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Paul Dacre

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Paul Dacre
Born Paul Michael Dacre
(1948-11-14) 14 November 1948 (age 68)
Arnos Grove, London, England[1]
Nationality British
Alma mater University College School
University of Leeds
Occupation Journalist and newspaper editor
Employer Daily Mail and General Trust
Known for Editor of the Daily Mail
Spouse(s) Kathleen Thomson
Children 2 sons[2]
Parent(s) Peter Dacre (deceased), Joan

Paul Michael Dacre (/ˈdkər/; born 14 November 1948[1]) is an English journalist and editor of the British newspaper the Daily Mail. He is also editor-in-chief of DMG Media, which publishes the Daily Mail, The Mail on Sunday, the free daily tabloid Metro, and other titles.[3] He is a director of the Daily Mail and General Trust plc (Associated Newspapers' holding group) and was a member of the Press Complaints Commission (PCC) from 1999[4] to 2008. He left the PCC in order to become chairman of the PCC's Editors' Code of Practice Committee from April 2008.[5] His departure from the post was announced at the beginning of December 2016.[6]

In the British Press Awards, organised by the Society of Editors, Dacre's Daily Mail has won the "Newspaper of the Year" category on six occasions, twice as often as any other title.[7]

Early life[edit]

Dacre was born and grew up in the north London suburb of Arnos Grove in Enfield.[8] His father, Peter, was a journalist on the Sunday Express whose work included show business features.[9][10][11] Joan, his mother, was a teacher, and the couple had five sons, of which Paul was the eldest.[12] One of his brothers, Nigel, was editor of ITV's news programmes from 1995 to 2002.[13]

He was educated at University College School, an independent school in Hampstead, on a state scholarship,[14] where he was head of house.[15] In his school holidays, he worked as a messenger at the Sunday Express, and during his pre-university gap year as a trainee in the Daily Express.[11] From 1967 he read English at the University of Leeds,[16] while Jack Straw was President of the Student's Union.[15]

While at university, he became involved with the Union News newspaper (the Leeds Student from 1970), rising to the position of editor.[17] At this time he identified with the liberal end of the political spectrum on issues including gay rights and drug use,[18] and wrote editorials in support of a student sit-in at Leeds organised by Straw.[19] He introduced a pin-up feature in the newspaper called "Leeds Lovelies".[19][20] He told the British Journalism Review in 2002: "If you don’t have a left-wing period when you go to university, you should be shot"[11] and said of his early experience of editing in November 2008 that it taught him "dull [content] doesn’t sell newspapers. Boring doesn’t pay the mortgage", but also that "sensation sells papers".[19]

On his graduation in 1971, Dacre joined the Daily Express in Manchester for a six-month trial;[14] after this he was given a full-time job on the Express. Concerning his career choice, Dacre commented in the BJR interview that he "never any desire to do anything other than journalism".[11]

Early career[edit]

At the Express, Dacre worked as correspondent in a variety of locations before being sent to Washington, D.C., in 1976 to cover that year's American presidential election,[11] remaining there until 1979, when he moved to New York as a correspondent.[21] It was at this time that his politics shifted to the right:

After his years at the Express bureau, Dacre was head-hunted by David English to be Bureau chief for the Mail in 1980,[21] but was brought back to the UK in 1983 to be news editor.[21] A profile in The Independent in 1992 recounted his behaviour in this period: "It was terrifying stuff. He would rampage through the newsroom with his arms flailing like a windmill, scratching himself manically as he fired himself up."[15] Subsequently, he became assistant editor (news and features), assistant editor (features) in 1987, executive editor the following year and associate editor in 1989.[22]

He was appointed editor of the Evening Standard in March 1991 and replaced (the by then) Sir David English the following year as editor of the Daily Mail,[23] after turning down an offer from Rupert Murdoch to edit The Times.[11][23] Dacre believed that Murdoch "would not accept my desire to edit with freedom".[24] It was his approach to the job of editor—"hard-working, disciplined, confrontational"[14]—which had led Murdoch to attempt to hire him. For the Mail, Dacre was considered important enough for English to become editor-in-chief, considered a means of sidelining someone considered unsackable.[14] After English's death in March 1998, Dacre himself became the Mail Group's editor-in-chief the following July,[22] in addition to remaining as editor of the Daily Mail.[3]

Editor of the Daily Mail[edit]

Stephen Lawrence case[edit]

Dacre's most prominent newspaper campaign was in 1997, against the suspects who were acquitted of the murder in 1993 of the black teenager Stephen Lawrence. It "turned out to be one of the very rare instances in which the editor showed fellow-feeling", wrote Andrew O'Hagan.[25] According to Nick Davies in Flat Earth News, the paper originally intended an attack on the groups arguing for an inquiry into the Lawrence murder, but the paper's reporter Hal Austin, on interviewing Neville and Doreen Lawrence, realised that some years earlier, Neville had worked at Dacre's home in Islington as a plasterer,[24] and the news desk instructed Austin to "Do something sympathetic" about the case.[26] Dacre eventually used the headline "MURDERERS" accusing the suspects of the crime on 14 February 1997.[27] He repeated this headline in 2006.

On the final day of the inquest held at the coroner’s court, Dacre and other Mail executives had lunch with Sir Paul Condon, then Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, "who very eloquently told me they were as guilty as sin".[11] Four of the five suspects had never provided any alibi for their whereabouts on the night of Stephen Lawrence's murder and they invoked the privilege against self incrimination to avoid giving evidence and exposing themselves to cross examination. The police believed that the alibi of the fifth suspect was unconvincing. The newspaper on 14 February 1997, under its headline asserted: "The Mail accuses these men of killing. If we are wrong, let them sue us".[28] No claim was issued and the newspaper received significant acclaim and opprobrium as a result.[11] Two of the men featured on the Mail front page[27] were convicted of Stephen Lawrence's murder in January 2012.[29] Jonathan Freedland of The Guardian wrote of the development: "He made an unlikely anti-racist campaigner, but there were few voices more critical in the demand for justice for Stephen Lawrence than Paul Dacre and the Daily Mail.[30]

On other occasions, the Mail under Dacre has been criticised for its racist attitude towards the stories it chooses to cover. Nick Davies recounts an anecdote from a former senior news reporter who en route to a murder scene of a woman and her two children 300 miles away was told to return because the victims were black.[31] Davies comments: "Perhaps I have been unlucky, but I have never come across a reporter from the Daily Mail who did not have some similar story, of black people being excluded from the paper because of their colour."[31]

The New Labour years[edit]

In the opinion of the conservative journalist Simon Heffer, the Daily Mail editor is "highly influential politically",[32] Dacre said during a talk given to students in January 2007, that the Conservative Party could not be guaranteed the Mail's support at the 2010 general election, and he also queried whether the party was still conservative.[32]

Indeed, the Mail under Dacre briefly entertained positive views of New Labour until the Formula 1 tobacco advertising controversy and clashes with the government's Director of Communications Alastair Campbell cooled the relationship thanks to the practice of spin doctoring.[33] Dacre said in 2004:

Dacre later wrote: "for years, while most of Fleet Street were in thrall to it, the Mail was the only paper to stand up to the malign propaganda machine of Tony Blair and his appalling henchman, Campbell",[35]

As recounted by John Lloyd in 2004, Campbell's assistant in Labour's first term, Tim Allan, believed "the government [spent] years trying to be chummy with the Daily Mail... Blair sees himself as the great persuader, able to convince anyone. But they didn't want to like him. The government raised far too much time trying to turn the Mail around".[36]

The newspaper also turned against Cherie Blair, the former Prime Minister's wife, when the Blairs' lawyers prevented the publication of a former nanny's memoirs;[37] official regulations prevent press revelations regarding the children of public figures. The Daily Mail and Mail on Sunday also came into direct conflict with No. 10 in 2002 for their pursuit of Cherie Blair's connection to the conman Peter Foster, although Dacre denied any "agenda apart from good journalism".[38] He was reportedly horrified when he saw Cherie Blair breastfeeding in public.[1] Tony Blair targeted the Mail titles directly, denouncing "parts of the media that will take what there is that is true and then turn it round into something that is a total distortion of the real truth".[38] Motivated by the Daily Express disallowing the Daily Mail to serialise a biography of Alastair Campbell by then Express employee Peter Oborne, the Mail's spoiling exercise led to Campbell contacting Dacre because a Mail article had falsely declared Campbell's father to be dead when, in fact, he was still alive. Dacre had previously told Campbell, that he had not supervised that day's issue. A donation followed to the school of one of Campbell's children.[33][39]

According to Michael White, Dacre made contact with Gordon Brown around 2000 as the Mail editor's attitude towards Blair became more negative.[40] In 2002, while Brown was Chancellor of the Exchequer, Dacre commented about his high admiration for him: "I feel he is one of the very few politicians of this administration who's touched by the mantle of greatness".[11] Brown returned the favour at an event at the Savoy Hotel which celebrated the tenth anniversary of Dacre's editorship of the Mail in 2003.[41] In a video presentation, Brown said that Dacre "has devised, developed and delivered one of the great newspaper success stories of any generation" and was "someone of great journalistic skill, an editor of great distinction and someone of very great personal warmth".[42][43] Journalist Polly Toynbee referred to this relationship as an "incomprehensible and grovelling friendship" on the part of Brown with "Labour's worst enemy".[44] In explanation, Peter Wilby thought both men were "puritans at heart".[45] Campbell, however, has written that Brown in conversation always "adamantly denied" being a "personal friend" of Dacre.[33] Although he has Eurosceptic inclinations, Dacre backed Kenneth Clarke, an enthusiast for the European Union, to be leader of the Conservative Party on two occasions.[7][46]

Brown commissioned an independent inquiry chaired by Dacre on the release of government information, which reported at the end of January 2009. It recommended the halving of the thirty-year rule in the remaining areas where it still applied. Dacre wrote: "the existing rule seemed to condone unnecessary secrecy rather than protecting necessary confidentiality. This perception of secrecy was breeding public cynicism".[47] In addition, the report called for ("as a matter of urgency") a review of the government's methods of preserving information held digitally for their long-term survival. It also called for an independent review of the "Radcliffe" rules, which apply to the information released in the memoirs of former ministers, in the light of the changes it recommended.[48]

Editorial strategy[edit]

According to the academic and journalist John Lloyd, responding in 2007, Dacre is currently the only "British newspaper editor who stamps himself on his newspaper every morning" reflecting "his unique blend of libertarian-authoritarian Conservatism".[49] According to Roy Greenslade in The Guardian: "The Mail is a rare national newspaper in that it is the embodiment of the values and views of its editor rather than its proprietor. It is very much Paul Dacre's paper". Jonathan Harmsworth, 4th Viscount Rothermere is "unlike almost every other owner, he is genuinely hands off".[50]

Some years later, at the Leveson Inquiry in February 2012, Dacre rejected the idea that he imposes his will on the paper. He commented that some issues contain opinions which "make my hair go white" and asserted that some journalists "would resign if I told them what to write".[51] He once suggested in general terms to a new employee, sports' columnist Des Kelly, the best way to write for readers: "Make them laugh, make them cry, or make them angry".[52] Peter Preston noted: "He can hire leading voices from the Guardian or the Observer and let them say exactly what they'd have said in their old homes."[53] The astrologer Jonathan Cainer was first taken on for a Mail horoscope column in December 1992. Given to an unconventional dress code Dacre found objectionable, his contract had a clause insisting he wore a suit. Cainer, who spent the bulk of his career at the Mail although he "never once agreed with an editorial they have published", was the highest paid journalist of his era.[54]

Dacre told Lauren Collins for a 2012 article about the Mail in The New Yorker: "The family is the greatest institution on God’s green earth." The typical locale of his readers, he told Collins, is the area of North London in which Dacre himself was raised, Arnos Grove: "Its inhabitants were frugal, reticent, utterly self-reliant, and immensely aspirational. They were also suspicious of progressive values, vulgarity of any kind, self-indulgence, pretentiousness, and people who know best".[17] His stated objective as editor is:

Dacre has pursued a strategy of appointing star columnists established at other newspapers at significantly raised salaries, including in 2006, Peter Oborne (for £200,000 per annum) and Tom Utley (for £120,000). Richard Littlejohn was then on £700,000 a year.[56] Contractual problems have sometimes broken into the open. Astrologer Jonathan Cainer, before his 2000–4 sojourn when he worked for other titles, was offered £1 million to stay with the Mail because he was thought vital to sustaining the paper's circulation over the Daily Express. This dispute led to a court case against Cainer which the Mail lost.[54] Another legal entanglement came in 2005 with The Sun when the terms of Littlejohn's contract came into conflict with his obligations to his former newspaper. Dacre's appearance in the High Court was only averted by a few days.[57] Even critics, such as Peter Wilby,[58] consider the Mail "a technically brilliant paper".[59] Eight former national newspaper editors in 2003 considered "the secret of its success", according to Brian MacArthur in The Times, as being "Dacre’s utter, old-fashioned professionalism".[41]

At the end of 2007, there was speculation in the press over Paul Dacre's future at the Daily Mail. Dacre is known to have a heart condition. He was off work for three months in mid-2007,[60] and for three weeks that autumn with what was described as "gastric flu". Stephen Glover, a Mail columnist, wrote urging the parent company DMGT to make a statement ending the uncertainty;[61] four days later the company reaffirmed Dacre's position.[62]

From the business point of view, Dacre's time as editor has been highly successful: "no editor can point to rises in sales that come anywhere near Dacre's in the [first] 10 years that he has been in the job", wrote Simon O'Hagan in 2002.[8] In his first decade as editor of the Mail, circulation rose by 805,000 in a declining market for tabloid newspapers.[41] Circulation peaked in 2003 with sales of 2.5 million, but is now a million lower affected like all print titles by the internet, but the Mail's website Mailonline has overtaken The New York Times as the English-language title with the largest reach. Although the website reprints Mail content as well as generating its own material, responsibility for it is delegated to Martin Clarke; Dacre does not use a computer.[63]

On 24 May 2016, Lord Rothermere issued a company profit's warning to the city and the share price fell by almost 10%.[64]

Responses[edit]

According to Cristina Odone in The Observer, Dacre has a reputation towards underlings of "verbal abuse [and] a drill sergeant's delight in public humiliation"[65] which also includes verbal abuse.[18] Nick Davies, in his book Flat Earth News (2008), writes that Dacre's staff call his morning editorial meetings the "Vagina Monologues" because of his habit of calling everybody a "cunt".[66] In his Desert Island Discs appearance in 2004, host Sue Lawley quizzed him on his methods, to which Dacre responded: "Shouting creates energy, energy creates great headlines."[17] Conrad Black, a convicted fraudster and ex-proprietor of the Telegraph papers, considers him "a saturnine and capricious manipulator".[67] Peter Wilby, in a December 2013 profile for the New Statesman, quoted an anonymous source, who said of Dacre: "He’s no longer the expletive volcano he once was; his barbs these days tend to concern the brainpower of his target and their supposed laziness."[7]

Polly Toynbee in 2004 called the newspaper a "daily blast of fear and loathing", while Dacre himself is "the most arrogant bully of us all".[68] "Read him out the first clause of the press code - the one that tells newspapers not to 'publish inaccurate, misleading or distorted material', and he replies with a straight face that the Mail obeys it".[68] Dacre "pays hate-writing columnists online", she wrote in 2017 before quoting one "not worth a name check" contributor, "as they speak his mind".[69] Andrew O'Hagan wrote in the London Review of Books in 2017 that Dacre's "worst effect" on the Mail "has been to let it seem mired in the things it hates, as if society’s worst excesses were mostly an outgrowth of its own paranoid imagination".[25] In his view, under its editor the paper is a "bubbling quagmire of prejudice posing as news, of opinion dressed as fact, and contempt posing as contempt for that portion of the world’s population that doesn’t live in Cheam".[25]

Dacre reportedly has difficulties relating to women,[1][7] and for Toynbee the Mail's attitude under his editorship reflects this. In 2007, Toynbee claimed the paper shares the opinions of Iran's President Ahmadinejad when it responded to his country's release of the hostage Faye Turney in April 2007.[70] After attempting to buy her story, according to the Ministry of Defence, "with a very substantial sum", and Turney going elsewhere, the paper denounced her as an "unfit mother".[44] "If you dare to take on the Mail you are a marked man (or woman)", wrote Roy Greenslade in 2013.[50]"When the Mail has a target in its sights, the victims suffer", wrote Brian MacArthur in The Times over a decade eadlier.[41]

Simon O'Hagan, writing in The Independent, stated: "As far as Dacre is concerned, women have no right to go out and earn money of their own, let alone rise to positions of power, when they also have a family".[8] Journalist Rachel Johnson, writing in The Spectator in 2001, noted that photographs taken of women for the features pages of the Mail must comply with the 'Dacre Rules' which she considered a "patriarchal, sexist, trivialising treatment of women". Johnson quoted a female Mail photographer she had met while writing an article for the newspaper: "No jeans. No black [clothes]. No trousers. Paul Dacre only wants women to appear wearing dresses. If skirts, only to the knee".[71]

In 2005, the then Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, long in conflict with the London Evening Standard, then wholly owned by the same media group as the Mail, branded the Mail titles "the most reprehensibly edited" publications in the world.[72] The Mail's treatment of asylum seekers and members of other vulnerable groups is a particular source of grievance for many critics, not only Livingstone. "Maybe we anti-racists have been naive to think that [the Stephen Lawrence campaign] was anything more than an aberration," suggests Yasmin Alibhai-Brown, adding: "wouldn't it be better if this extraordinary editor decided to use his influence to create just a little more understanding of why refugees leave their countries, and what most of them bring to our nation?"[73] Stephen Fry in August 2013 called Dacre a "frothing autocrat" and hypocrite who "sends his son to Eton" but mocked Fry "for being posh". Fry added: "He decries indecency on one page and pushes his male readers into a semi over a semi-nude actress on another. His cancer scare, miracle cure stories are sickeningly anti-science and the only good thing to be said about his Mail is that no one decent or educated believes in it".[74][75] Dacre's defence against his paper's critics in October 2013 was to decry the existence of "an unpleasant intellectual snobbery about the Mail in leftish circles, for whom the word 'suburban' is an obscenity. They simply cannot comprehend how a paper that opposes the mindset they hold dear can be so successful and so loved by its millions of readers. Well, I'm proud that the Mail stands up for those readers".[35]

A MORI poll in 2005 asked 30 editors from the national and regional press and from the broadcasting industry for the name of the editor they most admired. Dacre won the poll.[76] For Kelvin MacKenzie, the former editor of The Sun writing in 2005, he is "comfortably Britain’s finest editor" who arrives at work "determined to crush the life out of his rivals".[77] Publicist Max Clifford commented in February 2003 that "Paul Dacre is virtually a law [un]to himself" in not being influenced by the Daily Mail's publisher.[78]

Public appearances[edit]

Dacre has a reputation for avoiding publicity and rarely giving interviews preferring to "potter in his garden" than maintain a high profile in London's media circles,[1] and he takes a dim view of "celebrity editors" such as the former editor of the Daily Mirror, Piers Morgan.[79] Responding to comments on his more limited public visibility, he claims:

The Cudlipp Lecture was delivered by Dacre at the London College of Communication on 22 January 2007.[81][82] For him, Britain is dominated by a "subsidariat", those newspapers whose "journalism and values—invariably liberal, metropolitan and politically correct, and I include the pinkish Times here—don't connect with sufficient readers to be commercially viable" and make a profit.[83] Dacre also attacked the BBC as a "monolith" pursuing "Cultural Marxism" which has a singular world view and is contemptuous of "ordinary people".[84] According to Dacre:

Dacre was also critical of David Cameron, then just over a year into his leadership of the Conservative Party: "Today's Tories are obsessed by the BBC. They saw what its attack dogs did to [William] Hague, [Iain] Duncan Smith and [Michael] Howard. Cameron's cuddly blend of eco-politics and work/life balance, his embrace of Polly Toynbee, a columnist who loathes everything Conservatism stands for, but is a totemic figure to the BBC, his sidelining of Thatcherism and his banishing of all talk of lower taxes, lower immigration and euroscepticism are all part of the Tories' blood sacrifice to the BBC god."[85]

In The Guardian Peter Wilby claimed that Dacre's speech made "many listeners feel they were stuck in the back of a taxi with a particularly boring and opinionated driver".[58] Martin Kettle,[86] a columnist in The Guardian, questioned whether Dacre's assertion that the Mail represents Conservative voters can be sustained.[87] Kettle points out that in the 2005 general election 22% of Mail readers voted Labour, 14% for the Liberal Democrats and 7% for other non-Conservative candidates. "In this respect, therefore, the editor who claims to have a hotline to the national mood turns out to have something of a crossed line instead", Kettle wrote.[86]

Dacre became chairman of the PCC's Editors' Code of Practice Committee in April 2008.[5] On 9 November 2008, Dacre gave a speech to the Society of Editors in which he was critical of the emerging pressures for privacy laws following the conclusion of the Max Mosley libel case against the News of the World and Mr Justice Eady's closing remarks. According to Dacre, Eady had "effectively ruled that it was perfectly acceptable for" Mosley "to pay five women £2,500 to take part in acts of unimaginable sexual depravity with him" which is "the very abrogation of civilised behaviour of which the law is supposed to be the safeguard". Should the government want "to force a privacy law", the bill would need to go through the parliamentary stages, "withstand public scrutiny and win a series of votes", Dacre said. "Now, thanks to the wretched Human Rights Act, one judge with a subjective and highly relativist moral sense can do the same with a stroke of his pen".[19][88][89] Referring to a case in 2006 where Eady had blocked the publication of a married man's account of his wife's seduction by a prominent figure involved in sport, Dacre said "the judge - in an unashamed reversal of centuries of moral and social thinking - placed the rights of the adulterer above society’s age-old belief that adultery should be condemned".[88][89] If newspapers, which "devote considerable space" to "public affairs, don't have the freedom to write about scandal, I doubt whether they will retain their mass circulations with the obvious worrying implications for the democratic process".[88]

Peter Wilby wrote in The Guardian about another of his attacks on the BBC: "As Dacre well knows, the cutting edge of news – scandal, exposure, campaigning – is still largely a print monopoly. He demands greater restrictions on the BBC, fewer on his own industry". While Dacre said "it is the duty of the media to take an ethical stand", according to Wilby "his idea of ethics includes running stories that are, at best, distorted and, at worst, plain wrong".[59]

Dacre and the PCC were criticised directly by Mosley in March 2009 at a meeting of the culture, media and sport committee at the House of Commons.[90] but Dacre defended the newspaper industry's current system of self-regulation under the Press Complaints Commission (PCC) in his statement accompanying the annual report published in 2010.[91] In April 2009, Dacre made a further appearance in front of the House of Commons CMSSC, where he criticised current libel laws and the fees charged by law firms.[92] Justice Eady referred to Dacre's submission (from "the man from the Daily Mail") in December 2009 at a conference about privacy organised by Justice. "this ad hominem approach does absolutely nothing to further the debate".[93] Dacre had said this "one man is given a virtual monopoly of all cases against the media", which is "surely the greatest scandal".[88][89]

The Leveson Inquiry[edit]

Dacre himself appeared on three occasions at the Leveson Inquiry, which had been set up by the Conservative Prime Minister, David Cameron. He gave a speech at a Leveson seminar concerning press standards on 12 October 2011.[94] The BBC's Newsnight programme reported in January 2017 that Dacre refused to take David Cameron's telephone calls for months after the launch of the Leveson inquiry in 2011.[95]

In his seminar delivered at the Leveson Inquiry, Dacre re-asserted his opinion that self-regulation "in a considerably beefed up form" remained "the only viable way of policing a genuinely free press".[94] He was critical of Cameron ("too close to News International") who "in a pretty cynical act of political expediency has prejudiced the outcome of this inquiry by declaring that the" Press Complaints Commission, "an institution he'd been committed to only a few weeks previously, was a 'failed' body".[96] Dacre claimed legislation passed in the last 20 years already helped stop necessary journalistic enquiry, and meant that the press was "already on the very cusp of being over regulated". After returning to his negative opinion of liberals, who "by and large hate all the popular press", he said "that Britain's commercially viable free press – because it is in hock to nobody – is the only really free media in this country."[94] His advocacy of newspaper owners being legally unable to reject any regulatory body was viewed as a reference to Richard Desmond, whose Northern & Shell company owns the Daily Express, and had withdrawn from the PCC.[97]

In his first cross-examination on 6 February, Dacre admitted that the Mail had used the private detective Steve Whittamore, who was jailed in 2005 for illegally accessing information, but claimed that the rest of the British press had done so too.[98] Peter Wright, now a former editor of The Mail on Sunday, had said in his session that the Sunday paper continued using Whittamore for 18 months after his conviction, which Dacre effectively confirmed.[99] Dacre said he banned the use of all "Whittamore inquiry agencies" in 2007.[98] A suggestion from Dacre for a new "press card", to be supervised by a new body,[51][100] received support from The Independent[101] but was rejected by commentators and other interested parties.[102]

The actor Hugh Grant had accused the Mail of using phone hacking to report on his private life,[103] although Dacre himself had made "extensive enquiries" to establish his newspapers had not used phone hacking.[104] Dacre had accused Grant of indulging in a "mendacious smear" in a November 2011 statement.[98][105] He refused to retract his response to Hugh Grant at both appearances at the hearings, unless Grant withdrew his statement. He was quickly recalled on this specific issue,[106] and again on 9 February 2012, he rejected calls that he should retract his allegation that actor Hugh Grant lied.[107]

DMGT had paid damages to Grant for a false February 2007 story in The Mail on Sunday, but Dacre accused Grant of being "obsessed with trying to drag the Daily Mail into another newspaper's scandal".[108] Grant stood by his accusation in an interview on the Today radio programme on 11 February.[104][109] In successive appearances at Leveson, Rupert Murdoch and then Dacre accused the other of having acting unethically in their respective business interests.[110]

Dacre's Leveson appearances were described as being "defiant, disingenuous and in denial", by Kevin Marsh. "It was a chilling insight into a warped mindset", Marsh wrote in the book, The Phone Hacking Scandal: Journalism on Trial.[17][111] In the final report, Dacre was criticised for his paper's coverage of several stories, including the articles about Grant.[112][113] The "draconian inquiry", Dacre said of Leveson in a 2014 speech, was "a kind of show trial in which the industry was judged guilty and had to prove its innocence". His industry faced the "unremitting pressure of fighting what I have no doubt was a concerted attempt by the Liberal Establishment, in cahoots with Whitehall and the Judiciary, to break the only institution in Britain that is genuinely free of Government control – the commercially viable free press".[114]

Ralph Miliband affair[edit]

In late September and October 2013, Dacre became the subject of criticism across the UK media and political spectrum after the Daily Mail published a piece on 28 September maligning Ralph Miliband, a deceased Marxist academic and father of Ed Miliband, the leader of the Labour opposition at the time. The original article, entitled "The Man Who Hated Britain",[115][116] alleged that Ralph Miliband detested the country he and his father had fled to from Nazi-occupied Europe on the basis of a diary note written when he was sixteen and because of his left-wing views. Ed Miliband requested a right-of-reply piece to be published, which was granted but placed alongside a reprinting of the original article and an editorial criticising him for responding, while insisting that Ralph Miliband did hate Britain and that his son’s ambition was to inflict his father’s Marxism upon the country.[117] Roy Greenslade thought "the decision to carry [Ed] Miliband's right of reply was...possibly unprecedented" and implied "the Mail knew it had gone over the top with its" claims about Ralph Miliband.[50]

The criticism of Ralph Miliband, and his son's response, came in the run-up to a possible agreement between the media and parliament over the findings of the Leveson inquiry, a point which was made in the Mail's editorial on the subject.[118] The articles published by the Mail were criticised by publications including The Spectator[119] and The Times,[120] as well as by major figures in the Conservative Party. Both Prime Minister David Cameron and Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg empathised with Ed Miliband's response.[121][122] Former Conservative Deputy Prime Minister Michael Heseltine condemned the Mail for demeaning the level of political debate, as did former Conservative cabinet minister John Moore, who had been taught by Ralph Miliband at LSE.[123]

The article also brought Dacre's position as editor-in-chief of Associated Newspapers under scrutiny, with Roy Greenslade accusing him of poor decision making.[124] Paul Dacre was given a right of reply by The Guardian a fortnight later: "As the week progressed and the hysteria increased, it became clear that this was no longer a story about an article on Mr Miliband's Marxist father but a full-scale war by the BBC and the left against the paper that is their most vocal critic".[35][125]

Euroscepticism and post-Brexit[edit]

Allegations over David Cameron urging sacking[edit]

In early 2016, it has been reported on the BBC's Newsnight programme, prime minister David Cameron was worried the Eurosceptic stance of newspapers such as the Daily Mail in the run-up to the 2016 membership referendum might affect the vote.[126] According to a report by Emily Maitlis at the end of January 2017, Cameron attempted to have Dacre sacked.[95][127]

Cameron is reported to have met Dacre on 2 February 2016 in the former's Downing Street flat in an attempt to persuade him to tone down the anti-EU stance of his newspaper, specifically urging Dacre to "cut him some slack", but the Mail editor rejected this approach. He told Cameron he had been a Eurosceptic for a quarter-century, and thought his readers were too.[95] This was shortly after Cameron renegotiated Britain's membership of the EU on the day on which they were formally announced.[95][128] The paper's headline that day anticipating the day's announcement, was "Is that it then, Mr Cameron?" and on 3 February, following the meeting, the paper described the renegotiation as the prime minister's "Great Delusion".[64]

Subsequently, Cameron is believed to have contacted Dacre's boss, the proprietor Lord Rothermere, who is known to have favoured the 'remain' option in the referendum, to persuade him to sack Dacre.[95][129] Dacre was reputedly "incandescent" in March 2016 when told by a Westminster source of Cameron's approach to Rothermere, and this strengthened his Brexit convictions.[95] A spokesman for Cameron said the then prime minister "did not believe he could determine who edits the Daily Mail", but had sought to persuade Dacre and Rothermere over the EU membership vote. A spokesman for Rothermere refused to confirm or deny the story.[129]

According to Andy Beckett in The Guardian in late October 2016, "Dacre and his paper" were "lukewarm towards the metropolitan Cameron".[130] A few months later, Ian Burrell in The Independent wrote that Dacre loathed Cameron, because of his dislike of his changes to the Conservatives. The Daily Mail, in 2015, serialised Call Me Dave, the unauthorised and unflattering biography of Cameron written by Michael Ashcroft and Isabel Oakeshott which contained the unverified "Piggate" claims.[131]

EU membership referendum[edit]

The Daily Mail did back the 'leave' option, or Brexit vote, in the membership referendum in the edition of 21 June following an emphasis on stories critical of immigration for a month.[64][132][133] According to David Bond in the Financial Times in July 2016, the paper and its editor "have been leading the Eurosceptic charge against Brussels for two decades".[134] In contrast, the editor of sister title The Mail on Sunday, Geordie Greig, backed the 'remain' option in the referendum, although Dacre is formally his superior.[133][135]

A call in early August 2016 by Patience Wheatcroft, a former Daily Mail journalist, for a second referendum intended to reject the Brexit vote "led to her being monstered as a 'cheerleader for the moneyed Metropolitan elite'" by the newspaper, Alastair Campbell wrote. "One of the triumphs of the campaign was for Murdoch and Dacre, two of the wealthiest people journalism has ever produced, to portray anyone in favour of Remain as part of this Metropolitan elite".[43][33][136] On 13 September, the day after the former prime minister resigned as the MP for Witney, the headline in the Mail was: "The crushing of David Cameron".[64]

Backs Theresa May after the referendum[edit]

The Mail backed Theresa May as the candidate to succeed David Cameron as Prime Minister following his resignation after the referendum result was announced.[134][137] More than a year before May became prime minister, Gaby Hinsliff wrote in a February 2015 Guardian article that "one reason she gets on so well with Daily Mail editor-in-chief Paul Dacre is that both prefer talking business to pleasure".[138] According to Hinsliff, Dacre considers May's unsuccessful leadership rival, Boris Johnson, as "morally reprehensible, because of his serial affairs, and fundamentally unserious".[139] Despite this, Mail contributor Sarah Vine in a leaked email, believed Dacre (and Rupert Murdoch) would back Johnson if her husband, Michael Gove, was also part of the same ticket.[140][141] The Independent's John Rentoul also saw Gove as being Dacre and Murdoch's preferred candidate, but for him. "that is not a great pitch".[142]

Following Theresa May's announcement at the 2016 Conservative Party conference that she would trigger Article 50 by March 2017, Anthony Barnett wrote in an article for openDemocracy about "the contemporary political philosophy" of which May "is the living incarnation of an ideology worked out over three decades in the pages of that paper" which he termed "Dacreism". According to Barnett, Dacre "wants to combine the conviction and clarity of Thatcherism with the inclusiveness of Churchillism. As a formula for appealing to middle-class readers nostalgic for the lost world of post-war greatness, yet fearful of anything that smacks of the collectivism of those years" his approach "became an astonishing formula for readers and advertisers".[143] Dacre was the only media figure in May's first six months as PM to receive hospitality at No.10 in the form of a private dinner in October 2016.[144]

In the period of political uncertainty following the Brexit vote, Roy Greenslade suggested that the Daily Mail's "savage" "full-frontal assault on ...anyone hopeful of upending the EU referendum vote for Brexit", though a reflection of the Mail's readership, was also a reflection of Dacre's worries that MPs might reverse or mitigate the vote.[145] After the High Court ruled over R (Miller) v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union in November 2016 that a government bill must pass through parliament in order for Britain to leave the European Union, the Mail on its front page described the three judges involved as being "Enemies of the People". The press, implicitly taken as targeting Dacre's Mail without naming the title, were criticised when the issue reached the UK's Supreme Court by the Court's President Lord Neuberger as "undermining the rule of law".[12]

"With the referendum now behind us, they can have their cake and eat it", wrote Alastair Campbell in a February 2017 article about Dacre, by "taking the mickey out of a woman who raised the famous 'bent banana' issue on Question Time as the reason for her LEAVE vote, the same reporter having been one of the journalists responsible for spreading the lie in the first place".[146]

Dacre's departure from the post of Chairman of the Editors' Code of Practice Committee, which he had held since 2008,[5] was announced at the beginning of December 2016.[6]

Private life[edit]

While he was a student at Leeds University, Dacre met his future wife, Kathleen,[2][14] now a professor of drama studies.[7] Both of their two sons attended Eton;[2][33] James is a theatre director,[147][148] while their other son is a businessman.[17]

For many years, Dacre has been the highest-paid newspaper editor in Britain. In 2008, Dacre received £1.62 million in salary and cash payments, an increase from the £1.49 million of the previous year.[149] In 2015, according to DMGT's annual report, Dacre's income fell by nearly 40% to £1.4 million after adopting the company's incentive plan, having risen by almost 25% to £2.4 million in total in 2014 over the amount he was paid in 2013.[150][151]

Dacre's London home is in Belgravia. For his other properties, a large farm in West Sussex and the 17,000 Langwell Estate near Ullapool in the Scottish highlands,[33] Dacre has benefited from subsidies under the Common Agricultural Policy from the European Union. In 2014, he received £88,000 for the two holdings and under the exchange rate of late March 2016, he is believed to have received £460,000 since 2011.[152] Polly Toynbee wrote in The Guardian: "Who would have thought the self-appointed voice of 'middle England' harboured such aristocratic fantasies as to acquire a mighty Scottish estate, complete with deer stalking, grouse shooting and salmon fishing?"[153]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e James Robinson "Shy, but the Mail's powerful editor is far from retiring", The Observer, 9 October 2008
  2. ^ a b c Paul Dacre's entry in Who's Who gives his wife's birth name as Kathleen Thomson and indicates that the couple have two sons.
  3. ^ a b "Paul Dacre appointed Editor-in-Chief", Daily Mail and General Trust, 16 July 1998. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
  4. ^ Select Committee on Culture, Media and Sport Minutes of Evidence, House of Commons, 25 March 2003, Appendix XIX. Retrieved 9 July 2007.
  5. ^ a b c "Paul Dacre to chair Editors' Code of Practice committee". Press Gazette. 4 March 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2016. 
  6. ^ a b Martinson, Jane (1 December 2016). "Paul Dacre to step down as chair of journalists' code of practice committee". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 December 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Peter Wilby "Paul Dacre of the Daily Mail: The man who hates liberal Britain", New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014)
  8. ^ a b c Simon O'Hagan "The IoS Profile: Hate Mail - Paul Dacre", The Independent on Sunday, 15 December 2002
  9. ^ Who's Who articles for Paul and his brother Nigel give their mother's name as Joan and Paul's states that Paul Dacre and his wife have two sons.
  10. ^ "Peter Dacre: Obituary", The Times, 19 March 2003. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bill Hagerty "Paul Dacre: the zeal thing", British Journalism Review, Vol. 13, No. 3, 2002, pp. 11-22. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
  12. ^ a b Lewis, Tim (19 February 2017). "Paul Dacre: the Mail man leading the Brexit charge". The Observer. Retrieved 25 February 2017. 
  13. ^ "Dacre's reign at ITV news [ends]", BBC News, 5 September 2002. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
  14. ^ a b c d e Biographical detail taken from Roy Greenslade Press Gang, London: Pan, 2004 [2003], pp. 593-5.
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  26. ^ Nick Davies Flat Earth News, 2008, London: Chatto and Windus, p.373
  27. ^ a b Stephen Wright "The Mail's victory: How Stephen Lawrence's killers were finally brought to justice years after our front page sensationally branded the evil pair murderers" Daily Mail, 3 January 2011
  28. ^ Brian Carhcart The Case of Stephen Lawrence, 1999 [2000], Penguin, p. 285.
  29. ^ Vikram Dodd and Sandra Laville "Stephen Lawrence verdict: Dobson and Norris guilty of racist murder", The Guardian, 3 January 2012
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  31. ^ a b Davies p.371
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  36. ^ John Lloyd What the Media are doing to Our Politics, London: Constable, 2004, p.94
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  41. ^ a b c d MacArthur, Brian (7 March 2003). "Boo me, sue me, shoot bullets through me". The Times. Retrieved 25 March 2017.  (subscription required)
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  43. ^ a b Wheen, Francis; Oborne, Peter (25 April 2003). "Is the Daily Mail bad for your health?". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 March 2017. (Oborne) But that detachment from metropolitan opinion is the Daily Mail's overwhelming strength. 
  44. ^ a b Polly Toynbee "Judge Dacre dispenses little justice from his bully pulpit", The Guardian, 11 November 2008
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  47. ^ Christopher Hope "Official Government records should be released after 15 years not 30, report says", Daily Telegraph, 29 January 2009
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  51. ^ a b Gordon Rayner "Create press watchdog with power to strike off journalists, says editor", The Daily Telegraph (website), 6 February 2012.
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  56. ^ Thynne, Jane (29 April 2006). "Is Paul Dacre the new Roman Abramovich?". The Independent on Sunday. Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  57. ^ "Sun meets Mail half way in battle for Littlejohn", Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Press Gazette, 25 October 2005. Retrieved 9 July 2007.
  58. ^ a b Peter Wilby "Dacre - all scowl and no substance", The Guardian, 29 January 2007
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  61. ^ Stephen Glover "Why the 'Mail' needs to come forward and end these rumours", The Independent, 19 November 2007. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
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  63. ^ White, Michael (12 April 2017). "Why the Daily Mail hates Britain". Prospect. Retrieved 19 April 2017. 
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  71. ^ Johnson, Rachel (30 June 2001). "Totty Rules". The Spectator. p. 22. Retrieved 28 March 2017.  Reprint: Johnson, Rachel (3 July 2001). "Women must be girls in a Mail world". The Independent. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
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  73. ^ Yasmin Alibhai-Brown "Media: The colour of prejudice", The Independent, 9 February 1999
  74. ^ Moon, Timur (10 August 2013). "Stephen Fry Brands Daily Mail Editor Paul Dacre 'a Frothing Autocrat' as Olympics Spat Escalates". International Business Times. Retrieved 22 June 2016. 
  75. ^ McCormick, Joseph Patrick (13 August 2013). "Stephen Fry compares Daily Mail Editor Paul Dacre to Mussolini in Sochi argument". Pink News. Retrieved 22 June 2016. 
  76. ^ Ian Burrell "Dacre's attack: The accused answer back" Archived 4 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine., The Independent, 29 January 2007. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
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  78. ^ Select Committee on Culture, Media and Sport Minutes of Evidence, House of Commons, 25 February 2003, Max Clifford's response to Q90. Retrieved 9 July 2007.
  79. ^ Select Committee on Public Administration Minutes of Evidence Paul Dacre's response to Q146, 25 March 2004.
  80. ^ Select Committee on Public Administration Minutes of Evidence Paul Dacre's response to Q147, 25 March 2004. Retrieved on 25 May 2007.
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  82. ^ a b Paul Dacre "The BBC's cultural Marxism will trigger an American-style backlash", as reproduced on 'Comment is Free', The Guardian, 24 February 2007. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
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  87. ^ Dacre has made his claim in contexts other than his Cudlipp lecture. See the Select Committee on Public Administration Minutes of Evidence, Paul Dacre's response to Q91, 25 March 2004. Retrieved 9 July 2007.
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  90. ^ Oliver Luft "Max Mosley attacks Paul Dacre and PCC to MPs", The Guardian, 10 March 2009
  91. ^ Roy Greenslade "Paul Dacre lashes 'ignorant and prejudiced' PCC critics", The Guardian, 30 July 2010
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  96. ^ "Paul Dacre lambasts Prime Minister David Cameron as 'cynical and hypocritical' over PCC comments". The Daily Telegraph. 12 October 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2013. 
  97. ^ Brian Cathcart ""Paul Dacre, the reluctant regulator, The Guardian, 13 October 2012. Desmond has criticised Dacre, see for example Dan Sabbagh "Interview: Express and Channel 5 boss Richard Desmond on Paul Dacre", The Guardian, 30 October 2011
  98. ^ a b c "Daily Mail editor Paul Dacre 'knew of use of detectives'", BBC News, 6 February 2012
  99. ^ Press Association "Daily Mail Editor Paul Dacre Appears At Leveson Inquiry", The Huffington Post, 6 February 2012
  100. ^ For the Mail's own account see Vanessa Allen and Michael Seamark "A badge of good journalism: We need 'kite mark' for press standards, Mail Editor tells Leveson", Daily Mail (website), 7 February 2012
  101. ^ "Leading article: A proposal with some merit", The Independent, 7 February 2012
  102. ^ See, for example Roy Greenslade "Sorry, but a press card system won't come up trumps", London Evening Standard, 8 February 2012; Andrew Pugh "Stanistreet slams Dacre's 'ridiculous' press card plan", Press Gazette, 9 February 2012; James Ball "Paul Dacre's press accreditation plan should be struck off", The Guardian, 8 February 2012; 'Dominic Ponsford "Dacre's press cards plan facing Desmond veto" Archived 8 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Press Gazette, 16 July 2012
  103. ^ Among other reasons for Grant's suspicions was his secretly taped conversation with Paul McMullan, a former tabloid journalist and photographer, had said the Mail used phone hacking until about 2006 or 2007. See Hugh Grant "The bugger, bugged", New Statesman, 12 April 2011
  104. ^ a b Wood, Heloise (13 February 2012). "Hugh Grant stands by 'inference' MoS hacked his phone". Press Gazette. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. 
  105. ^ Dacre had been directly involved in drafting the publisher's November 2011 statement according to Liz Hartley, manager of Associated Newspaper's editorial legal services, see Lisa O'Carroll "Paul Dacre had hand in accusing Hugh Grant of smears, Leveson inquiry hears", The Guardian, 11 January 2012
  106. ^ Lisa O'Carroll "Leveson recalls Paul Dacre over Hugh Grant 'mendacious smears' claim", The Guardian, 7 February 2012
  107. ^ David Leigh and Josh Halliday "Daily Mail editor Paul Dacre refuses to retract Hugh Grant accusation", The Guardian, 9 February 2012.
  108. ^ "Leveson Inquiry: Paul Dacre stands firm over Grant", Daily Telegraph (website), 9 February 2012
  109. ^ Damien Pearse "Hugh Grant: Daily Mail 'trashes reputation' of those who question it", The Guardian, 11 February 2012
  110. ^ See
  111. ^ Greenslade, Roy (7 March 2012). "Hacking book: a new legal settlement could tame the tabloids". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 March 2017. 
  112. ^ Lisa O'Carrol, et al "Leveson report: the winners and losers", The Guardian, 29 November 2012
  113. ^ Holly Watts, et al "Leveson Report: the verdict on individual newspapers", Daily Telegraph (website), 29 November 2012
  114. ^ Dacre, Paul (29 October 2014). "Watch out, BBC. The political class may come for you next". The Spectator. Retrieved 22 June 2016. 
  115. ^ Geoffrey Levy "The Man Who Hated Britain", Daily Mail (mailonline: 27 September), 28 September 2013
  116. ^ Doward, Jamie; Helm, Toby (5 October 2013). "How the Mail blundered into a vicious battle with Labour". The Observer. Retrieved 4 March 2017. 
  117. ^ "Labour demands Ralph Miliband apology from Mail". BBC News. 2 October 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  118. ^ Oliver Wright "'A man who hated Britain': Ed Miliband accuses Daily Mail of 'appalling lie' about his father Ralph", The Independent, 1 October 2013
  119. ^ "Why didn't the Daily Mail stick to the 'red angle' when it came to Ralph Miliband?". Blogs.spectator.co.uk. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  120. ^ Tim Montgomerie (28 September 2013). "Wanting to change Britain doesn't mean you hate it". The Times. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  121. ^ Ridge, Sophy. "Cameron Supports Ed Miliband In Father Row". Sky News. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  122. ^ Dominiczak, Peter (27 September 2013). "Nick Clegg claims The Daily Mail was "out of order" over Ed Miliband coverage". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  123. ^ Nicholas Watt (2 October 2013). "Thatcher ally accuses Daily Mail of 'telling lies' about Ralph Miliband". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  124. ^ Greenslade, Roy (3 October 2013). "Now Paul Dacre is the story as Miliband emerges with enhanced image". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
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  126. ^ Sherman, Jill (2 February 2017). "Cameron 'demands' renew press debate". The Times. Retrieved 25 March 2017.  (subscription required)
  127. ^ Ponsford, Dominic (1 February 2017). "BBC: David Cameron tried to get Paul Dacre sacked as Daily Mail editor because of his Eurosceptic stance". Press Gazette. Retrieved 1 February 2017. 
  128. ^ "David Cameron 'tried to get Daily Mail editor sacked' over Brexit". The Independent. 1 February 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017. 
  129. ^ a b Walker, Peter (1 February 2017). "David Cameron 'asked Daily Mail owner to sack Paul Dacre over Brexit'". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 February 2017. 
  130. ^ Beckett, Andy (27 October 2016). "Revenge of the tabloids". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 October 2016. 
  131. ^ Burrell, Ian (1 February 2017). "The story that David Cameron had a longstanding vendetta against Paul Dacre suits the Daily Mail just fine". The Independent. Retrieved 1 February 2017. 
  132. ^ Martinson, Jane (21 June 2016). "Daily Mail backs Brexit in EU referendum". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  133. ^ a b Mortimer, Caroline (21 June 2016). "EU referendum: Daily Mail breaks with Mail on Sunday to back Brexit". The Independent. Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  134. ^ a b Bond, David (19 July 2016). "Daily Mail comes down from Brexit high to face digital challenge". Financial Times. Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  135. ^ Ponsford, Dominic (20 June 2016). "Brexit poll: Mail on Sunday and The Times split from their sister titles and Back Remain". Press Gazette. Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  136. ^ Greenslade, Roy (2 August 2016). "What the Daily Mail and Sun attacks on Baroness Wheatcroft really betray". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 February 2017. 
  137. ^ Greenslade, Roy (1 July 2016). "Paul Dacre plays Tory kingmaker by supporting Theresa May". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  138. ^ Hinsliff, Gaby (3 February 2015). "Can Theresa May make it to the top?". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 February 2017. 
  139. ^ Hinsliff, Gaby (30 June 2016). "Michael made an odd assassin – but then Boris was a strange Caesar". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 February 2017. 
  140. ^ Mason, Rowena; Kennedy, Maev (29 June 2016). "Michael Gove's wife exposes doubts about Boris Johnson with email blunder". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  141. ^ Stone, Jon (29 June 2016). "Michael Gove's wife raises Boris Johnson leadership concerns in leaked email". The Independent. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  142. ^ Rentoul, John (30 June 2016). "Michael Gove is deluded – and he's destroyed Boris too. Theresa May has been handed the Tory leadership". The Independent. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  143. ^ Barnett, Anthony (5 October 2016). "The Daily Mail takes power". openDemocracy UK. Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  144. ^ Mason, Rowena (30 March 2017). "Theresa May held private dinner for Daily Mail editor at No 10". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 March 2017. 
  145. ^ Greenslade, Roy (12 October 2016). "Daily Mail's attack on 'Bremoaners' reflects editor's Brexit fears". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  146. ^ Campbell, Alastair (10 February 2017). "If Paul Dacre honestly thinks the Daily Mail is a reliable source, why won't he defend it?". International Business Times. Retrieved 10 February 2017.  In the source, Campbell links to the two Daily Mail articles.
  147. ^ Dominic Cavendish "James Dacre interview: 'In ten minutes almost a thousand men were slaughtered'", The Daily Telegraph, 2013
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  151. ^ Jason Deans "Paul Dacre earnings up by nearly 25% to £2.4m in 2014", 22 December 2014
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Media offices
Preceded by
John Leese
Evening Standard Editor
1991–1992
Succeeded by
Stewart Steven
Preceded by
Sir David English
Daily Mail Editor
1992 – present
Incumbent