June 3, 1963|
New York, USA
|Died||July 9, 2004
|Alma mater||St. Bernard's School, Phillips Exeter Academy (1978),
University of California, Berkeley, (BA)
London School of Economics (PhD)
|Known for||2004 murder|
|Spouse(s)||Helen "Musa" Train|
|Children||Alexander, Gregory, and Sophia|
Paul Klebnikov (June 3, 1963 – July 9, 2004) was an American journalist and historian of Russian history. He worked for Forbes magazine for more than 10 years and at the time of his death was chief editor of the Russian edition of Forbes. His murder in Moscow in 2004 was seen as a blow against investigative journalism in Russia. Three Chechens accused of taking part in the murder were acquitted. Though the murder appeared to be the work of assassins for hire, as of 2014, the organizers of the murder had yet to be identified.
Paul Klebnikov was born in New York to a family of Russian émigrés with a long military and political tradition: his great-great-great-grandfather Ivan Puschin participated in the Decembrist revolt in 1825 and was exiled to Siberia, and his great-grandfather, an admiral in the White Russian fleet, was assassinated by Bolsheviks. As a child, he was known as a daredevil including swimming during hurricanes. He attended St. Bernard's School and Phillips Exeter Academy, and graduated from the University of California, Berkeley with a BA in political science in 1984. He then enrolled in the Officer Candidates School of the US Marine Corps as a way to test himself, but upon completing the course, declined to take the offered commission.
Instead, he pursued a PhD at the London School of Economics, where he would go on to win the Leonard Schapiro Prize "for excellence in Russian studies". Klebnikov wrote his doctoral thesis on Pyotr Stolypin, the reformist Tsarist prime minister. From 1987–88, he lectured at the Institute of European Studies in London.
Reporting on Russia
Klebnikov joined the Forbes in 1989 and gained a reputation for investigating murky post-Soviet business dealings and corruption. In 1996, he wrote a cover story for Forbes titled "Godfather of the Kremlin?", comparing Russian tycoon Boris Berezovsky to the Sicilian mafia. The article was published without a byline, but was widely known to be Klebnikov's work. Klebnikov soon received death threats, and took a break from reporting in Russia to live with his family in Paris.
Berezovsky subsequently sued Forbes for libel in a British court. Because the story had been published in an American magazine about a Russian citizen, the choice of venue was described by several authorities as libel tourism. Berezovsky won a partial retraction of the story in 2003.
Meanwhile, Klebnikov expanded the article into the 2000 book Godfather of the Kremlin: Boris Berezovsky and the Looting of Russia. Believed to be based heavily on interviews with Alexander Korzhakov, the head of security for former president Boris Yeltsin, the book described the privatization process used by Yeltsin as "the robbery of the century" and detailed the alleged corruption of various Russian businesspeople, particularly focusing on Berezovsky. The book met with mixed reviews in journalistic circles. A New York Times reviewer praised it as "richly detailed" and "effectively angry".
Klebnikov released a second book, Conversation with a Barbarian: Interviews with a Chechen Field Commander on Banditry and Islam, in 2003. The book is a transcript of a lengthy interview with Chechen rebel leader Khozh-Akhmed Nukhayev, conducted in Baku, Azerbaijan. In the course of the interview, Nukhayev gives his views on Islam and Chechen society.
In the same year, Klebnikov was chosen to be the first editor of the Russian edition of Forbes. Because his wife and children did not wish to move to Russia, Klebnikov agreed with them that he would take the post for only one year. The magazine only put out four issues before his death, including an article covering Russia's 100 wealthiest individuals, which some commentators speculate may have been the reason for his death.
On July 9, 2004, while leaving the Forbes office, Klebnikov was attacked on a Moscow street late at night by unknown assailants who fired at him from a slowly moving car. Klebnikov was shot four times and initially survived, but he died at the hospital after being transported in an ambulance that had no oxygen bottle and the hospital elevator that was taking him to the operating room broke down.
Authorities described the attack as a contract killing. The publisher of the Russian edition of Forbes stated that the murder was "definitely linked" to Klebnikov's journalism. Various commentators have speculated that the magazine's recent story on Russia's 100 richest people may have triggered the attack; others suspect Berezovsky of being behind the murder.
In 2006, prosecutors accused Chechen rebel leader Khozh-Akhmed Nukhayev, subject of Klebnikov's book A Conversation with a Barbarian, of masterminding the attack. Three Chechen men—Kazbek Dukuzov, Musa Vakhayev, and Fail Sadretdinov—were arrested and tried in a closed trial for the murder, but all three were acquitted. Sadretdinov was later convicted on unrelated charges and sentenced to nine years' imprisonment, while Vakhayev and Dukuzov had their acquittals overturned by the Supreme Court of Russia, allowing them to be re-prosecuted.
In July 2007, on the third anniversary of the murder, the U.S. Department of State protested the continuing failure of the Russian government to find the perpetrators, calling for further investigation. U.S. President George W. Bush also appealed directly to Russian President Vladimir Putin for action.
Vakhayev and Dukuzov were scheduled to be retried in 2007, again in a closed trial, but could not be located. On December 17, the trial was postponed again because of Dukuzov's continued absence. The process then "quietly stalled".
In July 2009, Russian authorities agreed to reopen the suspended investigation into the killings. They also stated that they no longer believed Nukhayev had masterminded the murder (though they continued to believe he played some role in the attack).
An organization named the Paul Klebnikov Fund was established in his memory to award an annual courage prize to journalists as well as granting internships to young Russian journalists to work in Western media.
Klebnikov's Exeter classmates endowed an annual Klebnikov Lecture to honor his memory. The first Klebnikov Lecture was held on May 12, 2006, at the 25th reunion of Klebnikov's Exeter class (1981), and featured remarks by Wall Street Journal correspondent and Exeter alumnus Jon Karp.
Project Klebnikov is a global alliance specifically devoted to developing new information on the Klebnikov murder and to furthering some of the investigative work Klebnikov began. The organization was founded in July 2005, and includes over 20 journalists and partner media companies. The organization has an international representation of investigative journalists, including individuals from Vanity Fair, 60 Minutes, New York University's department of journalism, The Economist, Bloomberg News and Forbes. It was launched by eight journalists from Bloomberg, Vanity Fair and Forbes on July 9, 2005, the anniversary of Klebnikov's murder. Journalist Richard Behar serves as the organization's director.
- Klebnikov, Paul (2000). Godfather of the Kremlin: Boris Berezovsky and the looting of Russia. Harcourt. ISBN 0-15-100621-0, ISBN 978-0-15-100621-2.
- Brown, Heidi (July 7, 2009). "Who Killed Paul Klebnikov?". Forbes. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- Pohl, Otto (May 21, 2005). "The Assassination of a Dream". New York. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- "Paul Klebnikov". The Economist. July 15, 2004. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- "Klebnikov timeline". CBS News. Archived from the original on October 5, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
- Landesman, Paul (December 26, 2004). "Back to Russia, With Love". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- "Helen Train Wed to Paul Klebnikov". The New York Times. September 23, 1991. Archived from the original on October 5, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
- Delta, George B.; Matsuura, Jeffrey H. (2008). "Jurisdictional issues in cyberspace". Law of the Internet 1 (3rd ed.). Aspen Publishers. pp. 3â92. ISBN 0-7355-7559-2.
Berezovsky is the leading case in what has come to be known as “libel tourism
- Crook, Tim (2010). "Defamation law". Comparative media law and ethics. Taylor & Francis. pp. 240â241. ISBN 0-415-55161-7.
- Taylor, Daniel C. (November 2010). "Libel Tourism: Protecting Authors and Preserving Comity" (PDF). Georgetown Law Journal (Georgetown University) 99: 194. ISSN 0016-8092. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
- "Shuddup". Forbes. March 13, 2003. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- The following statement appended to the article on the Forbes website summarizes: 'On March 6, 2003 the resolution of the case was announced in the High Court in London. FORBES stated in open court that (1) it was not the magazine's intention to state that Berezovsky was responsible for the murder of Listiev, only that he had been included in an inconclusive police investigation of the crime; (2) there is no evidence that Berezovsky was responsible for this or any other murder; (3) in light of the English court's ruling, it was wrong to characterize Berezovsky as a mafia boss. "Berezovsky Vs. Forbes" Forbes March 31, 2003
- Klebnikov, Paul (2000). Godfather of the Kremlin: Boris Berezovsky and the looting of Russia. Harcourt. p. 400. ISBN 0-15-100621-0, ISBN 978-0-15-100621-2. A 2001 edition is entitled Godfather of the Kremlin: The Decline of Russia in the Age of Gangster Capitalism.
- Bernstein, Richard (October 13, 2000). "A Tycoon's Meteoric Rise After Russia's Collapse". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- Myers, Steven Lee (June 17, 2005). "Prosecutor Says Chechen Rebel Had Editor Killed". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- Chivers, C.J.; Arvedlund, Erin E.; Kishkovsky, Sophia (July 18, 2004). "Editor's Death Raises Questions About Change in Russia". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- Poolos, Alexandra. "The Last Independent Newspaper in Russia". FrontLine. PBS. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- Riccardi, Sherry (February–March 2007). "Iron Curtain Redux". American Journalism Review. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- Behar, Richard (24 March 2013). "Did Boris Berezovsky Kill Himself? More Compelling, Did He Kill Forbes Editor Paul Klebnikov". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-03-25.
- Myers, Steven Lee (February 16, 1990). "2 Suspects Absent in Moscow in Retrial Over Editor’s Killing". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 5, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
- McCormack, Sean (July 8, 2007). "Russia: Anniversary of Klebnikov Murder". US Department of State. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- Solovyov, Dmitry (17 December 2007). "Russia halts retrial over murdered U.S. reporter". Reuters. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- Barry, Ellen (July 11, 2009). "Murder Highlights Russian System’s Flaws". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- Brown, Heidi (July 10, 2009). "Russia To Work With U.S. On New Klebnikov Inquiry". Forbes. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "International Press Freedom Awards 2004". Committee to Protect Journalists. Archived from the original on August 11, 2012. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
- "Fund Gives Russian Editor First 'Courage' Prize". Radio Free Europe. October 20, 2005. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "About the Fund". Paul Klebnikov Fund. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- Jonathan, Karp (May 12, 2006). "Travels and Truth: In memory of Paul Klebnikov" (PDF). Phillips Exeter Academy. Retrieved May 31, 2007.
- "US Journalists Investigate Klebnikov Murder". The Moscow Times. July 15, 2005. Retrieved July 14, 2008.
- Mainville, Michael (January 29, 2006). "Questions remain in murder of U.S. editor – Moscow Calls for an open trial denied as Chechens are secretly tried as assassins, writes Michael Mainville Moscow". The Toronto Star (Toronto Star Newspapers Limited). p. A15.
- Brown, Heidi; Andrew Gillies (May 5, 2006). "Back To Square One". Forbes (Forbes.com LLC). Retrieved July 14, 2008.
- CBS News (July 1, 2006). "The Man Who Knew Too Much: 48 Hours Mystery Reports On Murder Of U.S. Journalist In Moscow". 48 Hours Mystery (CBS). Retrieved July 14, 2008.
- Gershman (September 15, 2005). "Unusual U.S.-Russian Reporting Team To Probe Editor's Murder in Moscow". The New York Sun.
- Franchetti, Mark (July 24, 2005). "Journalists turn detective to seek murderers of Moscow editor". The Sunday Times. p. 26.
- Nikolskiy, Aleksey; Kirill Koryukin (July 15, 2005). "U.S. journalists to investigate the murder of Paul Klebnikov". RusData Dialine – Russian Press Digest.
- Rajpal, Monita (August 27, 2005). "Critique of Worldwide Media Coverage". International Correspondents (CNN). Retrieved July 14, 2008.
- Goodman, Amy (October 9, 2006). "Anna Politkovskaya, Prominent Russian Journalist, Putin Critic and Human Rights Activist, Murdered in Moscow". Democracy Now!. Retrieved July 14, 2008.
- Paul Klebnikov speaks about Russian and American rich people Video from YouTube
- The Paul Klebnikov Fund
- Project Klebnikov
- "Godfather of the Kremlin?" by Paul Klebnikov
- Voice of America: Kerry Marks 10th Anniversary of Slaying of US Journalist in Moscow
- RIA Novosti: Kerry Marks Anniversary of Klebnikov Killing with Call for Russian Probe