Pattani language

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Pattani
Region Himachal Pradesh
Ethnicity 20,000 (2002)[1]
Native speakers
16,510 (2011)[2]
L2 speakers: 5,000 (1997)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 lae
Glottolog patt1248[3]

Pattani, also known as Manchati, Manchad, Patni, Chamba, Chamba Lahuli, Lahuli, Swangla, Changsapa Boli is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.

Distribution[edit]

Pattani is spoken in the Lahul Valley, Pattan, Chamba-Lahul, and lower Mayar valleys. There are also some speakers in Kullu and Manali cities, and in Kishtwar district, Jammu and Kashmir.

General information[edit]

There are about 10,000 people in the western Himalayas speak the Pattani Language. Pattani Language has several names. One of them is Manchad, which was given by the Tod valley people live in the area where Manchad was originated. The religion belief of Manchad speakers is either Hinduism or Buddhism. Almost all of them can speak English or Hindi due to the convenience of communicating to others. Most speakers only use Manchad at home, which leads to the isolating nature of this language. Because there is no written tradition in Manchad, the article resources and stories of Manchad are usually recorded in Hindi or Tibetan orthography. Due to the same reason, there is not so much details of Manchad that we could find.[1]

Grammar[edit]

1.The three-way contrast in number : singular, dual and plural.

2.Gender is not grammatical and is lexically based.

3.The verbal agreement system:person-number elements are indicated in verbs.

4.The sentence structure: simple, compound and complex sentences.

5. Pattani Language has complex pronominalisation and a complex verbal system.[4]

Syntax[edit]

Pattani word order is subject–object–verb (SOV)[5]

Dialects[edit]

Ethnologue lists three Pattani dialects.

  • Chamba-Lahuli (Western Pattani)
  • Eastern Pattani
  • Central Pattani

There are 3 caste dialects, namely Pandit-Rajput, Harijan, and Lohar. The lower castes can understand Pandit-Rajput, but not vice versa.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference e18 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Pattani". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Sharma, S. R. (2006), "A Manchad grammar", IIAS Newsletter, 42: 30, retrieved 12 May 2016
  5. ^ Dryer, M. S. (2008), "Word order in Tibeto-Burman languages" (PDF), Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, 31 (1): 1, retrieved 12 May 2016
  • Nishi 西, Yoshio 義郎 (1992g). "マンチャト語" [Manchad, Manchaṭi, (LSI) Manchāṭī]. In 亀井 Kamei, 孝 Takashi; 河野 Kōno, 六郎 Rokurō; 千野 Chino, 栄一 Eichi. 三省堂言語学大辞典 The Sanseido Encyclopaedia of Linguistics (in Japanese). 4. Tokyo: 三省堂 Sanseido Press. pp. 211a–216b. ISBN 4385152128.