Paul Martin (illustrator)

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Martin's Most Notable Work. Saturday Evening Post 8-23-1930 p. 38. Artist Signed.

Paul Martin (June 6, 1883, New York City, New York – March 19, 1932, Ossining, New York)[1] was a graphic artist and illustrator. His artwork appeared on nine different magazine covers from 1923-32. Martin redesigned the then-iconic Fisk Tire Boy. He actively participated in tennis tournaments around the Greater New York area from 1910-1931. He played in three U.S. National Championships (after age 35). The annual Paul Martin Singles Tournament is named after him.

Background[edit]

The Golden Age of Illustration started with major advancements in printing techniques during the 1880s. This included breakthroughs in the halftone process. It made the printing of images for commercial usage more economical, feasible and realistic. It largely replaced the reproduction of art from wood engravings (time consuming and strenuous), with photo-mechanical engravings (higher accuracy level). These and other methods were utilized by artist, writer, teacher, innovator–Howard Pyle, who is generally regarded as "The Father of American Illustration." Others who gained much fame in this field included Howard Chandler Christy, Harrison Fisher, James Montgomery Flagg, Charles Dana Gibson, John Held Jr., J. C. Leyendecker, Maxfield Parrish, Frederic Remington, Norman Rockwell, Jessie Willcox Smith and N. C. Wyeth.

However, the vast majority of illustrators received little recognition, compared to the fine art painters. This was basically due to their artwork being viewed as more commercially, than creatively inspired. Nonetheless, illustrators once played a powerful role in communicating the people's aspirations, concerns, customs, humor, labor, morals and social interests.[2] One of them was Paul Martin, whose work appeared on the covers of Collier's, Everybody's, Farm & Fireside, The Farmer's Wife, Liberty, Parents and People's Home Journal from 1923-31. These seven magazines once ranked among the most widely circulated. They all went out of business a long time ago, except for Parents. Their eventual downfall was caused by the changing times (or taste), radio and television (more attractive medium for advertisers) and economics (increased cost/decreased revenue). The more specialized ones that targeted specific audiences, tended to fare better. Another point is that major advancements in photographic equipment and technology took place during the 1930s. This brought about the gradual changeover (twenty-five+ year process) from illustrated to photographic covers.[2] The former still lingered on though, for its uniqueness in imagery and creativity, until succumbing to digital media (especially Photoshop).

Collier's[edit]

(Calling the play) Collier's 10-25-1924

General interest magazines (mixture of entertainment, pictures, politics, serials, short stories and sports) were once very popular and appealed to diverse audiences. One of them was the historically significant Collier's (founded 1888), which had a revival under new editor William Chenery in 1925.[3][4] Martin drew many of their covers during the Roaring Twenties, including seven in 1925. Some artists created a niche and then stuck with it, such as in drawing comical situations, domestic follies, political satire, pretty women or simple pleasures. His recurring theme was of a youthful boy engaged in various lighthearted activities. This included the following: catching a baseball, eating desserts (pictured below), playing the flute,[5] wearing a straw hat, shooting marbles, shoveling snow, carrying schoolbooks on head, riding a sled, winding up a toy, eating turkey at Christmas, bobbing for apples, playing football (pictured),[6] happily swimming, getting a shaved haircut, saying grace, working as a messenger, daydreaming at school about fishing[7] and going down a water slide. He seldom veered from this subject matter.

His simple yet bold drawing style captured aspects of youth that were innocent and carefree. They reflected the sentiments of the time. Martin excluded the non-essential details (extra people, structures, trees, scenery etc.), which allowed viewers to make an instant connection. His paintings were often easy to recognize, since their theme and style remained fairly consistent. They sometimes gave the illusion of three-dimensional depth. This was through the use of various techniques, such as overlapping, color intensity/variation and linear perspective. His cover art never corresponded to anything in particular, but rather had a holiday/seasonal theme or portrayed the magazine's overall image (common practice back then).[8] Martin mostly hired local boys for the photo sessions.[9] His drawings were made directly from those photos, and not real life (which necessitated prolonged posing). This gave him more options and flexibly, as the final version was based on several photos taken during the shoot (along with some improvising).[10][11] It was also a more practical process, due to children being involved. He would interact with them, until getting the desired natural or candid expressions. His wife assisted in preparing the models for their scenes. Collier's couldn't keep up with the rapidly changing times following WWII, and ceased publication in Dec. of 1956.[3] Its main culprit was television, which dramatically took away from their advertising and circulation revenue. Collier's top competitors (Life, Look & Post) adapted somewhat better to the changing times, which helped them hold out longer.

Graphic Artist[edit]

H-O Oats roadside billboard, 1930
Gerlach Barklow calendar "Singin' in the Rain," 1931
Martin gets a $300 winner's check, 1931

Martin drew a poster titled "Serve Your Country", for the War Camp Community Service in 1918. It showed a fashionable young woman serving in tennis.[12] (A play on words.) Women were encouraged to entertain off-duty soldiers, by participating in various social events (dancing, dining etc.).[13] A silkscreen version of this poster, has periodically been on display at the International Tennis Hall of Fame and Museum in Newport, Rhode Island.[14] Another two were for the American Junior Red Cross. The first was titled "The Flag of Service the World Around" in 1929. It showed children in international costumes around the top of a globe, with one holding a large-size Red Cross flag.[15] The second was titled "Juniors Helping Everywhere" (with twenty miniature scenes) in 1930.[16] Its purpose was to expand awareness of their various worldwide efforts. He also drew a painting that year, for the old Hecker H-O (Hornby's Oatmeal) Company of Buffalo, New York (pictured). It showed a confident young football player being patched up, who had oat cereal for breakfast.[17] This advertisement first appeared on billboards. It then had a short-run in food markets; on their walls, display windows or hanging from overhead wires.[18]

He painted three known color advertisements for the all-steel, General Electric "Monitor Top" Refrigerator in 1930. The first and most elaborate featured two boys running a lemonade stand, with their mother looking on through the open kitchen window. It appeared as a full-page ad in many different magazines at roughly the same time.[19] It's also shown in a video slideshow,[20] which salutes the first affordable model for residential use (though at a hefty price). His other "Monitor Top" credits were of a girl playing with blocks (that spell out the company's initials),[21] and two dressed-up girls listening to an enthusiastic sales boy.[22]

He designed a contest-winning poster titled "Usefulness • Beauty • Health • Truth • Knowledge," for the Girl Scouts in 1931.[23][24][25] This contest was conducted by the Art Alliance of America,[26] an organization that brought together craft workers and manufacturers. The six-judge panel consisted of W. T. Benda (who replaced Charles Dana Gibson),[27] Ray Greenleaf, Rockwell Kent, John La Gatta, Neysa McMein and Edward A. Wilson.[28] Martin's model for the poster was the teenage daughter of old friends from Darien, Conn., who formerly resided in Yonkers, N.Y.[28][29] (Martin even served as best man at their wedding back in 1904.)[30] It earned him a $300 check from the Girl Scouts' national director, Josephine Schain (pictured). This exchange took place at their old national headquarters, on Lexington Avenue in New York City.[31] National president Mrs. Frederick (Birdsall Otis) Edey was one of three consultants, along with executives Mrs. Arthur O. (Anne Hyde) Choate and Mrs. Nicholas F. (Genevieve Garvan) Brady.[27] This poster (partially pictured in insert) later appeared with a salute alteration, on the cover of Girl Scout Equipment catalogs for Fall 1932 and Spring 1933. It captured the spirit of their character-building movement, and was in popular usage until 1937.[24][27] Martin on picking his subject: "Barbara seems [to be] the personification of all that Girl Scouting means. She is the very spirit of radiant, happy and wholesome young girlhood, and my mind naturally turned to her immediately when I learned of the competition ..."[32]

His drawings also ended up on Gerlach Barklow calendars, ink blotters (similar to trade cards) and prints for business advertising, such as one titled "Singin' in the Rain" from 1931. It showed a boy sheltering several pups from the rain with an umbrella, while sitting down (pictured).[33] Another showed a boy reading about scientific theories with some difficulty.[34] Martin's paintings often included a loyal and friendly pup (or even several). He drew covers for such trade publications as Progressive Grocer ("voice of the industry" for food retailers),[35] and Silent Hostess (recipes and tips for homemakers)[36] between 1922 & 31. Coincidentally, the helmet-wearing boy for H-O Oats (pictured), later served as Progressive Grocer's associate editor from 1957-62. Martin's very first two cover credits were for this food-oriented magazine.[37] His work appeared in many different forms of print media (including outdoor advertising).[38]

Another credit is mentioned in a publication by the Veterans of Foreign Wars in 1932. As follows: "The cover design on this issue of Foreign Service[11] is a two-color reproduction of the official 1932 Buddy Poppy poster. (It was so named because former soldiers would use that word, in describing their comrades who perished in WWI.) The original was painted in oil by the late Paul Martin, noted New York poster artist, who died suddenly on March 19th following a serious operation. The poster has been pronounced as one of the most striking and appropriate designs ever used, to depict the symbolism of the Buddy Poppy. (A bright-red artificial flower that was worn in honor of the fallen Allied soldiers.) It was completed shortly before the artist's death and is believed to have been his last important assignment (sic).[39][40][41] Those familiar with Paul Martin's career as an artist, declare the 1932 Buddy Poppy poster to be one of his best creations...."[42]

Fisk Tire Boy[edit]

Jigsaw Puzzle - Design No. One, 1933. Artist Signed.
Envelope postmarked 1932. Artist Signed. (His credits include all of-and only-the version with the two piece pajamas.)

Prelude: The Fisk Rubber Company (as originally known; founded 1898) switched from primarily producing bicycle to automobile tires in 1901.[43][44] Their plant was located along the riverfront in Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts. Its facilities were making 5,000 tires a day in the 1920s.[45] Fisk struggled financially during most of the 1930s.[46] They were bought out by U.S. Rubber (1940), which became known as Uniroyal Inc. (1961). Through a merger, their name changed to Uniroyal Goodrich (1986). This company sold its tire division to Michelin (1990). The Fisk Tire brand was actually discontinued in the mid or late 1960s.[47] Michelin started reproducing them in 1996. This revitalized brand is sold through Discount Tire (1996-To Date).[48]

He completely reshaped one of the most famous characters in the history of American advertising. It was the Fisk Tire Company's (ready for bed) sleepy boy, who shouldered an oversize tire while dangling a lighted candle.[49][50][51] It came with the catchphrase "Time To Re-tire" (debut 1910).[52][53] This slogan had a simple double meaning. A facial alteration turned the yawning into a smiling boy in early 1929.[54][55] Martin was then commissioned to come up with a slightly more aged, modern-day figure in late 1929.[56] The objective was to update the heavily publicized trademark, while still maintaining its charm and familiarity. The young lad's one-piece sleeper became a two-piece pajama, during the changeover process. The slippers were also added. His four-year-old nephew was used as the model (neck down only).[9] Still, the pose and all-important props remained basically intact (though with the current tire design and a more fashionable—less tilted—candle holder). Fisk's Publicity Manager described this new look to a magazine writer, in early 1930. As follows: "...a happy, smiling, 100% American boy in his little two-piece pajama, radiating good cheer, ruddy-cheeked and tousle-headed, snappy and wide awake, standing in the old-time pose ..."[57][58]

This new version was initially used by Fisk Tires to showcase their Air-Flight brand, in advertisements and promotions. This included twelve times in the Saturday Evening Post, between Feb. 8 and Aug. 23, 1930 (pictured atop).[59][60] It was also offered to the public as an 11x14" art-print, via a special mail-in coupon offer in 1930.[61] The image appeared—sometimes with a slight facial change—in other formats as well,[62] such as on the cover (and inside cover) of their six promotional children's books in 1931. Its subjects: Candy Land, Jack and the Bean Stalk, Little Black Sambo, Peter Rabbit,[63] Three Bears and Three Little Kittens. They were subtitled "Time to Re-tire / A Bedtime Story." Plus on ashtrays,[64] bridge score pads,[65] electrical clocks,[66] five different jigsaw puzzles (#1-of-set pictured)[67][68] matchbooks,[69] posters[70] and rubber heel replacements for shoes.[71] These items were either freebies, or giveaways with an automotive purchase.[72] Martin's version was used by Fisk retailers on their data books,[73] display windows,[74] letterheads and mailing envelopes (pictured).[75] It appeared in a scaled-down form, in Boys' Life and other magazines[76] (along with hundreds of newspapers)[77] from 1930-34. Fisk Tires then went back to the original sleepy boy in 1935.[78] Incidentally, Norman Rockwell drew a series of paintings surrounding the character, which were published in 1917-19 and 1924-25.[79] Other artists who prolifically promoted the character were J.F. Kernan and Leslie Thrasher.

Timetable.[57] Three stages of the pajama-clad boy (based on its appearance in print or on advertising material): a. 1910-28, 35-onward[52][53][80] (created by Burr Giffen, an Agency Art Director).[56] b. 1929-30 (uncredited change of yawn into smile). c. 1930-34 (modern redesign by Paul Martin).

Excerpt from a 1912 magazine article. "It was in 1910 that the 'Time to Re-Tire' boy was created, appeared first in a lithographed wall hanger in four colors, and later all over the country for poster display. This is the now familiar picture of the little boy ready for bed, lugging a large Fisk tire on his arm. His reception was sufficiently enthusiastic to cause the advertiser to distribute postcards and reprints in which the boy was the central figure."[53]

Personal life and tennis[edit]

Paul Martin Memorial Trophy

He was born to Hannah and Robert Martin in New York City on June 6, 1883. He was the youngest of their seven children.[81] Their family home was then located on 31st Street in Manhattan. They later moved up to 129th Street.[82] Martin immensely enjoyed drawing as a boy.[23] He studied commercial art at the National Academy of Design in New York City from 1902-06.[83][84] He then started working for an outdoor advertising firm, and competing in sanctioned tennis tournaments.[85] Martin married Lauretta Willey in 1912.[86] (Her brother later owned the Willey Book Company.)[87] Their first home was in the University Heights section of The Bronx.[88] He joined the Artists' Guild[23] and went freelance in 1921.[89][90] The Martins moved from The Bronx to a rural area of Millwood, New York in 1925.[91] Their new two-story home, doubled as a working studio (upper floor) from 1925-32.[9] Its centerpiece was a long flat-top table which held the canvases, drawing pads, paint brushes and tubes. Also nearby were art books, easels and props for photo shoots.[92] He occasionally used family members as models. Uncle Paul's niece is shown writing down the license number of a boy's wagon (for knocking over her doll carriage),[9] on the Liberty cover of September 12, 1925. She's also highlighted on an American Junior Red Cross poster.[9][16] His mother-in-law is shown basting a turkey for Thanksgiving,[9] on the People's Home Journal cover of November 1928.

He was ranked as one of the top thirty (or twenty)[93] tennis players in the New York metropolitan area for 1920-21, 23-25.[94][95][96] (Only the top twenty were ranked for 1922.)[97] He won numerous trophies (or awards) in singles, doubles and mixed doubles (with Lauretta) between 1919 & 1931.[98][99][100] This included, for example, one for capturing the inaugural championship at Sunningdale Country Club in 1920.[101][102] Others were for the Lake George[103] and Lake Mohonk[104] Championships of 1924. Martin's opponents included future Hall of Famers Jean Borotra,[105] Francis Hunter,[106] Gerald Patterson,[107] Vincent Richards,[108] Bill Tilden,[109] John Van Ryn[110] & Marie Wagner.[111] Other standouts were Herbert Bowman,[112] Walter Merrill Hall,[113] Robert Kinsey,[114] Percy Kynaston,[115] Nathaniel Niles,[116] Dr. William Rosenbaum,[117] Howard Voshell[118] and Charles Wood.[119] A doubles partner and longtime clubmate was newspaper columnist Franklin P. Adams, who wrote "Baseball's Sad Lexicon."[120] Featured Match. Eastern New York State Championship of 1925. Excerpts from a New York Times column by Allison Danzig: "This afternoon Tilden and Strachan advanced from the semi-finals of the doubles, by putting out Alfred D. Hammett and Paul Martin at 6-4, 5-7, 6-1, 6-3.... It required some of the best tennis that Tilden has played here all week, before the Philadelphians were able to overcome the New York pair. Hammett and Martin were always contenders, except in the third set when they slumped badly; and in order to hold them off, Tilden constantly found it necessary to invade his partner's territory and play the opposing pair single-handed.... Both Martin and Hammett fought with everything they had and their team work was splendidly coordinated, but all counted for nought against the individual brilliance of Tilden" [then ranked World No. 1].[109][121]

Martin competed with "Big Bill" in over a dozen other tournaments,[122] including the U.S. National/US Open Championships of 1920, 21 & 24.[123][124] The latter was played at newly built Forest Hills Stadium, and on its outlying courts. He faced off against two-time Wimbledon champion Gerald Patterson, in the second round of action. 41-year-old Martin won a set, though lost the match 4-6, 4-6, 9-7, 0-6.[107] (There was a one-day rain delay after the third set.) He also competed on these same Forest Hills courts, in four straight National Championships for veterans (ages 45+) from 1928-31.[125] Martin was a topnotch singles and doubles player for both the University Heights (Bronx, N.Y.)[120] and County (Scarsdale, N.Y.)[126] Tennis Clubs. He was unwittingly involved in the famous player-writer dispute of 1924.[127] Martin sometimes served as a referee.[128] He organized tournaments for youngsters, as a member of the Briarcliff Lodge Sports Club committee.[129] The Westchester County Tennis League is the oldest continuously-running of its kind, in the United States (est. 1924). They hold the annual Paul Martin Singles Tournament.[130][131][132][133] The winners of this event have their names engraved, on one of his prized cups (pictured).[134][135]

Martin died of ulcers at age 48, following a major operation at Ossining Hospital in 1932.[136][137] The funeral service was held at Highland [United] Methodist Church in Ossining.[136][138] Survivors included a sister and three brothers. His wife Lauretta "Lolly" (1880-1972) survived him by forty years.[139] They both played in the singles draw of the US Open[140] and were regular mixed doubles partners.[141][142][143] She donated the tournament trophy named after her husband.[144] His silkscreen print "Serve Your Country" was once prominently on display, in the main room of the International Tennis Hall of Fame and Museum.[145] He was known for his athletic ability, active participation, friendliness and sportsmanship.[146][147]

The following list only includes open tournaments, which were sanctioned by the United States Lawn Tennis Association.[148] Their results largely determined the player rankings, and who qualified for entry into the U.S. Nationals. These majors are categorized by the event's host site. Verified Career Finals: Wins (9). Singles: 1920-Sunningdale (Scarsdale) CC.[149] 1924-Lake George & Lake Mohonk Tennis Clubs. Doubles: 1922-New York Athletic Club.[150] 1924-Lake Mohonk. 1925-West Side Tennis Club (for veterans).[151] 1930-Lake George. 1931-Lake George. Mixed doubles: 1920-New York TC (for couples).[152] Runners-up (13). Singles: 1919-Woodmere (L.I.) Club.[153] 1922-Essex County (N.J.) CC.[154] 1923-Amackassin (Yonkers) Club[155] & Harlem TC.[156] 1924-Oritani (Hackensack, N.J.) Field Club[157] & Stamford (Conn.) Yacht Club.[158] 1925-Lake Mohonk. 1930-Lake George.[159] Doubles: 1921-Greenwich (Conn.) CC[160] & Milford (Pa.) Field Club. 1925-Lake Mohonk.[161] 1926-South Yonkers TC.[162] Mixed Doubles: 1921-Milford.[163] Misc. 1915-Merriewold TC (consolation singles title).[164] [He also won several members-only tournaments, which were sponsored by the County Tennis Club of Westchester in Scarsdale.][165]

Illustrated magazine covers[edit]

Most of them are signed. The rest are imprinted with the words "Cover by Paul Martin". His signature remained fairly consistent; with a curvature P & M, slanted crossing of the T, and small mark underneath. Also, with the placement of given name above surname.

(Runner slides home.) People's Home Journal 5-28
(Business Men's Lunch: cream pie, chocolate cake, rice pudding and an ice cream sundae.) Collier's 2-2-1924

His artwork featured on Foreign Service was initially sold to Parents in 1930. They ended up not using the piece and so it was resold. Martin's artwork featured on Die Hausfrau (published in Milwaukee, Wis.) of a boy with five pups, was initially used by the Gerlach Barklow Calendar Company (pictured above). Farm & Fireside changed its name to Country Home in early 1930.

Parents' 25th anniversary issue came out in Oct. of 1951. Its unique cover featured 25 of them reproduced in miniature form (one for each year from 1926 to 50). Three of Martin's covers made it onto this Silver Jubilee edition. They came from the issues of Oct. 1928, Aug. 1929 and Oct. 1930. He therefore (in essence) won the coveted "Cover of the Year" award for 1928, 29 & 30.

The following list contains thirty-seven known credits, excluding trade publications. It includes three different magazines from Sept. of 1925.

Illustrated books[edit]

The Baseball Detective, 1928

His artistic contributions to short stories, include the following foursome. 1. Saturday Evening Post: Short Turns and Encore by various writers, July 29, 1922 p. 16.[175] 2. Collier's: The Unfairway by Burford Lorimer, Dec. 25, 1926 pp. 22–23.[176] 3. Scribner's Magazine: Tragedy by Eve Bernstein, April 1928 p. 479.[177] 4. Scribner's Magazine: On the Dark Trail by Franklin Holt, July 1928 p. 71.[178]

The following list contains seven fictional books (novels) that were directed at boys, girls or both.

  • Philus, the Stable Boy of Bethlehem; and Other Children's Story-Sermons for Christmas.... Edmund J. Cleveland, with forward by the Rt. Rev. Charles L. Slattery, Sept. 1927. (Credits are on the cover, frontispiece and facing pp. 52, 66, 124.)[179] It includes eleven short stories covering the Christian Year. The opener is about a stable boy, who was present at the Holy Birth. The stories are all fictional, with a moral message.
  • Puck Chasers Incorporated. Charles G. Muller, Sept. 1927. (Credits are on the cover, frontispiece and inside pages.)[180] This is one of the earliest books with an ice hockey theme. Those that predate it tend to be on a combination of winter sports, instead of solely on ice hockey.
  • Araminta. Helen Cady Forbes, Nov. 1927. (Credits are on the cover, frontispiece & facing pp. 134, 212.)[181] Araminta turns eleven years old and finds a kidnapped baby.
  • The Prince and the Pig's Gate, and Other Sermons in Story. Robert Hugh Morris, May 1928. (Credits are on the cover, frontispiece and facing pp. 48, 134, 166.)[182]
  • The Baseball Detective. Charles G. Muller, Aug. 1928. (Credits are on the cover, frontispiece & facing pp. 22, 132, 250-pictured.)[182] It's a story of baseball, competition, friendship and intrigue at the Fisk School for Boys.
  • Chad of Knob Hill: The Tale of a Lone Scout. Howard R. Garis, Sept. 1929. Republished in 2013. (Credits are on the cover, frontispiece & pp. 14, 60, 85, 97, 163, 187, 213, 281.)[183] This book has a Boy Scouting theme. Garis created and wrote the stories about the gentlemanly rheumatic rabbit, Uncle Wiggily.
  • Stories of To-day and Yesterday; Thirty Selected Short Stories, Nine Imitative Stories by Students.... Edited by Frederick H. Law, Feb. 1930. (Credit is on the frontispiece.)[184] An instructional guide on how to appreciate and write short stories.

References and notes[edit]

Notes come after the sources. They are directly related or give additional details. Rule Exception: on occasion when the same source is used more than once. This pattern is maintained throughout the references for continuity purposes.

  1. ^ Register of Deaths for the Village of Ossining, N.Y. His then home address was in nearby Millwood. This is also verified via the Census of 1930.
  2. ^ a b "Historical Note". Newark Public Library. Its key source: Cover Story: The Art of American Magazine Covers 1900-1950 by Heller & Fili, 1996.
  3. ^ a b A Cavalcade of Collier's, edited by McArdle (Collier's last editor), 1959 pp. xii-xiii.
  4. ^ "Newsstand:1925". University of West Florida. One of its key sources: Magazines in the Twentieth Century by Peterson, 1956.
  5. ^ a b Collier's (1a). Library of Congress at loc.gov. Discover>(drop down) Photos, Prints, Drawings>(enter) "Correct Position for the Fingers." Collier's (1b). University of Minnesota. A young flutist wearing a sailor suit & red bow, June 28, 1924.
  6. ^ Collier's. "The Fourth Garrideb - Numismatics of Sherlock Holmes." Posted 11-9-14.
  7. ^ a b Collier's. American Education in Popular Media, ed. by Terzian & Ryan, 2015.
  8. ^ Collier's usually preferred cover art which conveyed plain and simple thoughts, unlike their main rival in the Saturday Evening Post.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Hard Row to Hoe (Healdsburg, Calif.), Fall 2005 pp. 1-3, by Joe E. Armstrong in collaboration with Martin's niece. Excerpts: "Martin's illustration for a Fisk Tire advertisement, 'A Time to Retire,' ... [with her brother] as model, was his best known work ... we (niece and her two siblings) climbed the oak stairs to the second floor ... [and] entered a huge bright room ... This was my uncle's studio.... Although my uncle generally used local models, especially boys, some of our family posed for photographs which would later miraculously turn into paintings. My grandmother was depicted in a Thanksgiving scene basting a turkey ... My sister modeled for Junior Red Cross posters (or poster) ... [and the taking of] a license number from a boy's homemade car, for hitting her carriage and doll."
  10. ^ Martin's Photo Session #1. Wikimedia. A model posing for the artist, and its final product. This montage appeared in the Saturday Evening Post of Nov. 22, 1930 on p. 37. Artist Signed. The boy, refrigerator and two girls were all photographed separately.
  11. ^ a b Martin's Photo Session #2. Wikimedia. A model posing for the artist, and its final product. This composite appeared on the May cover of Foreign Service in 1932. Artist Signed. Martin is mentioned on pp. 10 & 26. The boy is holding a matchbox on a paint brush stick, in substitute of a rose.
  12. ^ "Serve Your Country; Benefit of War Camp Activities". Library and Archives Canada. His first documented credit. Many artists lent their talents to the war effort. Size: 11x17".
  13. ^ "General Summary". What New York Did for Fighting Men through New York War Camp Community Service in the World-War of 1917-19, 1919 pp. 3-4.
  14. ^ It was donated by Bessie Holden in 1965. This is stated within the frame. The Sun, April 21, 1918 sec. 7 p. 8; July 16, 1918 p. 13. She helped organize the National Tennis Women's War Relief Association. New York Tribune, Sept. 09, 1919 p. 15; June 2, 1920 p. 13; July 26, 1921 p.12; Brooklyn Daily Eagle, May 23, 1922 p. A2; Sept. 24, 1930 p. 25; The Yonkers Statesman and News, Feb. 27, 1923 p. 10. Holden & Mrs. Martin both played in these tournaments.
  15. ^ Newport Mercury and Weekly News, Sept. 6, 1929 p. 5. "New Junior Red Cross Poster Designed by Paul Martin, Beautiful and Inspiring."
  16. ^ a b American Junior Red Cross. The Messenger, "Self-Sustaining Youth," Sept. 2007 vol. 2 no. 4. This particular poster came from the American Red Cross Archives, on 17th St. in D.C. His niece is on the far top-right. Signed in the lower right of globe.
  17. ^ Titled: "I don't care, I'm strong", 1930. Girl cautions boy to be careful, who's wearing a leather football helmet. She's applying a bandage. The girl in real life was the boy's 17-year-old aunt, who always accompanied him to photo shoots.
  18. ^ Many store owners would not allow display ads, to hang from overhead wires. They felt it made their place look too cluttered.
  19. ^ Silent Hostess, 1930 vol. 2 no. 5 (inside cover); Saturday Evening Post, July 26, 1930 p. 43; The American Magazine, Aug. 1930 p. 124; Arts & Decoration, Aug. 1930 p. 15; Collier's, Aug. 16, 1930 p. 27; Country Life, Aug. 1930 p. 75 (published in Garden City, N.Y.-hence not the U.K. version); Ladies' Home Journal, Aug. 1930 p. 70. Verified List.
  20. ^ "General Electric Monitor Top" on YouTube. Subtitled: "Makes It Safe to be Hungry", Part One. (Ad shown at the 5:05-5:15 mark.)
  21. ^ Saturday Evening Post, Oct. 25, 1930 p. 34 (blocks).
  22. ^ Silent Hostess, 1930 vol. 2 no. 7-inside cover & Saturday Evening Post, Nov. 22, 1930 p. 37 (sales boy).
  23. ^ a b c Citizen Sentinel (Ossining, N.Y.), March 19, 1932 p. 1. Excerpts: "An art enthusiast from his boyhood ... He studied commercial art at the Academy of Design ... Mr. Martin gained a national reputation when he designed the automobile tire advertisement, 'Time to Re-tire' ... He has won several art prizes, including an award last year for drawing the best poster symbolizing the Girl Scout movement.... member of the Artists' Guild. He was also a member of the County [Tennis] Club of Westchester (located in Scarsdale, N.Y.) and of the Scarsdale Badminton Club."
  24. ^ a b Girl Scout Collector's Guide by Degenhardt & Kirsch, 1987 pp. 163 (color picture of the poster), 215 (contest-winning & popular usage). Sizes = 17 x 22" & 7 x 9.25". The two catalog dates came from viewing the actual covers, not from those stated in this book. There's a slight differential between them.
  25. ^ "Prize Winning" (PDF). The Pelham Sun, March 13, 1931 p. 7.
  26. ^ "Art Alliance of America". American Art Annual, edited by Levy, 1921 vol. 17 p. 174. They often held competitions, demonstrations and exhibitions.
  27. ^ a b c "Poster Campaign of Girl Scouts". Plattsburgh Daily Press, Jan. 21, 1931 p. 7. Gibson was on the original (not final) panel.
  28. ^ a b "Girl Scout Notes" (PDF). The Pelham Sun, Feb. 27, 1931 p. 9.
  29. ^ The Yonkers Statesman, Nov. 6, 1931 p. 20.
  30. ^ The Yonkers Statesman, June 1, 1929 p. 6. It was held at the bride's family home, in Manhattan on Riverside Avenue (now Drive).
  31. ^ Citizen Sentinel, Feb. 19, 1931 p. 8; Dobbs Ferry NY Register, March 13, 1931 p.11; The Daily Plainsman, March 14, 1931 p. 7 (Martin-Schain picture, exchange). The first is a slightly different, full-length pose that was likely taken within seconds of the other two.
  32. ^ Citizen Sentinel (Ossining, N.Y.), Feb. 17, 1931 p. 6; Lockport Union-Sun and Journal, Feb. 21, 1931 p. 4 (quote).
  33. ^ Title Leaves for 1932 Line (salesman's catalog). This image first showed up on their calendars, ink blotters (3.5 x 6" with pink backs) and prints in 1931.
  34. ^ Title Leaves for 1933 Line (salesman's catalog). This image first appeared (with different lettering) on the cover of Parents magazine in Oct. 1930.
  35. ^ "Cover Design". Progressive Grocer, Sept. 1922 vol. 1 no. 9 (talking on the phone) & Nov. 1922 vol. 1 no. 11 (weighing a turkey). Credits for them are on pp. 5 & 5. The covers are visible by scrolling nearly all the way down to pp. 113 & 117.
  36. ^ Silent Hostess by General Electric, 1931 vol. 3 no. 4 (strong boy showing off his flexed muscles); 1931 vol. 3 no. 7 (father blowing up a football). Magazine's lifespan: 1930-32. Its main purpose was to promote the "Monitor-Top" refrigerator.
  37. ^ Progressive Grocer 1922-To Date. Dedicated to helping the independent operators.
  38. ^ Martin's signature-in-print is within every artwork mentioned in this section. However, there are others unsigned by him, which would be difficult to prove as credits. His artwork featured on billboards, after coming down, were often adapted (or just downsized) into posters for markets and stores. The display period of retail posters was short-lived, as company salesmen continually pushed for their products to be highlighted. This approach existed in the era before food brokers and paid contracts. These posters nearly always ended up being discarded. Hence, even pictures of them would likely not exist.
  39. ^ For clarity: The original was painted and sold to Parents in 1930. This is based on Mrs. Martin's notes. Also, the model only posed for him from 1930-31. It went unused, and so was sold by Parents to Foreign Service. They turned this artwork into a poster and then magazine cover, in the spring of 1932. The poster could be considered Martin's last credit, though that would exclude anything reprinted into another format.
  40. ^ Boys' Life, May 1932 p. 52 (poster). Foreign Service, May 1932 (cover). These are the first known appearances of the poster and cover in print.
  41. ^ a b A youngster reading Parents with some difficulty. This image later appeared on Gerlach Barklow calendars with altered lettering. This youngster also posed for Martin's: 1. H-O Oats billboard (pictured in upper left). 2. Saturday Evening Post ad, Nov. 22, 1930 p. 37. 3. Ads that were displayed in food markets and department stores, after their run on billboards and in magazines. 4. Foreign Service cover, May 1932 (though the photo session took place two years earlier). More: They lived on opposite ends of the same street in Millwood, N.Y. They first met at a short-lived coffee shop, operated by the boy's parents in Millwood. It was called "Rose and Carl's Restaurant", and located across from the railroad depot on Station Road. Martin was a regular customer, who often ordered stuffed cabbage with apple pie. Their numerous photo sessions took place from 1930-31. The young model later became a sportswriter for The Daily Item of Port Chester, N.Y. (1948-50), and associate editor for Progressive Grocer (1957-62).
  42. ^ "Wear a Buddy Poppy". Boys' Life, May 1932 p. 52. A black and white version of the poster. Artist Signed. The silk-like flowers were made by disabled and needy veterans. Proceeds from its sales, provided relief to veterans and their dependents.
  43. ^ Chicopee, Postcard History Series by Jendrysik, 2005 pp. 27, 29.
  44. ^ Fisk Tires brochure, 1901. Size: 4.5 x 6.5". 12 pgs. It gives the details, price, size and weight on their automobile, bicycle and carriage tires.
  45. ^ Chicopee, Postcard History Series by Jendrysik, 2005 p. 33.
  46. ^ "A City That Works". Posted by Jendrysik, Nov. 11, 2012 (on their struggle to survive the Great Depression). It also forced them to severely cut back on advertising.
  47. ^ Look (magazine), May 19, 1964 p. 117. This ad shows that Fisk tires were still being made up to 1964.
  48. ^ Tire Business (magazine). "Time to Un-Retire: Discount Tire Revives Fisk, Escort" by Zielasko, July 6, 1998. Excerpts: "...'we needed a dedicated line with a dedicated inventory' ... It so happened the Fisk name, unused since the 1960s, was available."
  49. ^ America A to Z by Reader's Digest, 1997 pp. 364-65. It's listed as one of the all-time top trademarks.
  50. ^ The 100 Greatest Advertisements: Who Wrote Them and What They Did by Watkins, 1959 pp. 16-17. Republished & Retitled in 2012.
  51. ^ "Defining the Logo Type" (PDF). Logo, Font & Lettering Bible by Cabarga, 2004 p. 16. The boy's hair got lighter, as the years went on.
  52. ^ a b Motor (magazine), April, 1912 p. 26. This is an early documented source featuring the character. However, it first appeared on merchandise, two years earlier.
  53. ^ a b c Printers' Ink (Weekly). "Development of 'Fisk Boy' as Trade Figure", Dec. 26, 1912 p. 78. The character was created in 1910. It appeared that year on lithographs, posters and then postcards.
  54. ^ Saturday Evening Post, Jan. 12, 1929 p. 78 (debut in print).
  55. ^ History of the United States Rubber Company by Babcock, 1966 p. 317. Management decided to make the change in 1928.
  56. ^ a b Editor & Publisher, March 22, 1947 p. 36. Martin's contributions to "Master Pajamas" are indirectly mentioned. Excerpt: "At one time, they put him in a modern suit of pajamas, made him a little older ..." This source states the boy was created circa 1907. It's very unlikely the trademark was created three years before debuting. A more likely estimate would be 1909 or 10. Printers' Ink (Weekly), Dec. 26, 1912 p. 78. This key vintage source states the boy was created in 1910. (There was also a Monthly.)
  57. ^ a b Printers' Ink (Weekly), "Don't Be Afraid to Improve Your Trade-Mark: Even the Long-Famous Time to Re-tire Boy Has Been Modernized", March 27, 1930 pp. 10, 12. The boy's three stages are pictured and reviewed. This is a rare vintage source on the third and final stage.
  58. ^ History of the United States Rubber Company: A Case Study in Corporation Management by Babcock, 1966 p. 317.
  59. ^ Saturday Evening Post, Feb. 8 p. 106; March 8 p. 76; April 5 p. 107; May 3 p. 69; May 10 p. 128; May 24 p. 61; June 7 p. 67; June 21 p. 89; June 28 p. 87; July 5 p. 69; July 26 p. 91; Aug. 23 p. 38. All twelve issues are from 1930.
  60. ^ His signature appears with the character in three of these twelve issues. As follows: March 8, 1930 p. 76 (plain backdrop); July 26, 1930 p. 91 (purple backdrop); Aug. 23, 1930 p. 38 (blue backdrop).
  61. ^ Saturday Evening Post, March 8, 1930 p. 77.
  62. ^ His credits include all images of the two-piece pajama-clad boy. This was used as the company's logo from 1930-34.
  63. ^ "Bedtime Story Book". Fisk Tire Company Advertising History. Size = 7.25 x 5.75".
  64. ^ "Ashtrays" (1-2). Chuquicamata.net. Fisk Tire Company Advertising History. Diameter 6.75". Height 1.25".
  65. ^ A portrait of George Washington (by Gilbert Stuart) is on the cover. Size = 4 x 6.5".
  66. ^ Circular shaped, with a tire around the rim. Manufactured by Telechron. Diameter 5.5".
  67. ^ "Puzzle". Fisk Tire Co. Advertising History. Die-cut cardboard. Size = 8.625 x 11".
  68. ^ As follows: Design No. 1 - The Fisk Trade Mark Boy. (Martin's signature is next to the boy's left heel.) Design No. 2 - Elephant and Mouse. Design No. 3 - Checker Players. Design No. 4 - The Shadow. Design No. 5 - Baseball. Nos. 2, 3 & 5 feature a Kernan or Thrasher painting. Nos. 2-5 feature a Fisk Tire Boy poster in the background.
  69. ^ Pull Quick (with ten wooden sticks that are ignited by quickly pulling them out) & Diamond Quality (standard twenty count) matchbooks by the Diamond Match Co. of N.Y. Also those by the Universal Match Corp.
  70. ^ Titled: "Coming and Going," with an Army/Navy theme and NRA (National Recovery Administration) logo. Hence, dates to 1933 or 34. Size = 28 x 39".
  71. ^ It appeared along with the words "Air Cushion" and "Fisk." Various sizes including a 10-11. This product was meant for home repair.
  72. ^ New Oxford (Pa.) Item, April 13, 1933 p. 3; April 20, 1933 p. 14. Ad: "During this tire sale, we will give absolutely free, one Fisk jig saw puzzle with every tire sold."
  73. ^ Super-Service Data Book, 1933 edition, 32 pp. Size: 6.25 x 3.75". It gives the specs on tire and rim sizes, which are needed for various cars and their models.
  74. ^ Decals that stuck onto the inside of glass windows.
  75. ^ Other variations: 1. A smaller image on the front, and same size image on back with the catchphrase "Time to Retire / Get a Fisk." 2. A smaller image on the front, along with wording "Air-Flight Principle Tires by Fisk."
  76. ^ National Petroleum News, Feb. 19, 1930 p. 120. Boys' Life, May 1932 p. 43; June 1932 p. 53; July 1932 p. 45; Sept. 1933 p. 28; "All the World". Dec. 1933 p. 42; April 1934 p. 28; May 1934 p. 30; June 1934 p. 42; Dec. 1934 p. 55. Tire ads for bicycles.
  77. ^ "Air-Flight Principle" (PDF). Gazette & Farmers' Journal, April 17, 1930; The Cayuga Chief, April 4, 1930 p. 3; Brooklyn Daily Eagle, April 10, 1930 p. 10; April 17, 1930 p. 15; The New York Sun, May 8, 1930 p. 47; Waterville Times May 8, 1930 p. 6; The Newark (NY) Courier, June 12, 1930 p. 6; San Jose Evening News, July 11, 1930 p. 13; Skaneateles Free Press, July 17, 1930 p. 6; Binghamton Press, April 23, 1931 p. 19; Van Nuys News Aug. 6, 1931 p. 21; Dansville Breeze, Jan. 21 & 23, 1932; Medina Daily Journal, May 11 & June 29, 1933 p. 5; The Evening News, July 19, 1933 p. 16; Schenectady Gazette, May 25, 1934 p. 32; Plattsburgh Daily Press, July 6, 1934 p. 8; July 7 & 19, 1934 p. 5; Aug. 14, 1934 p. 8. Fisk dramatically cut back on advertising after 1930. This was due to the deepening national depression, which forced most of their franchise dealers out of business.
  78. ^ The Hogan Handbook, Fisk-Federal-Badger Tire Catalog, Thomas E. Hogan Inc., 1935 pp. 35-36. The original Fisk Boy did not appear in magazine ads from 1930-36. But, he appeared on various advertising materials, starting in 1935.
  79. ^ "Advertising Art". Best-Norman-Rockwell-Art. His credits for Fisk are listed.
  80. ^ The character faded from the advertising world in the early 1950s. Except, it continued being depicted on boxes and cans of auto parts, until the early 1970s. Examples: air filters, anti-freeze, brake fluid, headlamps, motor tune-ups, oil filters, spark plugs and tire cleaners. It since then has appeared on collector merchandise, manufactured by The Franklin Mint. Also on Lionel boxcars and the label stickers for Fisk Classic tires.
  81. ^ His parents were married in 1865. They had five sons and two daughters. This was verified via the combined Census of 1880 & 1900.
  82. ^ The family lived on 31st St. in 1880. They lived on 129th St. in 1900 & 1910. The widowed wife was the Head of Household in 1910. (U.S. Census Records.)
  83. ^ Archive Department of the National Academy Museum and School, New York City, New York. This source verified the dates. He took classes in Antique (drawing human figures from plaster statues), Illustration (taught by Charles Louis Hinton) and Life (drawing live female and male models).
  84. ^ The school was then located at West 109th St. and Amsterdam Ave. in Manhattan. Martin continued living at home during these years (with extended family members). His residency was verified via the school's Archive Department.
  85. ^ "Many Players Put Out". New York Tribune, May 17, 1910 p. 9. His first known entered event. New York Tribune, May 20 & 29, 1910 p. 8; June 2, 1910 p. 9; June 21, 1910 p. 9 (starring William Larned); June 28 & July 1, 1910 p. 9; The Sun, May 29, 1911 p. 4; May 31, 1911 p. 9; Aug. 12, 1911 p. 7; Aug. 14, 1911 p. 9. He participated in many tourneys from 1910-11. The Sun, Aug. 7, 1913 p. 9; New York Tribune, May 17, 1914 pt. 2 p. 6; July 6, 1915 p. 15; Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Aug. 16, 1915 sec. 2 p. 4. Martin's lean years on the circuit were from 1912-14. His game was elevated a notch by 1915. Spalding's Lawn Tennis Annual, 1919 pp. 177, 181. He was first nationally ranked in 1918 (at #91). There were no rankings the previous year, due to WWI.
  86. ^ Their marriage announcement card gave the date and location as Sept. 27, 1912 in New York. Their age at marriage is stated in the Census of 1930. There's a year differential between these two sources.
  87. ^ They specialized in reprinting books not protected by copyright laws. Her brother worked for and later took over the company, from someone who by chance had the same surname. He's listed as an accountant for a publishing company in the U.S. Census of 1910 ... office clerk in the New York State Census of 1915 ... publisher from New Rochelle in the New York State Census of 1925.
  88. ^ Their home address on Andrews Avenue is given in the following: New York State Census of 1915 ... U.S. Census of 1920 ... Westchester County (Millwood) property records of August 1925. They were renters according to the source from 1920.
  89. ^ Census of 1920. He was still working for an outdoor advertising firm, while living in the West Bronx in 1920.
  90. ^ "Guild Service". Printers' Ink Monthly, Feb. 1921 p. 97. Other sources can be seen by clicking "view all." He was not listed as a member of the Artists' Guild, in the Dec. 1920 issue on p. 97.
  91. ^ Office of the Westchester County Clerk. They provided the property records, on Paul and Lauretta's first owned home.
  92. ^ The props included caps, jackets, neckties, sports equipment/jerseys and sweaters. They sometimes made their way onto multiple illustrations. The studio's materials and layout were recalled by Martin's niece, for an article in Hard Row to Hole, Fall 2005 pp. 1-3 (but didn't make it into print).
  93. ^ Spalding's Tennis Annual, 1924 p. 97 (top twenty); 1925 p. 92 (top twenty). He was ranked in the teens from 1923-24.
  94. ^ Wright & Ditson Officially Adopted Lawn Tennis Guide, 1921 pp. 29 (USA ranking), 109 (N.Y. metropolitan area ranking).
  95. ^ The New York Times, Nov. 13, 1920 p. 12 (metro players to be officially ranked for the first time); Dec. 5, 1920 sec. 9 p. 2 (Class B=those ranked from #18-31); Jan. 8, 1922 sec. 9 p. 1 (top thirty); Dec. 11, 1923 p. 24 (top twenty).
  96. ^ The New York Times, Jan. 25, 1925 p. 4S & Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Jan. 25, 1925 p. 6D (top twenty); Dec. 27, 1925 p. C3 (top twenty-five).
  97. ^ The New York Times, Jan. 8, 1923 p. 18; Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Jan. 8, 1923 p. 2A. This rule change, likely kept him from ranking in the top thirty for six straight years.
  98. ^ "Rosenbaum Wins". The Sun, Sept. 8, 1919 p. 16. He won the runner-up trophy. That's assuming they were (as normally) awarded to the top-two finishers. Spalding's Lawn Tennis Annual, 1919 p. 225. The prize that year in particular, could have been a certificate or medal.
  99. ^ "Mr. and Mrs. Martin Win". The Sun and New York Herald, June 29, 1920 p. 11. His first known tournament win. Spalding's Lawn Tennis Annual, 1918 p. 33. This sanctioned husband-wife event began in 1918. The unique idea was proposed by Marie Wagner.
  100. ^ "Bassford Retains". The Scarsdale Inquirer, Oct. 16, 1931 p. 1. His last known tournament win, which came at age 48. Victor in doubles. Runner-up in singles. These two events were for members only. However, he also won an open-sanctioned tournament that year, at Lake George in Warren County, New York.
  101. ^ "Martin Tennis Winner" (PDF). The New York Times, July 11, 1920 sec. 1 p. 17. It was held on the Sunningdale Courts in Scarsdale.
  102. ^ "Second Annual Tournament". American Lawn Tennis, June 15, 1921 p. 135. Excerpt: "The first leg on this cup was won in 1920 by Paul Martin."
  103. ^ American Lawn Tennis, edited by Merrihew, 1924 p. 536 (singles title); Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Aug. 2, 1925 p. 2F (backup source). The latter states that Martin was the Lake George champion of 1924.
  104. ^ "Ulster County Tennis Tourney" (PDF). The Kingston Daily Freeman, July 29, 1924 p. 12 (singles & doubles titles).
  105. ^ Brooklyn Daily Eagle, April 2, 1925 p. 2A (National Indoor Doubles). Their match was played on the drill floor, of Manhattan's Seventh Regiment Armory.
  106. ^ "Hunter Gains Place in Round Before Semi-finals" (subheading). New York Tribune, July 7, 1919 p. 12; July 6, 1920 p. 12.
  107. ^ a b Schenectady Gazette, Aug. 28, 1924 p. 9. "...Patterson, after encountering some difficulty and losing a set to Paul Martin of New York ..." Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Aug. 27, 1924 p. 2. "Gerald Patterson, Australian Davis Cup captain, quickly finished off his opponent, Paul Martin of New York, by taking the fourth and deciding set of their postponed match without the loss of a game. The Anzac had dropped a long deuce set to Martin [on] Monday but he was invincible today ..." The New York Times, Aug. 28, 1924 p. 12. This was the U.S. Nationals. Their match was held just outside the grandstand courts. Patterson went on to reach the semi-finals.
  108. ^ "Close Finishes". New York Tribune, May 18, 1918 p. 14 (Harlem Tennis Club). Excerpt: "In the second round, there was a keenly fought struggle between Richards-Fischer & Martin-Mersereau ..." New York Tribune, May 8, 1917 p. 13; May 8, 1919 p. 22. They were clubmates at University Heights. The Sun, July 6, 1919 sec. 2 p. 3 (Martin over Richards by default). New York Tribune, June 24, 1922 p. 11. They met in a fourth round match.
  109. ^ a b The New York Times, June 28, 1925 6S. They faced off at the New York Athletic Club's country home, on Travers Island in Pelham Manor. Tilden went on to win the singles (over Vincent Richards) & doubles titles.
  110. ^ Brooklyn Daily Eagle, April 3, 1924 p. 2A (7th Regt. Armory in Manhattan).
  111. ^ "Kynaston is Victor". New York Tribune, Oct. 15, 1922 pt. 1 p. 21. A mixed doubles match at West Orange, N.J. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Sept. 23, 1921 p. 19. His wife had previously faced Wagner, in the singles semi-finals at Hoboken, N.J.
  112. ^ New York Tribune, July 6, 1915 p. 16 (4th round match-Univ. Hts.); Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Sept. 23, 1921 p. 19 (5th round match-Hoboken, N.J.); The New York Times, June 2, 1923 p. S8. PM won after losing the first set 0-6. The New York Times, June 12, 1925 p. 17 (5th round match-Montclair, N.J.); The Yonkers Statesman, June 9, 1928 p. 12. They were clubmates at Hartsdale. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, June 22, 1930 p. C3. They met in the semi-finals of the Eastern Clay Court Championship, at Travers Island.
  113. ^ "Net Stars Advance" (PDF). The New York Times, July 23, 1921 p. 8. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, last edition, July 1, 1922 p. 7; May 17, 1925 p. 2D.
  114. ^ "Kinsey Brothers" (PDF). New York Tribune, July 24, 1922 p. 11.
  115. ^ New York Tribune, March 28, 1920 pt. 1 p. 21; Oct. 15, 1922 pt. 1 p. 21; The New York Times, May 15, 1923 p. 17; Aug. 22, 1923 p. 11; Brooklyn Daily Eagle, June 3, 1923 p. 4D; Long Island News, July 24, 1924 p. 1.
  116. ^ Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Aug. 8, 1926 p. C5 (Westchester-Biltmore CC in Rye).
  117. ^ "Rosenbaum Wins at Net" (PDF). The New York Times, Sept. 15, 1919 p. 13. Martin eliminated Fred Anderson (brother of Frank), earlier in the tournament. Anderson and Rosenbaum were both finalist at different times, in the National Indoor Singles.
  118. ^ New York Tribune, June 3, 1910 p. 9; June 25, 1920 p. 15; June 24, 1922 p. 11. Voshell won back-to-back U.S. National Indoor Tennis Championships.
  119. ^ The New York Times, May 29, 1923 p. 12. Heading: "Martin conquers Wood at Yonkers." The New York Times, June 20, 1924 p. 22. Wood played in every National Professional Tennis Championship from 1927-36.
  120. ^ a b New York Tribune, June 5, 1916 p. 14; "Semi-Finals Reached". The Sun, Aug. 13, 1916 sec. 2 p. 2; Sept. 17, 1917 p. 11; "Heights Team Wins". The Sun and New York Herald, May 28, 1920 p. 10; "Finals Reached" (PDF). The New York Times, Oct. 13, 1922 p. 22. These sources back up that Martin belonged to the University Heights Tennis Club. New York Tribune, May 10, 1915 p. 15. A fellow clubmate was Franklin P. Adams. The Sun, July 30 & Aug. 7, 1913 p. 9; New York Tribune, July 4, 1915 pt. 2 p. 4; July 1, 1917 pt. 2 p. 3 & July 2, 1917 p. 11; June 30, 1919 p. 12; July 6, 1920 p. 12; May 22, 1922 p. 9; The New York Times, May 4, 1924 sec. 10 p. 6 & May 11, 1924 sec. 1 pt. 2 p. 3. They both played in these open tourneys, put on by University Hts. The artist lasted until the semi-finals in 1913 & 24. New York Tribune, June 30, 1919 p. 12; July 2, 1919 pp. 10, 12. Columnist Adams mentions that event volunteer Mrs. Martin; served him cake, sandwiches & tea for refreshments (p. 10). Adams & Mr. Martin formed a tandem. In singles play, they lasted until the 3rd & 5th rounds respectively.
  121. ^ The New York Times, Sept. 30, 1921 p. 12. Hammett & Martin were clubmates at University Heights. Big Bill Tilden by Deford, 1976 p. 221. Donald Strachan was Tilden's Philadelphia protégé.
  122. ^ "Reach Fourth Round". New York Tribune, June 3, 1918 p. 13; May 18, 1918 p. 14; The Sun, May 14, 1919 p. 16; The Sun and New York Herald, March 28, 1920 sec. 2 p. 8; Brooklyn Daily Eagle, June 15, 1925 p. 2A; June 24, 1925 p. 2A; Feb. 17, 1926 p. 2A; May 16, 1926 p. 2C; Aug. 8, 1926 p. C5; Philadelphia Inquirer, Aug. 13, 1928 p. 13; Syracuse American, Aug. 11, 1929 p. 8.
  123. ^ Men's Singles: New York Tribune, Aug. 31, 1920 p. 11; Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Sept. 1, 1921 p. 2; The Sun, Aug. 26, 1924 p. 24. Tilden won every National from 1920-25.
  124. ^ 1921 U.S. Nationals. Section 8. Second Round: Rogers vs. Martin. His wife Lauretta also played in the Nationals of 1921.
  125. ^ Spalding's Tennis Annual, 1929 p. 51. "...Dr. [Philip] Hawk went into the semi-final against Bassford with a victory over PM of New York." Spalding's, 1930 p. 31. "... [Jean Adoue] engaged PM of New York in the longest and closest match of the tournament, which required forty-eight games." Spalding's, 1931 p. 27. Wright & Ditson Officially Adopted Lawn Tennis Guide, 1932 p 13. He lasted twice until both the 3rd & 4th rounds.
  126. ^ The New York Times, Sept. 23, 1928 sec. 11 p. 8; The Scarsdale Inquirer, June 29, 1928 p. 8; Oct. 18, 1929 p. 22; Aug. 15, 1930 p. 1; June 26, 1931 p. 2. Also called the County Tennis Club of Hartsdale or Westchester. He joined this club after moving from The Bronx to Millwood in August of 1925.
  127. ^ Brooklyn Daily Eagle, May 11, 1924 pp. 1-2D. The USLTA adopted the player-writer rule in 1924. It stated that any athlete who receives payment for writing on tennis, would be stripped of their amateur status starting Jan. 1, 1925. This resolution was easily approved (47,196 to 6,250 votes). It would have most dramatically affected Bill Tilden, followed distantly by Vincent Richards. 18 of the 25 top ranked metropolitan racketmen (& others) signed a petition, rebuking the new rule that redefined amateurism. Walter Merrill Hall and Martin instead wrote a separate letter (full text printed), urging its reconsideration. Strong opposition also came from editor-publisher S. Wallis Merrihew and fans. Hence, the resolution was greatly modified before implementation.
  128. ^ The New York Times, June 7, 1925 p. 8S; New York Evening Post, June 9, 1925 p. 16. Martin refereed a women's tournament, at the University Heights TC. He was also in charge of accepting entries. His wife served on its committee. New York Evening Post, June 19, 1925 p. 14. Former national indoor champion Helene Pollak Falk, nearly collapsed during a semi-finals match. Referee Paul assisted her off the court.
  129. ^ The Scarsdale Inquirer, Aug. 15, 1925 p. 9. "Younger Tennis Players". The Scarsdale Inquirer, Aug. 20, 1926 pp. 1, 10.
  130. ^ Westchester County Tennis League. The WCTL has hosted the event every year since 1932 (excluding 1942-45).
  131. ^ "Annual County Net Tourney" (PDF). The Herald Statesman, June 21, 1932 p. 14. League Reps. decide to honor Martin. The Scarsdale Inquirer, June 22, 1934 p. 4. It was spearheaded by Fenimore Cady of the Mount Pleasant Tennis Club of Pleasantville.
  132. ^ "Memorial Tourney to Start". The Scarsdale Inquirer, Aug. 19, 1932 p. 1.
  133. ^ "Paul Martin Memorial Play" (PDF). The Herald Statesman, June 28, 1935 p. 19. It was originally called the Paul Martin Memorial Tennis Tournament, and included singles and doubles competition.
  134. ^ This prize was for 2nd place in the Essex County Tennis Championship (West Orange, N.J.). It concluded on Oct. 14, 1922.
  135. ^ "County League Sets Draw" (PDF). The Herald Statesman, June 29, 1934 p. 22 (names engraved).
  136. ^ a b Citizen Sentinel (Ossining, N.Y.), March 19, 1932 p. 1. Excerpts: "Originator of 'Time to Re-Tire' series succumbs after operation.... Funeral services will be Tuesday night at 7 o'clock at the Highland Avenue M. E. Church ..."
  137. ^ American Lawn Tennis, April 20, 1932 p. 64. Excerpts: "Paul Martin, well known in New York tennis circles and a [former] member of the University Heights Tennis Club, died suddenly ... For some time Martin had been troubled with pains in the stomach ..." His passing was also noted in the Table of Contents on p. 3.
  138. ^ The New York Times, March 20, 1932 sec. 2 p. 7 Excerpts: "...an artist specializing in advertising ... studied at the National Academy of Design.... Funeral services will be held Tuesday in the Highland Methodist Church."
  139. ^ Lifespan: July 7, 1880, New York City, N.Y. - Aug. 14, 1972, Mount Vernon, N.Y. She was predeceased by her brother and sister.
  140. ^ "First Round Schedule" (2pm start). New York Tribune, Aug. 14, 1921 pt. 1 p. 19. She competed in the 1921 U.S. National Championship (US Open), which concluded with the match between Molla Mallory & Mary K. Browne on Aug. 20. Suzanne Lenglen made her American debut in this tournament at Forest Hills. Both Martins played in the singles draw of the 1921 Nationals. This is a rare (though obscure) feat by a couple. Also accomplished by Augusta Schultz-Clarence Hobart (1905), Nell Hall-Harry Hopman (1938) & Chris Evert-John Lloyd (1979, 81, 83-85).
  141. ^ "Mr. and Mrs. Martin Win". The Sun and New York Herald, June 29, 1920 p. 11. Subheading: "Earn Husband and Wife Metropolitan Tennis Championship." The Sun and New York Herald, Sept. 24, 1920 p. 9. They lasted until the fourth round.
  142. ^ "Finals Reached" (PDF). The New York Times, Oct. 13, 1922 p. 22. Their names are in the closing section on Mixed Doubles.
  143. ^ "County Club is Victorious". The Scarsdale Inquirer, Oct. 25, 1929 p. 3. Their mixed doubles win was credited to the team. "County Tennis Club". The Scarsdale Inquirer, July 17, 1931 p. 1. Their victory was in a club tournament.
  144. ^ "County League Sets Draw" (PDF). The Herald Statesman, June 29, 1934 p. 22 (donated trophy).
  145. ^ The poster was first on display at that location in 1965. It since then has been periodically exhibited in various areas. This was verified via the HOF's Research Center, and a letter in their files by Sec-Treas. Heffernan. It's dated Dec. 3, 1965.
  146. ^ "Paul Martin Tennis Tourney". The Scarsdale Inquirer, June 22, 1934 p. 1.
  147. ^ New York Tribune, July 7, 1919 p. 12; Oct. 15, 1922 pt. 1 p. 21; The Sun and New York Herald, June 29, 1920 p. 11; The New York Times, July 11, 1920 sec. 1 p. 17; The Scarsdale Inquirer, Oct. 25, 1929 p. 3. Martin's strength was in shot placement.
  148. ^ Spalding's Tennis Annual, 1923 pp. 306, 311-14. These clubs are all listed as members, except for South Yonkers. Their courts weren't even dedicated until 5-25-24.
  149. ^ The New York Times, July 11, 1920 sec. 1 p. 17 (singles title).
  150. ^ "Hammett-Martin Team Wins". New York Tribune, July 12, 1922 p. 13. The New York Times, July 23, 1921 p. 8 (singles semi-finalist); June 28, 1925 p. 6S (doubles quarter-finalist); Brooklyn Daily Eagle, June 24, 1928 p. C3 (doubles quarter-finalist); June 22, 1930 p. C3 (singles semi-finalist). These events were held at the AC's home away from home on Travers Island (now a peninsula), along the Long Island Sound.
  151. ^ The New York Times, May 20, 1925 p. 19 (held at Forest Hills); June 3, 1925 p. 21. Heading: "Martin and Bassford Win." Subheading: "Beat Anderson and Hartmann in 'Over 39ers' Tennis Final."
  152. ^ American Lawn Tennis, Sept. 15, 1919 p. 396 (husbands & wives quarter-finalist); The Sun and New York Herald, June 25, 1920 p. 10 (singles quarter-finalist); June 29, 1920 p. 11 (husbands & wives title); The New York Herald, June 25, 1922 sec. 4 p. 4 (doubles quarter-finalist).
  153. ^ The Sun, Sept. 8, 1919 p. 16 (singles runner-up). New York Tribune, July 17, 1920 p. 9 (singles semi-finalist); July 15, 1921 p. 11 (singles quarter-finalist).
  154. ^ New York Tribune, Oct. 13, 1922 p. 15; Oct. 15, 1922 pt. 1 p. 21 (singles runner-up, doubles & mixed doubles quarter-finalist).
  155. ^ Brooklyn Daily Eagle, June 3, 1923 p. 4D & The New York Times, June 3, 1923 p. 4S (singles runner-up); The Yonkers Statesman and News, May 29, 1924 p. 8 (singles quarter-finals). These events were for the Eastern New York State Championship. It was hosted by Amackassin from 1920-24.
  156. ^ New York Tribune, May 16, 1920 pt. 1 p. 21 (singles & doubles quarter-finalist); The Evening Telegram, May 20, 1923 p. 10. Excerpt on Martin: "the University Heights veteran". This corrects misinformation given in competing newspapers around that time. The New York Times, May 21, 1923 p. 19 (singles runner-up).
  157. ^ Long Island News, July 24, 1924 p. 1. The final was played on Sunday, July 20th.
  158. ^ Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Aug. 3, 1924 p. D3 ("Martin Beats Japanese Star") & Aug. 18, 1924 p. 2A (singles runner-up); The New York Times, Aug. 2, 1925 p. S5 (singles semi-finalist).
  159. ^ American Lawn Tennis, edited by Merrihew, 1924 p. 536. He won the singles title on Aug. 6, 1924. The New York Times, July 11, 1930 p. 17 (singles runner-up & doubles title); July 19, 1931 sec. 10 p. 7 (doubles title); Citizen Sentinel, July 16, 1931 p. 12 (singles quarter-finalist).
  160. ^ The New York Times, Oct. 17, 1921 p. 12 (singles semi-finalist & doubles runner-up).
  161. ^ The Kingston Daily Freeman, July 29, 1924 p. 12 (singles & doubles titles); The New York Times, July 18, 1925 p. 11 (singles & doubles runners-up).
  162. ^ The Yonkers Statesman, Sept. 20, 1926 (doubles runner-up). Final: Franklin & Warren Osgood vs. Martin & C. R. Watkins. The Yonkers Statesman, Aug. 8, 1929 p. 13 (singles quarter-finalist); Aug. 8, 1930 (singles quarter-finalist).
  163. ^ The Evening Gazette (Port Jervis, N.Y.), Aug. 26, 1921 p. 8 (mixed doubles runner-up); American Lawn Tennis, Oct. 15, 1921 p. 463 (singles semi-finalist & doubles runner-up). This event ran from Aug. 16-20. It's the only known time when his mixed doubles partner was not Lauretta. There was a schedule conflict, as she debuted in the U.S. Nationals-Women's Singles-on Aug. 15.
  164. ^ Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Aug. 16, 1915 sec. 2 p. 4; The New York Times, Aug. 16, 1915 p. 6. These sources give the winners in singles, doubles & consolation singles. PM was seemingly staying in nearby Mamakating, during the tournament. Spalding's Lawn Tennis Annual, 1916 pp. 119, 313. Full results & definition of consolation. The Sun, Aug. 13, 1916 sec. 2 p. 2; Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Sept. 3, 1916 sec. 3 p. 6 (social news-not sports). "PM of the University Heights TC" (Bronx, N.Y.) was picked to win this tourney at Merriewold Park. His performance there the previous year, would have been a critical reason. The favorite lasted until the semi-finals instead.
  165. ^ The Scarsdale Inquirer, Oct. 5, 1928 p. 5 (reached singles semi-finals, with no further results printed); Oct. 18, 1929 p. 22 (singles title); July 17, 1931 p. 1 (mixed doubles title); Oct. 16, 1931 p. 1 (singles runner-up & retainer of doubles title). Final results of club tourneys usually went unreported. Hence, most of them today are unknown.
  166. ^ It was called The Rally from 1917-20. This image later appeared on the cover of Girl Scout Equipment catalogs for Fall 1932 and Spring 1933.
  167. ^ Collier's. Wikimedia. A boy and dog going down a water slide, while experiencing different emotions, Aug. 27, 1927.
  168. ^ Everybody's (magazine). The FictionMags Index. A young swimmer and his playful yet mischievous dog, Sept. 1925.
  169. ^ It was known as Farm Journal and Farmer's Wife (upon their merger), from the issues of May 1939 to July 1945. The title was then shortened to Farm Journal, with a back section titled Farmer's Wife.
  170. ^ Memorial Day cover. A poster version is shown in Boys' Life, May 1932 p. 52; May 1933 p. 30 & May 1934 p. 44. The magazine was renamed VFW (Veterans of Foreign Wars) in 1951.
  171. ^ Die Hausfrau (magazine). MagazineArt.org. Its name changes: Die Deutsche Hausfrau 1904-18. Die Hausfrau 1919-92. Das Fenster 1992-To Date. This image of a boy with puppies, originally appeared on calendars & ink blotters in 1931.
  172. ^ Liberty (Magazine). The FictionMags Index. A wagon & doll carriage, 9-12-1925.
  173. ^ It was called Children, the Magazine for Parents from issues 10/26 to 1/29.
  174. ^ It was called Children, the Parents' Magazine from issues 2/29 to 7/29.
  175. ^ Short Turns and Encore. A boy and girl listening to a Civil War veteran, who's reminiscing about General Sherman.
  176. ^ The Unfairway (PDF). Unz.org. Two credits: A man, woman and their caddie on p. 22. The caddie with his father on p. 23.
  177. ^ Tragedy (PDF). Unz.org. A teacher consoling her grieving student.
  178. ^ On the Dark Trail (PDF). Unz.org. Young Henry holding a flashlight and hatchet.
  179. ^ Project Gutenberg. U.S. © Renewals, Jul.-Dec. 1954 (listed under the author).
  180. ^ Google Books. LOC, Copyright Office, Catalog of Copyright Entries for 1927. The book's illustrator was not recorded.
  181. ^ Google Books. LOC, Copyright Office, Catalog of Copyright Entries for 1927.
  182. ^ a b Project Gutenberg. U.S. © Renewals, Jul.-Dec. 1955 (listed under the author).
  183. ^ Google Books. LOC, Copyright Office, Catalog of Copyright Entries for 1929.
  184. ^ Google Books. LOC, Copyright Office, Catalog of Copyright Entries for 1930.

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