Patty Hearst

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Patty Hearst
Patti Hearst.jpg
Hearst in 1994
Born
Patricia Campbell Hearst

(1954-02-20) February 20, 1954 (age 66)
San Francisco, California, U.S.
Other namesPatty Hearst
Patricia Campbell Hearst Shaw
Tania
Alma materUniversity of California, Berkeley
OccupationAuthor, actress
Known forBeing kidnapped and indoctrinated by the Symbionese Liberation Army
Spouse(s)
Bernard Lee Shaw
(
m. 1979; died 2013)
Children2, including Lydia Hearst
Parent(s)

Patricia Campbell Hearst (born February 20, 1954)[1] is an American author and actress, and a granddaughter of American publishing magnate William Randolph Hearst. She became internationally known for events following her 1974 kidnapping by the left-wing terrorist Symbionese Liberation Army. She was found and arrested 19 months after being abducted, by which time she was a fugitive wanted for serious crimes committed with members of the group. She was held in custody, and there was speculation before trial that her family's resources would enable her to avoid time in prison.

At her trial, the prosecution suggested that Hearst had joined the Symbionese Liberation Army of her own volition. However, she testified that she had been raped and threatened with death while held captive. In 1976, she was convicted for the crime of bank robbery and sentenced to 35 years in prison, later reduced to 7 years. Her sentence was commuted by President Jimmy Carter, and she was pardoned by President Bill Clinton.

Background[edit]

Family[edit]

Hearst's grandfather, William Randolph Hearst, created the largest newspaper, magazine, newsreel, and movie business in the world. Her great-grandmother was philanthropist Phoebe Hearst. The family was associated with immense political influence and a position of anti-Communism since before World War II.[2]

Early life and education[edit]

Patricia Hearst, who prefers to go by "Patricia", not "Patty",[3] was born in San Francisco, California,[a] the third of five daughters of Randolph Apperson Hearst and Catherine Wood Campbell. She grew up primarily in Hillsborough, and attended its Crystal Springs School for Girls and the Santa Catalina School in Monterey.[6] She attended Menlo College in Atherton, California,[7] before transferring to the University of California, Berkeley.

Hearst's father was only one of a number of heirs, and did not have control of the Hearst interests, so her parents did not consider it necessary to take measures for their children's personal security. At the time of her abduction, Hearst was a sophomore at Berkeley, studying art history. She lived with her fiance, Steven Weed, in an apartment in Berkeley.[3]

Kidnapping[edit]

On February 4, 1974, 19-year-old Hearst was kidnapped from her Berkeley apartment. She was beaten and lost consciousness during the abduction. Shots were fired from a machine gun during the incident. An urban guerrilla group, called the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA), claimed responsibility for the abduction.[8]

Motives[edit]

Hearst's kidnapping was partly opportunistic, as she happened to live near the SLA hideout. According to testimony, the group's main intention was to leverage the Hearst family's political influence to free two SLA members who had been arrested for Marcus Foster's killing. Faced with the failure to free the imprisoned men, the SLA demanded that the captive's family distribute $70 worth of food to every needy Californian – an operation that would cost an estimated $400 million. In response, Hearst's father took out a loan and arranged the immediate donation of $2 million worth of food to the poor of the Bay Area, in an operation called "People in Need." After the distribution descended into chaos, the SLA refused to release Hearst.[9]

Hearst's account[edit]

According to Hearst's later testimony, she was held for a week in a closet, blindfolded and with her hands tied, during which time SLA founder and leader Cinque (Donald DeFreeze) repeatedly threatened her with death.[10] She was let out for meals and blindfolded, began to join in the political discussions. She was given a flashlight for reading and SLA political tracts to memorize. Hearst was confined in the closet for weeks, after which she said, "DeFreeze told me that the war council had decided or was thinking about killing me or me staying with them, and that I better start thinking about that as a possibility." Hearst said, "I accommodated my thoughts to coincide with theirs."[10]

When asked for her decision, Hearst said she wanted to stay and fight with the SLA. The blindfold was removed, allowing her to see her captors for the first time. After this she was given daily lessons on her duties, especially weapon drills. Angela Atwood told Hearst that the others thought she should know what sexual freedom was like in the unit; according to her lawyer, Hearst was allegedly raped by William "Willie" Wolfe and later by DeFreeze.[10][11][12][13]

Announcement[edit]

On April 3, 1974, two months after she was abducted, Hearst announced on an audiotape that she had joined the SLA and taken the name "Tania"[14] (inspired by the nom de guerre of Haydée Tamara Bunke Bider, Che Guevara's comrade).[15][16]

SLA member[edit]

Bank robbery[edit]

Hearst yelling commands at bank customers[17]

On April 15, 1974, Hearst was recorded on surveillance video wielding an M1 carbine while robbing the Sunset District branch of the Hibernia Bank at 1450 Noriega Street in San Francisco.[8] Hearst identified under her pseudonym of "Tania".[18][19][20] Two men entered the bank while the robbery was occurring and were shot and wounded.[18][19][20] According to testimony at her trial, a witness thought that Hearst had been several paces behind the others when running to the getaway car.[18][19][20]

Attorney General William B. Saxbe said that Hearst was a "common criminal" and "not a reluctant participant" in the bank robbery. James L. Browning Jr. said that her participation in the robbery may have been voluntary, contradicting an earlier comment in which he said that she might have been coerced into taking part. The FBI agent heading the investigation said that SLA members were photographed pointing guns at Hearst during the robbery.[21] A grand jury indicted her in June 1974 for the robbery.[22][23]

Rescue of Harris[edit]

On May 16, 1974, the manager at Mel's Sporting Goods in Inglewood, California observed a minor theft by William Harris, who had been shopping with his wife Emily while Hearst waited across the road in a van. The manager and an employee followed Harris out and confronted him. There was a scuffle and the manager restrained Harris, when a pistol fell out of Harris' waistband.[24][25] Hearst discharged the entire magazine of an automatic carbine into the overhead storefront, causing the manager to dive behind a lightpost.[26][27] He tried to shoot back, but Hearst began aiming closer.[25][28][29]

Fugitive[edit]

Hearst and the Harris couple hijacked two cars and abducted the owners. One was a young man who found Hearst so personable that he was reluctant to report the incident. He testified at the trial to her discussing the effectiveness of cyanide-tipped bullets and repeatedly asking if he was okay.[30] Police had surrounded the main base of the SLA before the three returned, so they hid elsewhere. The six SLA members inside the building died in a gunfight with police, and it was initially thought that Hearst had also died. A warrant was then issued for Hearst's arrest for several felonies, including two counts of kidnapping.[13]

Emily Harris went to a Berkeley rally to commemorate the deaths of Angela Atwood and other founding members of the SLA who had died during the police siege. Harris recognized Atwood's acquaintance Kathy Soliah among the radicals whom she'd known from civil rights groups. Soliah introduced the three fugitives to Jack Scott, an athletics coach and radical, and he agreed to provide help and money.[31][31]

Involvement in later SLA crimes[edit]

Hearst helped make improvised explosive devices. These were used in two unsuccessful attempts to kill policemen during August 1975, and one of the devices failed to detonate.[32][33] Marked money found in the apartment when she was arrested linked Hearst to the SLA armed robbery of Crocker National Bank in Carmichael, California; she was the getaway car driver for the robbery. Myrna Opsahl, who was at the bank making a deposit, was shot dead by a masked Emily Harris. Hearst was potentially at risk for felony murder charges and could testify as a witness against Harris for a capital offense.[34][35]

Legal consequences[edit]

Hearst's mugshot

On September 18, 1975, Hearst was arrested in a San Francisco apartment with Wendy Yoshimura, another SLA member, by San Francisco Police Inspector Timothy F. Casey and his partner, Police Officer Laurence R. Pasero, and FBI Special Agent Thomas J. Padden and his partners, FBI agents Jason Moulton, Frank Doyle, Jr., Larry Lawler, Monte Hall, Dick Vitamonte, Leo Brenneissen, and Ray Campos.[8][36][37] While being booked into jail, Hearst listed her occupation as "Urban Guerilla" and asked her attorney to relay the following message: "Tell everybody that I'm smiling, that I feel free and strong and I send my greetings and love to all the sisters and brothers out there."[38][39]

Brainwashing claims[edit]

At the time of her arrest, Hearst's weight had dropped to 87 pounds (40 kg), and she was described by Dr. Margaret Singer in October 1975 as "a low-IQ, low-affect zombie".[40] Shortly after her arrest, signs of trauma were recorded: her IQ was measured as 112, whereas it had previously been 130; there were huge gaps in her memory regarding her pre-Tania life; she was smoking heavily and had nightmares.[41] Without a mental illness or defect, a person is considered to be fully responsible for any criminal action not done under duress, which is defined as a clear and present threat of death or serious injury.[42][43] For Hearst to secure an acquittal on the grounds of having been brainwashed would have been completely unprecedented.[44][45]

Psychiatrist Louis Jolyon West, a professor at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), was appointed by the court in his capacity as a brainwashing expert and worked without a fee. After the trial, he wrote a newspaper article asking President Carter to release Hearst from prison.[46]

Hearst wrote in her memoir, Every Secret Thing (1982), "I spent fifteen hours going over my SLA experiences with Robert Jay Lifton of Yale University. Lifton, author of several books on coercive persuasion and thought reform, [...] pronounced me a 'classic case' which met all the psychological criteria of a coerced prisoner of war. [...] If I had reacted differently, that would have been suspect, he said."[47]

After some weeks, Hearst repudiated her SLA allegiance.[12][48]

Her first lawyer, Terence Hallinan, had advised Hearst not to talk to anyone, including psychiatrists. He advocated a defense of involuntary intoxication: that the SLA had given her drugs that affected her judgment and recollection.[49][13][44][50][page needed]

He was replaced by attorney F. Lee Bailey, who asserted a defense of coercion or duress affecting intent at the time of the offense.[51] This was similar to the brainwashing defense which Hallinan had warned was not a defense in law. Hearst gave long interviews to various psychiatrists.[42]

Trial[edit]

Hearst alone was arraigned for the Hibernia Bank robbery; the trial commenced on January 15, 1976. Judge Oliver Jesse Carter (who happened to be a professional acquaintance of a junior member of the prosecution team) ruled that Hearst's taped and written statements after the bank robbery, while she was a fugitive with the SLA members, were voluntary. He did not allow expert testimony that stylistic analysis indicated the "Tania" statements and writing were not wholly composed by Hearst. He permitted the prosecution to introduce statements and actions Hearst made long after the Hibernia robbery, as evidence of her state of mind at the time of the robbery. Judge Carter also allowed into evidence a recording made by jail authorities of a friend's jail visit with Hearst, in which Hearst used profanities and spoke of her radical and feminist beliefs, but he did not allow tapes of psychiatrist Louis Jolyon West's interviews of Hearst to be heard by the jury. Judge Carter was described as "resting his eyes" during testimony favorable to the defense by West and others.[42][52]

According to Hearst's testimony, her captors had demanded she appear enthusiastic during the robbery and warned she would pay with her life for any mistake.[53] Her defense lawyer F. Lee Bailey provided photographs showing that SLA members, including Camilla Hall, had pointed guns at Hearst during the robbery.[53] In reference to the shooting at Mel's Sporting Goods Store and her decision to not escape, Hearst testified that she was instructed throughout her captivity on what to do in an emergency. She said one class in particular had a situation similar to the store manager's detention of the Harrises. Hearst testified that "when it happened I didn't even think. I just did it, and if I had not done it and if they had been able to get away they would have killed me."[10]

Testifying for the prosecution, Dr. Harry Kozol said Hearst had been "a rebel in search of a cause", and her participation in the Hibernia robbery had been "an act of free will."[54][55] Prosecutor James L. Browning Jr. asked the other psychiatrist testifying for the prosecution, Dr. Joel Fort, if Hearst was in fear of death or great bodily injury during the robbery, to which he answered, "No", but Bailey angrily objected.[56] Fort assessed Hearst as amoral, and said she had voluntarily had sex with Wolfe and DeFreeze, which accusations Hearst denied both in court and outside.[42][57][58] Prosecutor Browning tried to show that writings by Hearst indicated her testimony had misrepresented her interactions with Wolfe. She said she had been writing the SLA version of events and had been punched in the face by William Harris when she refused to be more effusive about what she regarded as sexual abuse by Wolfe. Judge Carter allowed testimony from the prosecution psychiatrists about Hearst's early sexual experiences, although these had occurred years before her kidnapping and the bank robbery.[49][59]

In court, Hearst made a poor impression and appeared lethargic. An Associated Press report attributed this state to drugs she was given by jail doctors.[49] Bailey was strongly criticized for his decision to put Hearst on the stand, then having her repeatedly decline to answer questions. According to Alan Dershowitz, Bailey was wrong-footed by the judge, who had appeared to indicate she would have Fifth Amendment privilege: the jury would not be present for some of her testimony, or would be instructed not to draw inferences, on matters subsequent to the Hibernian Bank charges for which she was being tried, but he changed his mind.[42][60][61]

After a few months, Hearst provided information to the authorities, not under oath (sworn testimony could have been used to convict her) of SLA activities. A bomb exploded at Hearst Castle in February 1976.[62] After Hearst testified that Wolfe had raped her, Emily Harris gave a magazine interview from jail alleging that Hearst's keeping a trinket given to her by Wolfe was an indication that she had been in a romantic relationship with him. Hearst said she had kept the stone carving because she thought it was a Pre-Columbian artifact of archeological significance. The prosecutor James L. Browning Jr. used Harris' interpretation of the item, and some jurors later said they regarded the carving, which Browning waved in front of them, as powerful evidence that Hearst was lying.[49][63]

Closing arguments[edit]

In a closing prosecution statement that hardly acknowledged that Hearst had been kidnapped and held captive, prosecutor Browning suggested that Hearst had taken part in the bank robbery without coercion.[64] Browning, who later became a judge, also suggested to the jury that as the female SLA members were feminists, they would not have allowed Hearst to be raped.[64][42][64]

In her autobiography, Hearst expressed disappointment with what she saw as Bailey's lack of focus in the crucial end stage of her trial; she described him as having the appearance of someone with a hangover, and spilling water down the front of his pants while making a "disjointed" closing argument.[65] Bailey's final statement to the court was, "But simple application of the rules, I think, will yield one decent result, and, that is, there is not anything close to proof beyond a reasonable doubt that Patty Hearst wanted to be a bank robber. What you know, and you know in your hearts to be true is beyond dispute. There was talk about her dying, and she wanted to survive." [57]

Conviction and sentencing[edit]

On March 20, 1976, Hearst was convicted of bank robbery and using a firearm during the commission of a felony. She was given the maximum sentence possible of 35 years' imprisonment, pending a reduction at final sentence hearing, which Carter declined to specify.[66]

Because Judge Carter had died, Judge William Horsley Orrick Jr. determined Hearst's sentence. He gave her seven years imprisonment, commenting that "rebellious young people who, for whatever reason become revolutionaries, and voluntarily commit criminal acts will be punished".[67]

Prison life[edit]

Hearst suffered a collapsed lung in prison, the beginning of a series of medical problems, and she underwent emergency surgery. This prevented her from appearing to testify against the Harrises on 11 charges, including robbery, kidnapping, and assault; she was also arraigned for those charges.[68] She was held in solitary confinement for security reasons; she was granted bail for an appeal hearing in November 1976 on the condition that she was protected on bond. Her father hired dozens of bodyguards.[69]

Superior Court judge Talbot Callister gave her probation on the sporting goods store charge when she pleaded no contest, saying that he believed that she been subject to coercion amounting to torture.[67] California Attorney General Evelle J. Younger said that, if there was a double standard for the wealthy, it was the opposite of what was generally believed and that Hearst had received a stiffer sentence than a person of lesser means might have. He said that she had no legal brainwashing defense, but pointed out that the events had started with her being kidnapped.[70]

Hearst's bail was revoked in May 1978 when appeals failed, and the Supreme Court declined to hear her case.[66][67] The prison took no special security measures for her safety until she found a dead rat on her bunk on the day when William and Emily Harris were arraigned for her abduction. The Harrises were convicted on a simple kidnapping charge, as opposed to the more serious kidnapping for ransom or kidnapping with bodily injury, and they were released after serving a total of eight years each.[44]

Representative Leo Ryan was collecting signatures on a petition for Hearst's release several weeks before he was murdered while visiting the Jonestown settlement in Guyana.[71] Actor John Wayne spoke after the Jonestown cult deaths, pointing out that people had accepted that Jim Jones had brainwashed 900 individuals into mass suicide but would not accept that the Symbionese Liberation Army could have brainwashed a kidnapped teenage girl.[66][72]

Commutation, release, and pardon[edit]

President Jimmy Carter commuted Hearst's federal sentence to the 22 months served, freeing her eight months before she was eligible for her first parole hearing. The 1979 release was under stringent conditions, and she remained on probation for the state sentence on the sporting goods store plea.[73] She recovered full civil rights when President Bill Clinton granted her a pardon on January 20, 2001, his last day in office.[49][66][74][75]

Life after release[edit]

Two months after her release from prison, Hearst married Bernard Lee Shaw (1945–2013),[76] a policeman who was part of her security detail during her time on bail. They had two children, Gillian and Lydia Hearst-Shaw. Hearst became involved in a foundation helping children with AIDS, and is active in other charities and fund-raising activities.[77]

Media and other activities[edit]

Hearst published the memoir Every Secret Thing in 1981. Her accounts resulted in authorities considering bringing new charges against her.[78] She was interviewed in 2009 on NBC and said that the prosecutor had suggested that she had been in a consensual relationship with Wolfe. She described that as "outrageous" and an insult to rape victims.[79]

Hearst produced a special for the Travel Channel titled Secrets of San Simeon with Patricia Hearst, in which she took viewers inside her grandfather's mansion Hearst Castle, providing unprecedented access to the property.[80]

She has appeared in feature films for director John Waters, who cast her in Cry-Baby, Serial Mom, Pecker, A Dirty Shame, and Cecil B. DeMented. She collaborated with Cordelia Frances Biddle on writing the novel Murder at San Simeon (Scribner, 1996), based upon the death of Thomas H. Ince on her grandfather's yacht.[77] She also appeared in the episode "Lord of the Pi's" in season 3 of Veronica Mars. The character was the heiress of a fictionalized Hearst family, loosely based on aspects of her life. Hearst also made a cameo in Pauly Shore's film Bio-Dome.

Hearst has participated with her dogs in dog shows,[81] and her Shih Tzu Rocket won the "Toy" category at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show at Madison Square Garden on February 16, 2015.[82] At the 2017 show, Hearst's French bulldog Tuggy won best of breed, and Rubi won best of opposite sex.[83]

Films about Hearst's SLA period[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

  • Saturday Night Live referenced the Patty Hearst trial in several editions of Weekend Update in 1976.
  • American author Stephen King states, in his non-fiction book Danse Macabre (1981), that Patty Hearst's case was among the sources of inspiration for his novel The Stand (1978).
  • The 7th episode of 2nd season of the 2017 TV series S.W.A.T. is based upon Patty Hearst' case.
  • In Jessica Jones (season 1, episode 2), lawyer Jeri Hogarth refuses to take on a young woman's case who had committed double homicide under mind control. When Jessica Jones argues that she should because the young woman was abducted, the lawyer replies "Patty Hearst was abducted and she still got convicted".
  • In the film The Diary of a Teenage Girl, which is set in 1976, news reports and references to Patty Hearst feature in a number of scenes.
  • In the sitcom Community, Britta Perry suggests that Dean Pelton is making a sexy Patty Hearst costume after being kidnapped.
  • In the Miller & Tysen song cycle Fugitive Songs (2008), the song 'Poor Little Patty' features two characters discussing Patty Hearst's kidnapping with the audience.
  • The Camper Van Beethoven song "Tania", was featured on the album Our Beloved Revolutionary Sweetheart
  • In Warren Zevon's song Roland the Headless Thompson Gunner, the final verse is "Patty Hearst/Heard the burst/Of Roland's Thompson Gun/And bought it."

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The California Birth Index[4] corroborates Hearst's birthplace as San Francisco County; her birthplace is cited as San Francisco in Women in World History (2000), among other publications.[1][5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Radically different: Heiress' life far removed from days of '74 kidnapping". CNN. Archived from the original on June 28, 2012. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  2. ^ Pizzitola, Louis (2002). Hearst Over Hollywood: Power, Passion, and Propaganda in the Movies. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11646-2. p. 333–338
  3. ^ a b Zahn, Paula (April 16, 2001). "Patty Hearst Profile--Radically different--Heiress' life far removed from days of '74 kidnapping". CNN. Retrieved July 5, 2014.
  4. ^ "The Birth of Patricia Campbell Hearst". The California Birth Index. California Vital Statistics. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
  5. ^ Commire, Anne; Klezmer, Deborah (2000). Women in World History. 7. Yorkin Publications. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-787-64066-8.
  6. ^ "CRIME: The Hearst Nightmare". Time. April 29, 1974. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  7. ^ "Desert Sun 22 May 1974 — California Digital Newspaper Collection". cdnc.ucr.edu. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  8. ^ a b c "Patty Hearst Kidnapping". FBI.gov. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
  9. ^ Patrick Mondout. "SLA Chronology". Archived from the original on April 20, 2008. Retrieved January 21, 2007.
  10. ^ a b c d Selected Trial Transcript Excerpts in the Patty Hearst Trial, "Excerpt of Cross-Examination of Defendant, Patty Hearst"
  11. ^ (AP) San Francisco, "Patty Hearst describes closet rape by captors", Bangor Daily News, February 18, 1976.
  12. ^ a b "Interview with Patty Hearst – Transcript". Larry King Live. CNN. January 22, 2002.
  13. ^ a b c NBC news Documentary
  14. ^ "Timeline: Guerrilla: The Taking of Patty Hearst". American Experience. August 8, 2006.
  15. ^ JOSE LUIS MAGANA, "Cuba honors the remains of 10 Guevara comrades", Houston Chronicle, December 31, 1998. pg. 24
  16. ^ Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine: Stockholm Syndrome, Gale, 2011
  17. ^ Lucas, Dean (May 14, 2013). "Patty Hearst". Famous Pictures Magazine. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  18. ^ a b c "1975 Year in Review: Patty Hearst Jailed". Archived from the original on October 9, 2010. Retrieved May 26, 2010.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). United Press International. 1975
  19. ^ a b c AP (February 7, 1976). "Testimony Expected from Miss Hearst". The Fort Scott Tribune. San Francisco.
  20. ^ a b c archives.chicagotribune.com, Chicago Tribune, April 16, 1974, Patricia Hearst identified in photos of bank robbery
  21. ^ San Francisco (UPI), "Patricia Hearst Called Common Criminal", Wilmington Morning Star, April 18, 1974,
  22. ^ AP, "Patty Hearst is Indicted for Bank Robbery", Sarasota Herald Tribune, June 7, 1974
  23. ^ San Francisco (AP), "Indict Patty on Rbbery", Chicago Tribune, June 7, 1974
  24. ^ "City of Inglewood 100th Anniversary 1908-2008". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  25. ^ a b SEBASTIAN ROTELLA "Officer who investigated Patty Hearst's 1974 shoot-out in Inglewood says the incident shouldn't be 'erased from history.' ", Los Angeles Times, January 22, 1989.
  26. ^ "Fugitive Patty Hearst may face intent-to-kill charges". chicagotribune.com. May 22, 1974. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  27. ^ Los Angeles (AP), "Victim is "Stunned" by Patty's Probation", Spokane Daily Chronicle, May 10, 1977
  28. ^ "City of Inglewood 100th Anniversary 1908-2008" (PDF). cityofinglewood.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 26, 2014. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  29. ^ Chicago Tribune May 22, 1974 Fugitive Patty Hearst May Face Intent To Kill Charges
  30. ^ Famous Trials by Douglas O. Linder (2014), UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI-KANSAS CITY (UMKC) SCHOOL OF LAW "Testimony of Thomas Matthews in the Patty Hearst Trial"
  31. ^ a b PBS American Experience, retrieved 26/12/14 "Guerrilla"
  32. ^ Greg Goldin, "The Last Revolutionary: Sara Jane Olson Speaks", LA Weekly, January 18, 2002
  33. ^ "Payback from a long-forgotten account", Dennis Roddy, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, March 10, 2001
  34. ^ "Sara Jane Olson charged with murder", Frank Stoltze, Minnesota Public Radio, January 17, 2002
  35. ^ San Francisco (AP), "Patty tells of Holdups, Bombings", Evening Independent, December 5, 1981
  36. ^ Taylor, Michael (December 6, 2005). "Timothy Casey -- S.F. officer who cuffed fugitive Patricia Hearst". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
  37. ^ Nolte, Carl (March 26, 2010). "Thomas Padden, who arrested Patty Hearst, dies". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
  38. ^ "Patty's Twisted Journey". TIME. September 29, 1975. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012.
  39. ^ Toobin 2016, p. 156.
  40. ^ Graebner, William (2016). "An excerpt". Patty’s Got a Gun: Patricia Hearst in 1970s America. University of Chicago Press. Retrieved January 21, 2016.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  41. ^ Orth, Maureen (July 1, 1988). "Published in on July 1, 1988". Maureenorth.com. Archived from the original on July 4, 2015. Retrieved January 21, 2016.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  42. ^ a b c d e f "The Trial of Patty Hearst: An Account". umkc.edu.
  43. ^ Patty's Got a Gun: Patricia Hearst in 1970s America. p. 69
  44. ^ a b c Westervelt, Saundra Davis. Shifting the Blame: How Victimization Became a Criminal Defense. p. 65.
  45. ^ Ewing, Charles Patrick & McCann, Joseph T. Minds on Trial: Great Cases in Law and Psychology. pp. 34–36.
  46. ^ West, Louis Jolyon (December 29, 1978). "Psychiatrist pleads for Patty Hearst's release". Eugene Register-Guard. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
  47. ^ Hearst, Patricia; Moscow, Alvin (1982). "Excerpt from Every Secret Thing". New York: Doubleday & Co.
  48. ^ Rosen Fred. The Historical Atlas of American Crime. p. 257.
  49. ^ a b c d e Patty Hearst and the Twinkie Murders: A Tale of Two Trials by Paul Krassner ISBN 9781629630380
  50. ^ Patty's Got a Gun: Patricia Hearst in 1970s America
  51. ^ Westcott, Kathryn (August 22, 2013). "What is Stockholm syndrome?". BBC News Magazine. Retrieved June 16, 2017. Hearst's defence lawyer Bailey claimed that the 19-year-old had been brainwashed and was suffering from "Stockholm Syndrome" - a term that had been recently coined to explain the apparently irrational feelings of some captives for their captors.
  52. ^ Krassner, Paul. Patty Hearst and the Twinkie Murders: A Tale of Two Trials. ISBN 9781629630380. p. 27.
  53. ^ a b Krassner. Patty Hearst. ISBN 9781629630380. p. 21.
  54. ^ Carey, Benedict (September 1, 2008). "Harry L. Kozol, Expert in Patty Hearst Trial, Is Dead at 102". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  55. ^ Wilkinson, Francis (December 24, 2008). "Harry L. Kozol, born 1908". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
  56. ^ AP. "San Francisco Bailey tangles with witness". Victoria Advocate.
  57. ^ a b "Trial Transcript Excerpts in the Patty Hearst Trial". umkc.edu.
  58. ^ Jimenez, Janey (November 23, 1977). "What Patty Thought of Men In Her Life". The Montreal Gazette. p. 23. ISSN 0384-1294. OCLC 456824368. Archived from the original on January 21, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2016.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  59. ^ Spokesman-Review, February 26, 1974 (AP San Francisco)
  60. ^ Dershowitz A. The Best Defense. p. 394.
  61. ^ 563 F.2d 1331, 2 Fed. R. Evid. Serv. 1149, UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. Patricia Campbell HEARST, Defendant-Appellant. Nos. 76-3162, 77-1759. United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. November 2, 1977.
  62. ^ San Simeon Cal (AP). (February 13, 1976). "Bomb blast rips Hearst castle". The Morning Record.
  63. ^ Johnson, John W. (Editor). Historic US Court Cases: An Encyclopedia. p. 145.
  64. ^ a b c San Francisco (AP). (March 19, 1976). "Jury To Begin Weighing Patty's Fate Today". Morning Record. Meriden, CT.
  65. ^ Hearst, Patricia Campbell & Moscow, Alvin, Patty Hearst: Her Own Story, Corgi/Avon, 1988 (p. 442-443) ISBN 0-552-13490-2, previously published as Every Secret Thing (1982)
  66. ^ a b c d Historic U.S. Court Cases: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1, edited by John W. Johnson, p. 127
  67. ^ a b c Russakoff, Dale (July 11, 1978). "Was 'Tania' Hearst brainwashed?". The Palm Beach Post.
  68. ^ (AP), "Patricia Hearst Undergoes Surgery", Ellensburg Daily Record, April 14, 1975
  69. ^ San Francisco (AP), "Security plan would have Patty at home", Bangor Daily News, November 12, 1976
  70. ^ "Lighter Sentence If Patty Hearst Was Poor", Lodi News-Sentinel, May 24, 1977
  71. ^ "Escape From The SLA".
  72. ^ Dahlia Lithwick, The Brainwashed Defense, Slate, January 28, 2002
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Cited texts[edit]

  • Toobin, Jeffrey (2016). American Heiress: The Wild Saga of the Kidnapping, Crimes and Trial of Patty Hearst. Knopf Doubleday. ISBN 9780385536714.
  • Graebner, William (2008). Patty's Got a Gun: Patricia Hearst in 1970s America. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226305226.

External links[edit]

Media related to Patty Hearst at Wikimedia Commons