Pattani Province

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ปัตตานี (Thai)
ڤطاني (Jawi)
Pattani Grand Mosque
Pattani Grand Mosque
Flag of Pattani
Official seal of Pattani
Map of Thailand highlighting Pattani Province
Map of Thailand highlighting Pattani Province
 • GovernorWiranan Phengchan (since October 2016)
 • Total1,940.4 km2 (749.2 sq mi)
Area rankRanked 67th
 • Total686,186
 • RankRanked 39th
 • Density350/km2 (920/sq mi)
 • Density rankRanked 9th
Time zoneUTC+7 (ICT)
ISO 3166 codeTH-94

Pattani (Thai: ปัตตานี, pronounced [pàt.tāː.nīː]; Jawi: ڤطاني, ตานิง, pronounced [t āː.niŋ]) is one of the southern provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from southeast clockwise) Narathiwat, Yala, and Songkhla.


The name Pattani is the Thai adaptation of the Malay name Patani (Jawi: ڤتاني), which can mean "this beach" in Patani Malay language. (In standard Malay, this would be pantai ini.) Another suggestion is that it derives from a Sanskrit word pathini, meaning "virgin nymph"; Pathini was the name of a daughter of Merong Mahawangsa, founder of the preceding Langkasuka Empire.[1]

Historically, Pattani Province was the centre of the Malay Sultanate of Patani Darul Makrif. For centuries a tributary state of Siam, Patani has been governed by Siam since its conquest in 1785. Siamese rule was officially acknowledged by the Burney Treaty of 1826 negotiated with the British Empire which included also Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis and Terengganu. Unlike these four sultanates, Patani was not included in the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 and remained under Siamese rule. Both Yala (Jala) and Narathiwat (Menara) were originally part of Patani, but were made provinces in their own right during the territorial administrative reform and the creation of a united centralized Siam state in the early-20th century.[citation needed]


Pattani is one of the four provinces of Thailand where the majority of the population are Muslim, with the other provinces being Yala, Narathiwat, and Satun. In the 2014 census, it is stated that they make up to roughly 88 percent of its population. The strong Muslim presence in this province is partly due to the people being of Malay ancestry, with a large portion of the population being able to speak the Pattani Malay language (though most of them can still speak Thai as well).


Pattani is on the Malay Peninsula, with the coast of the Gulf of Thailand to the north. The south is dominated by the Sankalakhiri mountain range, which includes Budo-Su-ngai Padi National Park, on the border with Yala and Narathiwat.


The seal of the province shows the cannon called Phraya Tani, known as Sri Pattani in Malay, which was cast in Pattani Province. It was brought to Bangkok in 1785, and is now on display in front of the Ministry of Defence in Bangkok.[citation needed]

The provincial flower is the Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), and the provincial tree the Ironwood (Hopea odorata).[citation needed]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Pattani is divided into 12 districts (amphoe), which are further subdivided into 115 communes (tambon) and 629 villages (muban).[citation needed]

The districts of Chana (Malay: Chenok), Thepa (Malay:Tiba) and Saba Yoi (Malay:Sebayu) were detached from Pattani and transferred to Songkhla in 1796 by Siam government.[citation needed]

Map Number Name Thai Jawi Malay
Amphoe Pattani.svg
1 Mueang Pattani เมืองปัตตานี فطاني Patani
2 Khok Pho โคกโพธิ์ كوكفور Kuk Pur
3 Nong Chik หนองจิก نونغجيك Nung Chik
4 Panare ปะนาเระ فناريق Penarik
5 Mayo มายอ مايو Mayu
6 Thung Yang Daeng ทุ่งยางแดง
7 Sai Buri สายบุรี سليندونغ بايو ، تلوبن Selindung Bayu, Teluban
8 Mai Kaen ไม้แก่น
9 Yaring ยะหริ่ง جمبو Jambu,
10 Yarang ยะรัง يا ليمو Ya Li hu
11 Kapho กะพ้อ
12 Mae Lan แม่ลาน


Six of Pattani's districts lie on the shore of the Gulf of Thailand. The number of fisheries workers in Pattani exceeds 80,000 as of 2019.[2] Pattani is the only province in Thailand where the agriculture ministry prohibits trawlers and destructive fishing nets within four nautical miles of the shoreline. Local fish stocks have rebounded as a result.[2]

Military rule[edit]

As of 2018, the provisions of Thailand's Internal Security Act remain imposed on Mae Lan District. Internal security restrictions, maintained by Thailand's Internal Security Operations Command (ISOC) can result in curfews, prohibited entry, or prohibited transport of goods. It is considered one step below the imposition of full martial law.[3]


Pattani is served by Pattani Airport, but the airport does not allow public flights due to the Royal Thai Air Force's reliance on it for counter-insurgency operations in the area. Pattani's main railway stop is Pattani Railway Station.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "{ms} Sejarah Malaysia - Asal Usul nama Sungai Petani". Archived from the original on 2013-06-03. Retrieved 2012-08-24.
  2. ^ a b Kongrut, Anchalee (2 September 2019). "From Pattani seas to Bangkok plates". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  3. ^ Raksaseri, Kornchanok (8 January 2018). "Isoc power boost 'not political'". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 8 January 2018.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 6°52′4″N 101°15′00″E / 6.86778°N 101.25000°E / 6.86778; 101.25000