yacht.[78]

Hearst also appeared in the episode "Lord of the Pi's" in season 3 of Veronica Mars. The character, heiress of a fictionalized Hearst family, was loosely based on aspects of her real life.

Hearst and her dogs have participated in dog shows,[81] and on February 16, 2015, her Shih Tzu, Rocket, won the "Toy" category at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show at Madison Square Garden.[82] At the 2017 show, Hearst's French bulldog, Tuggy, won best of breed, and Rubi won best of opposite sex.[83]

American composer Anthony David wrote TANIA, an opera based on the kidnapping of Patty Hearst with a libretto by Michael John LaChiusa which premiered at the American Music Theater Festival in 1992.

Films about Patty Hearst's SLA period[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The California Birth Index[2] corroborates Hearst's birthplace as San Francisco County; her birthplace is cited as San Francisco in Women in World History (2000), among other publications.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pizzitola, Louis (2002). Hearst Over Hollywood: Power, Passion, and Propaganda in the Movies. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11646-2. p. 333–338
  2. ^ "The Birth of Patricia Campbell Hearts". The California Birth Index. California Vital Statistics. Retrieved April 19, 2018. 
  3. ^ Commire, Anne; Klezmer, Deborah (2000). Women in World History. 7. Yorkin Publications. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-787-64066-8. 
  4. ^ "Patty Hearst Profile". CNN. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c "Patty Hearst Kidnapping". FBI.gov. Retrieved April 15, 2014. 
  6. ^ PBS American Experience The Rise and Fall of the Symbionese Liberation Army Archived October 10, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ a b c Patrick Mondout. "SLA Chronology". Archived from the original on April 20, 2008. Retrieved January 21, 2007. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Patty Hearst and the Twinkie Murders: A Tale of Two Trials by Paul Krassner ISBN 9781629630380
  9. ^ Season of the Witch: Enchantment, Terror, and Deliverance in the City of Love, David Talbot, p174-175
  10. ^ a b Selected Trial Transcript Excerpts in the Patty Hearst Trial, Excerpt of Cross-Examination of Defendant, Patty Hearst
  11. ^ Bangor Daily News – Feb 18, 1976, (AP) San Francisco. Patty Hearst describes closet rape by captors
  12. ^ a b "Interview with Patty Hearst – Transcript". Larry King Live. CNN. January 22, 2002. 
  13. ^ a b c NBC news Documentary
  14. ^ "Timeline: Guerrilla: The Taking of Patty Hearst". American Experience. August 8, 2006. 
  15. ^ "Cuba honors the remains of 10 Guevara comrades" JOSE LUIS MAGANA. Houston Chronicle. Houston, Tex.: December 31, 1998. pg. 24
  16. ^ Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine: Stockholm Syndrome, Gale, 2011 
  17. ^ Lucas, Dean (May 14, 2013). "Patty Hearst". Famous Pictures Magazine. Retrieved January 21, 2016. 
  18. ^ a b c "1975 Year in Review: Patty Hearst Jailed". Archived from the original on October 9, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-26. . United Press International. 1975
  19. ^ a b c "Testimony Expected from Miss Hearst". The Fort Scott Tribune. San Francisco: AP. February 7, 1976. 
  20. ^ a b c archives.chicagotribune.com, Chicargo Tribune 16 Apr 1974, Patricia Hearst identified in photos of bank robbery
  21. ^ Wilmington Morning Star, April 18, 1974, San Francisco (UPI) Patricia Hearst Called Common criminal
  22. ^ Sarasota Herald Tribune 7 June 1974 Patty Hearst is Indicted for Bank Robbery
  23. ^ Chicago Tribune June 7, 1974 San Francisco (AP) Indict Patty on robbery
  24. ^ "City of Inglewood 100th Anniversary 1908-2008". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved July 18, 2017. 
  25. ^ a b Los Angeles Times, January 22, 1989. SEBASTIAN ROTELLA Officer who investigated Patty Hearst's 1974 shoot-out in Inglewood says the incident shouldn't be 'erased from history.'
  26. ^ "Fugitive Patty Hearst may face intent-to-kill charges (May 22, 1974)". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved July 18, 2017. 
  27. ^ Los Angeles (AP) Spokane Daily Chronicle - May 10, 1977 Victim is "Stunned" by Patty's Probation.
  28. ^ "City of Inglewood 100th Anniversary 1908-2008" (PDF). cityofinglewood.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 26, 2014. Retrieved July 18, 2017. 
  29. ^ Chicago Tribune May 22, 1974 Fugitive Patty Hearst May Face Intent To Kill Charges
  30. ^ Famous Trials by Douglas O. Linder (2014), UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI-KANSAS CITY (UMKC) SCHOOL OF LAW Testimony of Thomas Matthews in the Patty Hearst Trial
  31. ^ a b PBS American Experience retrieved 26/12/14 Guerrila
  32. ^ a b Mail Online 26 May 2013, Left-wing radical who helped kidnap Patti Hearst and spent decades on the run posing as housewife breaks her silence to reveal she is now a grandmother
  33. ^ The Last Revolutionary: Sara Jane Olson Speaks, Page 3 by Greg Goldin, LA Weekly, January 18, 2002
  34. ^ Payback from a long-forgotten account, Dennis Roddy, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, March 10, 2001
  35. ^ Sara Jane Olson charged with murder, Frank Stoltze, Minnesota Public Radio, January 17, 2002
  36. ^ Evening Independent December 5, 1981, San Francisco (AP) Patty tells of Holdups, Bombings
  37. ^ Taylor, Michael (December 6, 2005). "Timothy Casey -- S.F. officer who cuffed fugitive Patricia Hearst". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 17, 2015. 
  38. ^ Nolte, Carl (March 26, 2010). "Thomas Padden, who arrested Patty Hearst, dies". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 17, 2015. 
  39. ^ "Patty's Twisted Journey". Time. September 29, 1975. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. 
  40. ^ Toobin 2016, p. 156.
  41. ^ Graebner, William (2016). "An excerpt from Patty's Got a Gun Patricia Hearst in 1970s America". University of Chicago Press. Retrieved January 21, 2016. 
  42. ^ Orth, Maureen (July 1, 1988). "Published in on July 1, 1988". Maureenorth.com. Archived from the original on July 4, 2015. Retrieved January 21, 2016. 
  43. ^ a b c d e f "The Trial of Patty Hearst: An Account". 
  44. ^ Patty's Got a Gun: Patricia Hearst in 1970s America. p. 69
  45. ^ a b c Shifting the Blame: How Victimization Became a Criminal Defense, by Saundra Davis Westervelt, p. 65
  46. ^ Minds on Trial: Great Cases in Law and Psychology, by Charles Patrick Ewing, Joseph T. McCann pp. 34–36
  47. ^ West, Louis Jolyon (December 29, 1978). "Psychiatrist pleads for Patty Hearst's release". Eugene Register-Guard. Retrieved January 28, 2013. 
  48. ^ "[CTRL] Every Secret Thing (excerpt from Every Secret Thing)". 
  49. ^ The Historical Atlas of American Crime, by Fred Rosen, p. 257
  50. ^ Patty's Got a Gun: Patricia Hearst in 1970s America.
  51. ^ Westcott, Kathryn (2013-08-22). "What is Stockholm syndrome?". BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 2017-06-16. Hearst's defence lawyer Bailey claimed that the 19-year-old had been brainwashed and was suffering from "Stockholm Syndrome" - a term that had been recently coined to explain the apparently irrational feelings of some captives for their captors. 
  52. ^ Patty Hearst and the Twinkie Murders: A Tale of Two Trials by Paul Krassner ISBN 9781629630380 p. 27
  53. ^ a b Patty Hearst and the Twinkie Murders: A Tale of Two Trials by Paul Krassner ISBN 9781629630380 p. 21
  54. ^ Carey, Benedict (September 1, 2008). "Harry L. Kozol, Expert in Patty Hearst Trial, Is Dead at 102". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  55. ^ Wilkinson, Francis (December 24, 2008). "Harry L. Kozol, born 1908". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  56. ^ Victoria Advocate (AP) San Francisco Bailey tangles with witness
  57. ^ a b "Trial Transcript Excerpts in the Patty Hearst Trial". 
  58. ^ Jimenez, Janey (Nov 23, 1977). "What Patty Though of Men In Her Life". The Montreal Gazette. p. 23. ISSN 0384-1294. OCLC 456824368. Archived from the original on January 21, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2016. 
  59. ^ Spokesman-Review Feb 26 1974 (AP San Francisco)
  60. ^ Dershowitz A., The Best Defense - Page 394
  61. ^ 563 F.2d 1331, 2 Fed. R. Evid. Serv. 1149, UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. Patricia Campbell HEARST, Defendant-Appellant. Nos. 76-3162, 77-1759. United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. Nov. 2, 1977.
  62. ^ The Morning Record - Feb 13, 1976, San Simeon Cal (AP) Bomb blast rips Hearst castle
  63. ^ Historic US Court Cases: An Encyclopedia edited by John W. Johnson p145
  64. ^ a b c Morning Record Meriden, Conn, March 19, 1976 San Francisco (AP) Jury To Begin Weighing Patty's Fate Today.
  65. ^ a b c d Historic U.S. Court Cases: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1 edited by John W. Johnson p 127
  66. ^ a b c Russakoff, Dale (July 11, 1978). "Was 'Tania' Hearst brainwashed?". The Palm Beach Post. 
  67. ^ Ellensburg Daily Record - Apr 14, 1975, Patricia Hearst Undergoes Surgery
  68. ^ Bangor Daily News - Nov 12, 1976 San Francisco (AP) Security plan would have Patty at home
  69. ^ Lodi News-Sentinel - May 24, 1977, Lighter Sentence If Patty Hearst Was Poor
  70. ^ "Escape From The SLA". 
  71. ^ Slate Dahlia Lithwick, JAN. 28 2002 The Brainwashed Defense
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Cited texts[edit]

  • Toobin, Jeffrey (2016). American Heiress: The Wild Saga of the Kidnapping, Crimes and Trial of Patty Hearst. Knopf Doubleday. ISBN 9780385536714. 
  • Graebner, William (2008). Patty's Got a Gun: Patricia Hearst in 1970s America. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226305226.