Paul Auster

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Paul Auster
Auster at the 2010 Brooklyn Book Festival
Auster at the 2010 Brooklyn Book Festival
BornPaul Benjamin Auster
(1947-02-03) February 3, 1947 (age 71)
Newark, New Jersey, United States
Pen namePaul Benjamin
OccupationNovelist, poet, filmmaker, translator
NationalityAmerican
Alma materColumbia University
Period1974–present
GenrePoetry, literary fiction
Spouse
Children2, including Sophie
Website
paul-auster.com

Paul Benjamin Auster (born February 3, 1947) is an American writer and film director. His notable works include The New York Trilogy (1987), Moon Palace (1989), The Music of Chance (1990), The Book of Illusions (2002), The Brooklyn Follies (2005), Invisible (2009), Sunset Park (2010), Winter Journal (2012), and 4 3 2 1 (2017). His books have been translated into more than forty languages.[1]

Early life[edit]

Paul Auster was born in Newark, New Jersey,[2] to Jewish middle-class parents of Polish descent, Queenie (née Bogat) and Samuel Auster.[3][4] He grew up in South Orange, New Jersey[5] and Newark[6] and graduated from Columbia High School in Maplewood.[7]

Career[edit]

After graduating from Columbia University with B.A. and M.A. degrees in 1970, he moved to Paris, France where he earned a living translating French literature. Since returning to the U.S. in 1974, he has published poems, essays, and novels, as well as translations of French writers such as Stéphane Mallarmé and Joseph Joubert.

Auster greeting Israeli President Shimon Peres with Salman Rushdie and Caro Llewellyn in 2008

Following his acclaimed debut work, a memoir entitled The Invention of Solitude, Auster gained renown for a series of three loosely connected stories published collectively as The New York Trilogy. Although these books allude to the detective genre they are not conventional detective stories organized around a mystery and a series of clues. Rather, he uses the detective form to address existential issues and questions of identity, space, language, and literature, creating his own distinctively postmodern (and critique of postmodernist) form in the process. According to Auster, "...the Trilogy grows directly out of The Invention of Solitude."[8]

The search for identity and personal meaning has permeated Auster's later publications, many of which concentrate heavily on the role of coincidence and random events (The Music of Chance) or increasingly, the relationships between people and their peers and environment (The Book of Illusions, Moon Palace). Auster's heroes often find themselves obliged to work as part of someone else's inscrutable and larger-than-life schemes. In 1995, Auster wrote and co-directed the films Smoke (which won him the Independent Spirit Award for Best First Screenplay) and Blue in the Face. Auster's more recent works, from Oracle Night (2003) to 4 3 2 1 (2017), have also met with critical acclaim.

He was on the PEN American Center Board of Trustees from 2004 to 2009,[9][10] and Vice President during 2005 to 2007.[11][12]

In 2012, Auster was quoted as saying in an interview that he would not visit Turkey, in protest of its treatment of journalists. The Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan replied: "As if we need you! Who cares if you come or not?"[13] Auster responded: "According to the latest numbers gathered by International PEN, there are nearly one hundred writers imprisoned in Turkey, not to speak of independent publishers such as Ragıp Zarakolu, whose case is being closely watched by PEN Centers around the world".[14]

Auster's most recent book, A Life in Words, was published in October 2017 by Seven Stories Press. It brings together three years of conversations with the Danish scholar I.B. Siegumfeldt about each one of his works, both fiction and non-fiction. It is a primary source for understanding Auster's approach to his work.[15]

Themes[edit]

Much of the early scholarship about Auster's work saw links between it and the theories of such French writers as Jacques Lacan, Jacques Derrida, and others, but Auster himself has denied these influences and has asserted in print that "I've read only one short essay by Lacan, the "Purloined Letter," in the Yale French Studies issue on poststructuralism—all the way back in 1966."[16] Other scholars have seen influences in Auster's work of the American transcendentalists of the nineteenth century, as exemplified by Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson. The transcendentalists believed that the symbolic order of civilization has separated us from the natural order of the world, and that by moving into nature, as Thoreau did, as he described in Walden, it would be possible to return to this natural order.

Edgar Allan Poe, Samuel Beckett, and Nathaniel Hawthorne have also had a strong influence on Auster's writing. Auster has specifically referred to characters from Poe and Hawthorne in his novels, for example William Wilson in City of Glass or Hawthorne's Fanshawe in The Locked Room, both from The New York Trilogy.

Paul Auster's reappearing subjects are:[17]

  • coincidence
  • frequent portrayal of an ascetic life
  • a sense of imminent disaster
  • an obsessive writer as central character or narrator
  • loss of the ability to understand
  • loss of language
  • loss of money – having a lot, but losing it little by little without earning some new money any more
  • depiction of daily and ordinary life
  • failure[18]
  • absence of a father
  • writing and story telling, metafiction
  • intertextuality
  • American history
  • American space

Reception[edit]

"Over the past twenty-five years," opined Michael Dirda in The New York Review of Books in 2008, "Paul Auster has established one of the most distinctive niches in contemporary literature."[19] Dirda also has extolled his loaded virtues in The Washington Post:

Ever since City of Glass, the first volume of his New York Trilogy, Auster has perfected a limpid, confessional style, then used it to set disoriented heroes in a seemingly familiar world gradually suffused with mounting uneasiness, vague menace and possible hallucination. His plots – drawing on elements from suspense stories, existential récit, and autobiography – keep readers turning the pages, but sometimes end by leaving them uncertain about what they've just been through.[20]

Writing about Auster's most recent novel, 4 3 2 1, Booklist critic Donna Seaman remarked:

Auster has been turning readers' heads for three decades, bending the conventions of storytelling, blurring the line between fiction and autobiography, infusing novels with literary and cinematic allusions, and calling attention to the art of storytelling itself, not with cool, intellectual remove, but rather with wonder, gratitude, daring, and sly humor....Auster's fiction is rife with cosmic riddles and rich in emotional complexity. He now presents his most capacious, demanding, eventful, suspenseful, erotic, structurally audacious, funny, and soulful novel to date....Auster is conducting a grand experiment, not only in storytelling, but also in the endless nature-versus-nurture debate, the perpetual dance between inheritance and free will, intention and chance, dreams and fate. This elaborate investigation into the big what-if is also a mesmerizing dramatization of the multitude of clashing selves we each harbor within....A paean to youth, desire, books, creativity, and unpredictability, it is a four-faceted bildungsroman and an ars poetica, in which Auster elucidates his devotion to literature and art. He writes, 'To combine the strange with the familiar: that was what Ferguson aspired to, to observe the world as closely as the most dedicated realist and yet to create a way of seeing the world through a different, slightly distorting lens.' Auster achieves this and much more in his virtuoso, magnanimous, and ravishing opus.[21]

Personal life[edit]

Auster was married to the writer Lydia Davis. They have one son together, Daniel Auster.[22]

Auster and his second wife, writer Siri Hustvedt (the daughter of professor and scholar Lloyd Hustvedt), were married in 1981, and they live in Brooklyn.[2] Together they have one daughter, Sophie Auster.[23]

Awards[edit]

Published works[edit]

Fiction[edit]

Poetry[edit]

Screenplays[edit]

Essays, memoirs, and autobiographies[edit]

Edited collections[edit]

  • The Random House Book of Twentieth-Century French Poetry (1982) [33]
  • True Tales of American Life (First published under the title I Thought My Father Was God, and Other True Tales from NPR's National Story Project) (2001)[34]

Translations[edit]

Miscellaneous[edit]

  • The Story of My Typewriter with paintings by Sam Messer (2002)
  • "The Accidental Rebel" (Wed. April 23 article in New York Times)[35]
  • "ALONE" (2015) Prose piece from 1969 published in six copies along with "Becoming the Other in Translation" (2014) by Siri Hustvedt. Published by Danish small press Ark Editions[36]

Other media[edit]

  • In 1993, a movie adaptation of The Music of Chance was released. Auster features in a cameo role at the end of the film.
  • In 1994 City of Glass was adapted as a graphic novel by artist David Mazzucchelli and Paul Karasik. Auster's friend, noted cartoonist Art Spiegelman, produced the adaptation.
  • From 1999 to 2001, Auster was part of NPR's "National Story Project", a monthly radio show in which, together With NPR correspondent Jacki Lyden, Auster read stories sent in by NPR listeners across America.[37] Listeners were invited to send in stories of "anywhere from two paragraphs to two pages" that "must be true", from which Auster later selected entries, edited them and subsequently read them on the air.[38] Auster read over 4,000 stories submitted to the show,[39] with a few dozen eventually featured on the show and many more anthologized in two 2002 books edited by Auster.[40][41]
  • Jazz trumpeter and composer Michael Mantler's 2001 album Hide and Seek uses words by Auster from the play of the same name.
  • Paul Auster narrated "Ground Zero" (2004), an audio guide created by the Kitchen Sisters (Davia Nelson and Nikki Silva) and Soundwalk[42] and produced by NPR,[43] which won the Dalton Pen Award for Multi-media/Audio, (2005),[44] and was nominated for an Audie Award for best Original Work, (2005).[45]
  • Austrian composer Olga Neuwirth's composition ... ce qui arrive ... (2004) combines the recorded voice of Paul Auster with ensemble music and live electronics by Markus Noisternig and Thomas Musil (Institute of Electronic Music and Acoustics (IEM)). Paul Auster is heard reading from his books Hand to Mouth and The Red Notebook, either as straight recitation, integrated with other sounds as if in a radio play, or passed through an electronically realized string resonator so that the low tones interact with those of a string ensemble. A film by Dominique Gonzalez-Foerster runs throughout the work featuring the cabaret artist and actress Georgette Dee.
  • In 2005 his daughter, Sophie, recorded an album of songs in both French and English, entitled Sophie Auster, with the band One Ring Zero. The lyrics of three of the songs (in English) are by Paul Auster; and he also provided for the accompanying booklet translations of several French poems which form the lyrics of other songs on the album.
  • Paul Auster's voice may be heard on the 2005 album entitled We Must Be Losing It by The Farangs. The two tracks are entitled "Obituary in the Present Tense" and "Between the Lines".
  • On the 2006 album As Smart as We Are by New York band One Ring Zero, Auster wrote the lyrics for the song "Natty Man Blues" based on Cincinnati poet Norman Finkelstein.
  • In 2006 Paul Auster directed the film The Inner Life of Martin Frost, based on an original screenplay by him. It was shot in Lisbon and Azenhas do Mar and starred David Thewlis, Iréne Jacob, and Michael Imperioli as well as Auster's daughter Sophie. Auster provided the narration, albeit uncredited. The film premiered at the European Film Market, as part of the 2007 Berlinale in Berlin, Germany on February 10, 2007, and opened in New York City on September 7 of the same year.
  • The lyrics of Fionn Regan's 2006 song Put A Penny in the Slot mention Auster and his novella Timbuktu.
  • In the 2008 Russian film Плюс один (Plus One), the main character is in the process of translating one of Auster's books.
  • In the 2008 novel To the End of the Land by David Grossman, the bedroom bookshelf of the central IDF soldier character Ofer is described as prominently displaying several Auster titles.
  • In the 2009 documentary Act of God, Auster is interviewed on his experience of watching another boy struck and killed by lightning when he was 14.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This reprints both Travels in the Scriptorium and Man in the Dark, together in a single volume
  2. ^ "The Inner Life of Martin Frost" is a fictional movie that is described in full in Auster's novel The Book of Illusions. It is the only film that the protagonist watches of Hector Mann's later, hidden films. It is the story of a man meeting a girl – an intense relationship with a touch of supernatural elements. Auster later created a real movie of the same name (see "Other Media" section below).

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Theater Rigiblick – Spielplan – Kalenderansicht – Paul Auster liest". Theater Rigiblick. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
  2. ^ a b Freeman, John. "At home with Siri and Paul" Archived March 9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., The Jerusalem Post, April 3, 2008. Retrieved September 19, 2008. "Like so many people in New York, both of them are spiritual refugees of a sort. Auster hails from Newark, New Jersey, and Hustvedt from Minnesota, where she was raised the daughter of a professor, among a clan of very tall siblings."
  3. ^ Conversations with Paul Auster – Google Books. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  4. ^ Taub, Michael; Shatzky, Joel (1997). Contemporary Jewish-American Novelists: A Bio-critical Sourcebook. Greenwood. pp. 13–20. ISBN 978-0313294624.
  5. ^ Begley, Adam. "Case of the Brooklyn Symbolist", The New York Times, August 30, 1992. Retrieved September 19, 2008. "The grandson of first-generation Jewish immigrants, he was born in Newark in 1947, grew up in South Orange and attended high school in Maplewood, 20 miles southwest of New York."
  6. ^ Auster, Paul. Winter Journal (New York, NY: Henry Holt, 2012), p. 61.
  7. ^ Freeman, Hadley. "American dreams: He may be known as one of New York's coolest chroniclers, but Paul Auster grew up in suburban New Jersey and worked on an oil tanker before achieving literary success. Hadley Freeman meets a modernist with some very traditional views", The Guardian, October 26, 2002. Retrieved September 19, 2008. "Education: Columbia High School, New Jersey; 1965–69 Columbia College, New York; '69–70 Columbia University, New York (quit after one year)"
  8. ^ Mallia, Joseph. ""Paul Auster", "BOMB Magazine", Spring, 1988.
  9. ^ "Board of Trustees: 2004–2005 | PEN American Center". www.pen.org. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  10. ^ "Board of Trustees: 2008–2009 | PEN American Center". www.pen.org. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  11. ^ "Board of Trustees: 2005–2006 | PEN American Center". www.pen.org. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  12. ^ "Board of Trustees: 2006–2007 | PEN American Center". www.pen.org. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  13. ^ Associated Press in Ankara (March 27, 2013). "Turkish PM criticises US writer Paul Auster over human rights comments, Guardian, 01.02.2012". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  14. ^ Itzkoff, Dave. "Paul Auster Responds After Turkish Prime Minister Calls Him 'an Ignorant Man', The New York Times, 01.02.2012". Turkey: Artsbeat.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  15. ^ "A Life in Words by Paul Auster in Conversation with I B Siegumfeldt". Penguin Random House. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  16. ^ Auster, Paul (2017). A Life in Words. Seven Stories Press. pp. xv.
  17. ^ Dennis Barone (ed.): Beyond the Red Notebook. Essays on Paul Auster. Penn Studies in Contemporary American Fiction. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia (2. ed. 1996)
  18. ^ Dirk Peters: Das Motiv des Scheiterns in Paul Austers "City of Glass" und "Music of Chance". unpublished MA dissertation, Christian-Albrechts Universität Kiel, 1998
  19. ^ Dirda 2008.
  20. ^ Dirda 2003.
  21. ^ Seaman, Donna (November 15, 2016). "Booklist review: 4 3 2 1 by Paul Auster". Booklist.
  22. ^ Goodyear, Dana (March 17, 2014). "Long Story Short". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  23. ^ Denes, Melissa (February 3, 2006). "The dark side of happiness". The Guardian.
  24. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter A" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 16, 2011.
  25. ^ "Paul Auster décoré par la France à New York sur le site de France 3". Archived from the original on November 20, 2007.
  26. ^ Paul Auster décoré par Bertrand Delanoë from the website of L'Express June 11, 2010
  27. ^ "NYC Literary Honors – 2012 Honorees". nyc.gov. Archived from the original on May 14, 2014. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
  28. ^ McCrum, Robert (October 15, 2017). "Man Booker prize 2017: from Abraham Lincoln to Brexit Britain". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  29. ^ Another Paul Auster novel, 'Man in the Dark', was due to be published by Henry Holt in the U.S. on Monday September 1, 2008.[1]
  30. ^ Flood, Alison (October 29, 2008). "Paul Auster talks to Alison Flood". The Guardian.
  31. ^ Akbar, Arifa (October 30, 2009). "Innocence of youth: How Paul Auster excavated his own past for his latest novel – Features – Books". The Independent. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  32. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 27, 2016. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
  33. ^ for more information about some of the poets included in this volume see:French Poetry since 1950: Tendencies III by Jean-Michel Maulpoix
  34. ^ pdf version for download in http://pt.scribd.com/doc/46890380/Paul-Auster-and-True-Tales-of-American-Life
  35. ^ Auster, Paul (April 23, 2008). "The Accidental Rebel". The New York Times.
  36. ^ "Amerikanske forfatterstjerner hjælper miniboghandel på Nørrebro". Politiken. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
  37. ^ "NPR – Weekend All Things Considered: National Story Project". NPR.
  38. ^ "NPR – Weekend All Things Considered: National Story Project". NPR.
  39. ^ Michael Wood (Fall 2003). "Paul Auster, The Art of Fiction No. 178". The Paris Review.
  40. ^ . ISBN 9780312421007. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  41. ^ . ISBN 9780571210701. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  42. ^ Boxer, Sarah. "Sounds of a Silent Place" The New York Times. September 11, 2004. Retrieved September 12, 2009.
  43. ^ Soundwalk Archived June 28, 2018, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved September 12, 2009.
  44. ^ Dalton Pen Communications Awards Archived September 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved September 17, 2009.
  45. ^ Audio Publishers Association. Retrieved September 17, 2009.

Further reading[edit]

  • Paul Auster, Gérard de Cortanze: La solitude du labyrinthe. Paris: Actes Sud, 1997.
  • Franchot Ballinger: "Ambigere: The Euro-American Picaro and the Native American Trickster". MELUS, 17 (1991–92), pp. 21–38.
  • Dennis Barone (ed.): Beyond the Red Notebook. Essays on Paul Auster. Penn Studies in Contemporary American Fiction. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia (2 edn 1996)
  • Dennis Barone: "Auster’s Memory". The Review of Contemporary Fiction, 14:1 (Spring 1994), pp. 32–34
  • Charles Baxter: "The Bureau of Missing Persons: Notes on Paul Auster’s Fiction". The Review of Contemporary Fiction, 14:1 (Spring 1994), pp. 40–43.
  • Harold Bloom (ed.): Paul Auster. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publ.; 2004.
  • Thorsten Carstensen: "Skepticism and Responsibility: Paul Auster’s The Book of Illusions." in: Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction 58:4 (2017): 411-425.
  • Martine Chard-Hutchinson "Paul Auster (1947– )". In: Joel Shatzky and Michael Taub (eds). Contemporary Jewish-American Novelists: A Bio-Critical Sourceboook. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1997, pp. 13–20.
  • Alain Chareyre-Méjan, Guillaume Pigeard de Gurbert. "Ce que Paul Auster n'a jamais dit: une logique du quelconque". In: Annick Duperray (ed.). L'oeuvre de Paul Auster: approches et lectures plurielles. Actes du colloque Paul Auster. Aix-en-Provence: Actes Sud, 1995, pp. 176–184.
  • Gérard de Cortanze, James Rudnick: Paul Auster's New York. Gerstenberg, New York; Hildesheim, 1998
  • (in French) Gérard de Cortanze Le New York de Paul Auster. Paris: Les Éditions du Chêne-Hachette Livre, 1996.
  • Robert Creeley: "Austerities". The Review of Contemporary Fiction, 14:1 (Spring 1994), pp. 35–39.
  • Scott Dimovitz: "Public Personae and the Private I: De-Compositional Ontology in Paul Auster's The New York Trilogy". MFS: Modern Fiction Studies. 52:3 (Fall 2006): 613–633.
  • Scott Dimovitz: "Portraits in Absentia: Repetition, Compulsion, and the Postmodern Uncanny in Paul Auster's Leviathan". Studies in the Novel. 40:4 (Winter 2008): 447–464.
  • William Drenttel (ed.): Paul Auster: A Comprehensive Bibliographic Checklist of Published Works 1968–1994. New York: Delos Press, 1994.
  • Annick Duperray: Paul Auster: Les ambiguïtés de la négation. Paris: Belin. 2003.
  • (in German)Sven Gächter: Schreiben ist eine endlose Therapie: Der amerikanische Romancier Paul Auster über das allmähliche Entstehen von Geschichten. Weltwoche (December 31, 1992), p. 30.
  • François Gavillon: Paul Auster, gravité et légèreté de l'écriture. Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2000.
  • Charles Grandjeat: "Le hasard et la nécessité dans l’oeuvre de Paul Auster". In: Annick Duperray (ed.). L'oeuvre de Paul Auster: approches et lectures plurielles. Actes du colloque Paul Auster. Aix-en-Provence: Actes Sud, 1995, pp. 153–163.
  • (in German) Ulrich Greiner: Gelobtes Land. Amerikanische Schriftsteller über Amerika. Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 1997
  • Claude Grimal: "Paul Auster au coeur des labyrinthes". Europe: Revue Littéraire Mensuelle, 68:733 (1990), pp. 64–66.
  • Allan Gurganus: "How Do You Introduce Paul Auster in Three Minutes?". The Review of Contemporary Fiction, 14:1 (Spring 1994), pp. 7–8.
  • Anne M. Holzapfel: The New York trilogy. Whodunit? Tracking the structure of Paul Auster’s anti-detective novels. Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1996. (= Studien zur Germanistik und Anglistik; 11) ISBN 3-631-49798-9
  • (in German) Beate Hötger: Identität im filmischen Werk von Paul Auster. Lang, Frankfurt am Main u.a. 2002. (= Europäische Hochschulschriften; Reihe 30, 84) ISBN 3-631-38470-X
  • (in German) Heiko Jakubzik: Paul Auster und die Klassiker der American Renaissance. Dissertation, Universität Heidelberg 1999 (online text)
  • Bernd Herzogenrath: An Art of Desire. Reading Paul Auster. Amsterdam: Rodopi; 1999
  • Bernd Herzogenrath: "Introduction". In: Bernd Herzogenrath. An Art of Desire: Reading Paul Auster. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1999, pp. 1–11.
  • Gerald Howard: Publishing Paul Auster. The Review of Contemporary Fiction, 14:1 (Spring 1994), pp. 92–95.
  • Peter Kirkegaard: "Cities, Signs, Meanings in Walter Benjamin and Paul Auster: Or, Never Sure of Any of It", in Orbis Litterarum: International Review of Literary Studies 48 (1993): 161179.
  • Barry Lewis: "The Strange Case of Paul Auster". The Review of Contemporary Fiction, 14:1 (Spring 1994), pp. 53–61.
  • James Marcus: "Auster! Auster!". The Village Voice, 39 (August 30, 1994), pp. 55–56.
  • Brian McHale Constructing Postmodernism. London and New York: Routledge, 1992.
  • Patricia Merivale: "The Austerized Version". Contemporary Literature, 38:1 (Spring 1997), pp. 185–197.
  • Christophe Metress: "Iles et archipels, sauver ce qui est récupérable: la fiction de Paul Auster". In: Annick Duperray (ed.). L'oeuvre de Paul Auster: approches et lectures plurielles. Actes du colloque Paul Auster. Aix-en-Provence: Actes Sud, 1995, pp. 245–257.
  • James Peacock: "Carrying the Burden of Representation: Paul Auster's The Book of Illusions". Journal of American Studies, 40:1 (April 2006), pp. 53–70.
  • (in German) Werner Reinhart: Pikareske Romane der 80er Jahre. Ronald Reagan und die Renaissance des politischen Erzählens in den USA. (Acker, Auster, Boyle, Irving, Kennedy, Pynchon). Narr, Tübingen 2001
  • William Riggan: Picaros, Madmen, Naïfs, and Clowns: The Unreliable First-Person Narrator. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1981.
  • Mark Rudman: "Paul Auster: Some Elective Affinities". The Review of Contemporary Fiction, 14:1 (Spring 1994), pp. 44–45.
  • (in German) Michael Rutschky: "Die Erfindung der Einsamkeit: Der amerikanische Schriftsteller Paul Auster"'. Merkur, 45 (1991), pp. 1105–1113.
  • Edward H. Schafer: "Ways of Looking at the Moon Palace". Asia Major. 1988; 1(1):1–13.
  • (in German) Steffen Sielaff: Die postmoderne Odyssee. Raum und Subjekt in den Romanen von Paul Auster. Univ. Diss., Berlin 2004.
  • (in German) Joseph C. Schöpp: Ausbruch aus der Mimesis: Der amerikanische Roman im Zeichen der Postmoderne. München: Fink, 1990.
  • Motoyuki Shibata: "Being Paul Auster’s Ghost". In: Dennis Barone (ed.). Beyond the Red Notebook: Essays on Paul Auster. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995, pp. 183–188.
  • Ilana Shiloh: "Paul Auster and Postmodern Quest: On the Road to Nowhere." New York, Peter Lang 2000.
  • Carsten Springer: Crises. The works of Paul Auster. Lang, Frankfurt am Main u.a. 2001. (= American culture; 1) ISBN 3-631-37487-9
  • Carsten Springer: A Paul Auster Sourcebook. Frankfurt a. Main u. a., Peter Lang, 2001.
  • Eduardo Urbina: La ficción que no cesa: Paul Auster y Cervantes. Vigo: Editorial Academia del Hispanismo, 2007.
  • Eduardo Urbina: "La ficción que no cesa: Cervantes y Paul Auster". Cervantes en el ámbito anglosajón. Eds. Diego Martínez Torrón and Bernd Dietz. Madrid: SIAL Ediciones, 2005. 433-42.
  • Eduardo Urbina: "Reflejos lunares, o la transformación paródica de la locura quijotesca en Moon Palace (1989) de Paul Auster". Siglos dorados; Homenaje an Augustin Redondo. Ed. Pierre Civil. Madrid: Castalia, 2004. 2: 1417–25.
  • Eduardo Urbina: "Parodias cervantinas: el Quijote en tres novelas de Paul Auster (La ciudad de cristal, El palacio de la luna y El libro de las ilusiones)". Calamo currente’: Homenaje a Juan Bautista de Avalle Arce. Ed. Miguel Zugasti. RILCE (Universidad de Navarra) 23.1 (2007): 245–56.
  • Eduardo Urbina: "Reading Matters: Quixotic Fiction and Subversive Discourse in Paul Auster’s The Book of Illusions". Critical Reflections: Essays on Golden Age Spanish Literature in Honor of James A. Parr. Eds. Barbara Simerka and Amy R. Williamsen. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 2006. 57–66.
  • Various authors: Special edition on Paul Auster. Critique. 1998 Spring; 39(3).
  • Aliki Varvogli: World That is the Book: Paul Auster's Fiction. Liverpool University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-85323-697-9
  • Florian Felix Weyh: "Paul Auster". Kritisches Lexikon der fremdsprachigen Gegenwartsliteratur (26. Nachlieferung), pp. 1–10.
  • Curtis White: "The Auster Instance: A Ficto-Biography". The Review of Contemporary Fiction, 14:1 (Spring 1994), pp. 26–29.
  • Eric Wirth: "A Look Back from the Horizon". In: Dennis Barone (ed.). Beyond the Red Notebook: Essays on Paul Auster. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995, pp. 171–182.
  • John Zilcosky: "The Revenge of the Author: Paul Auster’s Challenge to Theory". Critique, 39:3 (Spring 1998), pp. 195–206.

External links[edit]