Patrick Sawyer

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Patrick Oliver Sawyer (c.1974 - 24 July 2014) was a Liberian-American lawyer who was notable for being the index case for the introduction of Ebola virus disease into Nigeria during the West African Ebola epidemic. Sawyer was a naturalized U.S. citizen who lived in Coon Rapids, Minnesota.[1] He has been variously described as working for the Liberian Ministry of Finance[1] and for the mining company ArcelorMittal as their national manager for public health.[2][3] He was 40 at the time of his death.[4]

Ebola infection and death[edit]

On 9 July 2014, Sawyer informed ArcelorMittal management at the Buchanan office that he had been exposed to the Ebola virus.[3] They referred his case to the Liberian Ministry of Health for observation.[3]

However, Sawyer utilized an upcoming conference in Calabar, Nigeria to petition the Liberian Finance Ministry to attend as an "ambassador". His departure was approved. The Liberian government has apologized for the lack of communication between offices and for not listing Sawyer's name at the airport.[citation needed]

On 20 July 2014, Sawyer flew via ASKY Airlines from James Spriggs Payne Airport in Monrovia, Liberia to Murtala Muhammed International Airport in Nigeria's former capital Lagos, with a stopover at Lomé in Togo.[5][6] He was subsequently described as having appeared to be "terribly ill" when he left Monrovia.[6]

He collapsed upon arriving at Murtala Muhammed International Airport, Ikeja. A protocol officer of ECOWAS was there to greet him. The officer drove Sawyer in an ECOWAS pool car to First Consultant Hospital, Obalende, Lagos, where he later died on 24 July.[7]

In response, the Nigerian government observed all of Sawyer's contacts for signs of infection and increased surveillance at all entry points to the country.[8] On 6 August, the Nigerian health minister told reporters, "Yesterday the first known Nigerian to die of Ebola was recorded. This was one of the nurses that attended to the Liberian. The other five [newly confirmed] cases are being treated at an isolation ward."[9]

It was later reported that at that time he flew, Sawyer was already under surveillance for Ebola infection, but had been cleared by the Finance Ministry of the Liberian government to leave for an ECOWAS conference in Calabar, Cross River State.[2]

On 19 August, it was reported that the doctor who treated Sawyer, Ameyo Adadevoh, had also died of Ebola disease. Adadevoh was posthumously praised for preventing Sawyer from leaving the hospital at the time of diagnosis, thereby playing a key role in curbing the spread of the virus in Nigeria. [10][11][12][13][14]

Aftermath[edit]

The outbreak brought into the country by Sawyer resulted in 19 confirmed cases of Ebola infection and eight deaths. As of October 2014, the Nigerian Ebola outbreak is regarded as having been effectively contained. On October 20, 2014, Nigeria was announced as Ebola-free by the WHO, following two incubation periods without any further reports of infection.[15][16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Jacque Wilson (July 30, 2014). "Ebola fears hit close to home". CNN. 
  2. ^ a b Nicholas Ibekwe (12 August 2014). "Nigeria: Exclusive - How Liberian Govt Cleared Patrick Sawyer to Travel to Nigeria While Under Observation for Ebola". AllAfrica.com. 
  3. ^ a b c Michelle Madsen (3 September 2014). "ArcelorMittal Liberia health manager carried ebola to Nigeria". Steel First. 
  4. ^ Christin Mai-Duc (July 29, 2014). "Suspected U.S. Ebola victim in Nigeria had planned to visit Minnesota". Los Angeles Times. 
  5. ^ Michael Daly (2014-07-30). "'He Could Have Brought Ebola Here': Minnesota Widow on Her Husband". The Daily Beast. 
  6. ^ a b Nicholas Ibekwe (August 7, 2014). "Video shows Liberian, Patrick Sawyer, was "terribly ill", possibly knew he had Ebola before traveling to Nigeria". The Premium Times. 
  7. ^ Nnenna Ibeh (2014-08-21). "Ebola: Lagos hospital which treated Patrick Sawyer to receive N4m". The Premium Times. 
  8. ^ "Nigeria 'on red alert' over Ebola death in Lagos". BBC News. 26 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  9. ^ Mark, Monica (6 August 2014). "Ebola Outbreak: Nurse who Treated First Victim in Nigeria Dies". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  10. ^ Reuters (4 August 2014). "Lagos records second Ebola case in doctor who treated victim: Nigerian health minister". 
  11. ^ "Dr Ameyo Adadevoh dies from Ebola virus infection". YNaija.com The Internet Newspaper for Young Nigerians. Retrieved 2014-08-20. 
  12. ^ "Ebola strikes at the heart of Nigeria: Ameyo, daughter of Kwaku Adadevoh, grand daughter of Herbert Macaulay dies". Thisday. Archived from the original on 21 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  13. ^ "Tribute to Herbert Macaulay's Great-Granddaughter who died in service to Nigeria". The Cable. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  14. ^ "Ebola kills doctor related to first African Anglican Bishop". Anglican News. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  15. ^ "Ebola contained in Nigeria, Senegal - US health officials". 30 September 2014. 
  16. ^ "Nigeria is now free of Ebola virus transmission". 20 October 2014.