Paul McCandless

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Paul McCandless
Paul Mc Candless.JPG
McCandless with Oregon in Treibhaus, Innsbruck, 2010
Background information
Birth name Paul Brownlee McCandless, Jr.
Born (1947-03-24) March 24, 1947 (age 69)
Indiana, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Origin Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Genres Jazz, folk jazz, new age
Occupation(s) Musician
Instruments Oboe, bass clarinet, soprano saxophone, English horn
Years active 1968–present
Labels Atlantic, Windham Hill, Vanguard, ECM
Associated acts Paul Winter Consort, Oregon, Béla Fleck and the Flecktones, Charged Particles
Website www.paulmccandless.com

Paul McCandless, Jr. (born March 24, 1947, Indiana, Pennsylvania) is an American multi-instrumentalist known for his time with the group Oregon. He is one of few expert jazz oboists. He also plays bass clarinet, English horn, and soprano saxophone.[1]

Biography[edit]

Paul Brownlee McCandless, Jr. was born into a musical family. His father taught him clarinet, his mother piano,[2] and he attended the Manhattan School of Music. In 1971 he auditioned with the New York Philharmonic playing English horn and was a finalist.

McCandless has released a series of records of his own compositions with bands he led, including All the Mornings Bring (Elektra/Asylum, 1978), Heresay (Windham Hill, 1988), Navigator (Landslide, 1981), and Premonition (Windham Hill, 1992). With Oregon, he has recorded 28 albums and CDs, in addition to 7 records and CDs with Paul Winter.

In 1996, McCandless won a Grammy Award for Best Pop Instrumental with Béla Fleck and the Flecktones. He also won Grammys in 2007 and 2011 with the Paul Winter Consort, for Best New Age Album, and in 1993 for Al Jarreau's album Heaven and Earth. His performance on Oregon's album 1000 Kilometers was nominated for a Grammy for Best Jazz Instrumental Solo in 2009. He won the Down Beat Critics' Poll for Best Established Combo, the Deutscher Schallplatten Preis for his albums Ectopia, and the Arbeitskreis Jazz im Bundesverband der Phonographishen Wirtschaft Gold Record Award.[3]

In 1985, McCandless toured Europe with bassist Barre Phillips and German clarinetist Theo Jörgensmann. He has been a guest musician with Béla Fleck and the Flecktones, appearing on the 2002 album Live at the Quick, and has toured with tabla artist Sandip Burman. He also was a guest of Leftover Salmon and The String Cheese Incident multiple times in the late 1990s. He has appeared on stage in duets with pianist Art Lande, with whom he recorded the album Skylight.

McCandless is active in the classical music world. As an orchestral soloist, he has performed with the Camerata Chamber Orchestra of Mexico City, the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra, Philadelphia Orchestra, Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra, Los Angeles Philharmonic, and the Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra. Three of Paul's orchestral scores are heard on a CD called Oregon in Moscow. One of these, called "Round Robin," the opening track, received 2001 Grammy nominations for Best Instrumental Composition and Best Instrumental Arrangement.[3]

In 2014, McCandless began performing with Charged Particles a jazz trio based in San Francisco,[1] including opening the 2015 San Luis Obispo Jazz Festival with them on the main stage and headlining at the Stanford Jazz Festival. The quartet has also appeared at Birdland (in NYC), Blues Alley (in Washington, DC), Yoshi's Jazz Club, the Chelmsford Center for the Arts (Massachusetts), and an array of other venues on the east coast of the U.S.

Reception[edit]

The London Telegraph called McCandless's contribution to The Great Jubilee Concert "remarkable".[4] Said Jazz Journal, "Paul McCandless delivered terrific, beautifully modulated solos on both oboe and soprano."[5]

About a McCandless concert, the Washington Post said:[6] "the group deftly explored more imaginatively orchestrated pieces, balancing contemplative and colorfully textured works that made use of a broad variety of mostly reed instruments (and an electronic wind synthesizer) with more rhythmically aggressive pieces that were often marked by spirited and sometimes rhapsodic improvisations by McCandless". The South China Morning Post said he is "a particular pleasure to hear." Said the Birmingham Post, "McCandless soars".[7] And the Washington Post called McCandless a "stellar player" who plays "sparkling harmonic cascades."[8] The Jerusalem Post said that when McCandless performs, he "sprinkles feather-light soprano saxophone touches."

Awards[edit]

  • Grammy Award, Best R&B Vocal Performance, Male, with Al Jarreau, 1993
  • Grammy Award, Best Pop Instrumental Performance with Béla Fleck and the Flecktones, 1996
  • Grammy Award, Best New Age Album, with Paul Winter Consort, 2007, 2011
  • Grammy Award Nomination, Best Instrumental Composition, Best Instrumental Arrangement, Oregon in Moscow, 2001
  • Grammy Award Nomination, Best Jazz Instrumental Solo, 1000 Kilometers, 2009
  • Winner, Talent Deserving of Wider Recognition, Down Beat Magazine Critics' Poll, 1976, 1978

Discography[edit]

Solo[edit]

As sideman[edit]

With Paul Winter Consort

  • Something in the Wind (A&M, 1969)
  • Road (A&M, 1970, 1990)
  • Icarus (Epic, 1972)
  • Living Music Collection (Living Music, 1986)
  • Spanish Angel (Recorded live in Spain) (Living Music, 1993)
  • Greatest Hits (Living Music, 1998)

With Oregon

on Vanguard

  • Our First Record (recorded 1970, first released 1980)
  • Music of Another Present Era (1972)
  • Distant Hills (1973)
  • Winter Light (1974)
  • In Concert (1975)
  • Together (1976), with Elvin Jones
  • Friends (1977)
  • Violin (1978), with Zbigniew Seifert
  • Moon and Mind (1979)
  • Vanguard Sessions: Best of the Vanguard Years (2000)

on Elektra

  • Out of the Woods (1978)
  • Roots in the Sky (1979)
  • In Performance (1980)

on ECM

on Intuition

  • 45th Parallel (1989)
  • Always, Never and Forever (1991)
  • Troika (1993)
  • Beyond Words (1995)
  • Northwest Passage (1997)
  • Music for a Midsummer Night's Dream (The Oregon Trio) (1998)
  • In Moscow (2000), with the Moscow Tchaikovsky Symphony Orchestra
  • Live at Yoshi's (2002)

on CAM Jazz

  • Prime (2005)
  • 1000 Kilometers (2007)
  • In Stride (2010)
  • Family Tree (2012)

With Paul Winter

With Art Lande

  • Skylight (ECM, 1981)
  • Shapeshifter (Synergy Music, 2004)

With Béla Fleck

With Béla Fleck and the Flecktones

With Andrea Pellegrini

  • Middle Earth (& Ensemble Ainulindalë. Symphonia Bluesmiles, 2000)
  • West Coast (& West Coast Quintet / Marco Cattani. Il Poderino della Gioiosa, 2014)

With Comotion

  • Head West (SCI Fidelity, 2000)

With Pierluigi Balducci

With others

  • Cyrus, Cyrus Faryar (Collector's Choice, 1971)
  • Trios/Solos, Ralph Towner with Glen Moore (ECM, 1973)
  • Star Dance, David Friesen (Inner City, 1976)
  • Spring Flowers, Vasant Rai (Universe, 1977)
  • Waterfall Rainbow, David Friesen (Inner City, 1978)
  • Outside Looking Out, Col. Bruce Hampton (Terminus, 1980)
  • Storyteller, David Friesen (Muse, 1981)
  • Later That Evening, Eberhard Weber (ECM, 1982)
  • Twins Live in Japan 1982, Jaco Pastorius (Aurex, 1982
  • Invitation, Jaco Pastorius (RCA, 1983)
  • Tribute to Kurt Weill, Carla Bley (Watt-Works, 1983)
  • Hot House Flowers, Wynton Marsalis (CBS, 1984)
  • Night-Glo, Carla Bley (Watt-Works, 1985)
  • Twice in a Lifetime Theme, Pat Metheny (Bud Yorkin Productions, 1985)
  • Lost in the Stars: The Music of Kurt Weill (A&M, 1985)
  • Aqua Touch, Danny Heines (Silver Wave, 1986)
  • One Night in Vienna, Schönherz/Scott (Windham Hill, 1987)
  • ECM Spectrum, Vol. 1 (ECM, 1987)
  • Usually Always, Fred Simon (Windham Hill, 1988)
  • Castalia, Marc Isham (Virgin, 1988)
  • Every Island, Danny Heines (Silver Wave, 1988)
  • City of Eyes, Ralph Towner (ECM, 1989)
  • Toward the Center of the Night, Michael Manring (Windham Hill, 1989)
  • Pioneers of New Age, (Columbia, 1989)
  • The Golden Wire, Andy Summers (Private Music, 1989)
  • The Three Billy Goats Gruff & Three Little Pigs, Holly Hunter & Art Lande (Rabbit Ears Productions, 1989)
  • Fire in the Lake, Kit Walker (Windham Hill, 1989)
  • One Heart Wild, Danny Heines (Silver Wave, 1990)
  • Drastic Measures, Michael Manring (Windham Hill, 1991)
  • Songs My Children Taught Me, Mark Isham (Rabbit Ears Productions, 1991)
  • Fish up a Tree, Jennifer Robin (Denon, 1991)
  • Christmas, Stephanie Mills (MCA, 1991)
  • A Different Kind of Blue, Max Lasser (AF, 1992)
  • The Opening of Doors, Will Ackerman (Windham Hill, 1992)
  • The Best of Silver Wave, Vol. 1: The Sun (Silver Wave, 1992)
  • Second Thought, Cal Scott (Tamarack, 1992)
  • Rhythms of Life, Bruce BecVar (Higher Octave, 1992)
  • Heaven and Earth, Al Jarreau (Reprise, 1992)
  • A Chance Operation, The John Cage Tribute (Koch International, 1993)
  • Romantic Interludes, Spencer Brewer (Narada, 1993)
  • Wind & Reed (Narada, 1993)
  • The Downward Road, The Pursuit of Happiness (Mercury, 1993)
  • October Child, Anne Hills (Flying Fish, 1993)
  • A Perfect Match, Tademitsu Saito (Access, 1993)
  • Thumbelina, Kelly McGillis & Marc Isham (Rabbit Ears Productions, 1994)
  • Honorable Sky, Peter Kater & Carlos Nakai (Silver Wave, 1994)
  • Thirty Degrees, Ben Demerath (Cojema, 1994)
  • Look Left, Allison Brown (Vanguard, 1994)
  • Travelogue, Dan Peer (Fahrenheit, 1994)
  • Strange Voices: A History 1977–1987, Col. Bruce Hampton (Landslide, 1994)
  • Kindness of Strangers, Terra Sul (MoJazz, 1994)
  • It's About Time, Tademitsu Saito (Access, 1994)
  • Inner Peace, Steven Halpern (Inner Peace, 1994)
  • Terre, Xenia (Via Veneto Jazz, 1995)
  • Timeframe, Todd Phillips (Compass, 1995)
  • The Best of Silver Wave, Vol. 3: The Stars (Silver Wave, 1995)
  • Road to Reunion, Dennis Schaecher (Access, 1995)
  • Heart of the World, Pamela Polland (Ivory Moon, 1995)
  • Deep Heart's Core, Kate Price (Higher Octave, 1995)
  • Zanzibar, Nguyen Le (Musidisc, 1996)
  • A Different Mozart (Imaginary Road, 1996)
  • The Painters, Sacbé (Polygram, 1996)
  • Beyond the Night Sky, Alex DeGrassi (Tropo, 1996)
  • The Music of the Great Smoky Mountains, Gary Remal Malkin (Real Music, 1996)
  • National Parks Series Box (Real Music, 1996)
  • Cinema Paradiso: The Classic Film Music of Ennio Morricone, Ennio Morricone (Silva America, 1996)
  • Ancient Voices, Dennis Hysom (1996)
  • Dig, Michael Land (Capitol, 1996)
  • Range of Motion, Joel Harrison (Koch International, 1997)
  • Native American Currents (Silver Wave, 1997)
  • On a Winter's Night (Polygram, 1997)
  • Live, Suzanne Ciani and the Wave (Seventh Wave, 1997)
  • What Did He Say?, Victor Wooten (Compass, 1997)
  • Beyond the Sundia, Kevin Kern (Real Music, 1997)
  • Piedmont Avenue, John R. Burr (Compass, 1998)
  • Sound of Wind Driven Rain, Will Ackerman (Windham Hill, 1998)
  • Songs for Humanity: A Celebration of Ten Years, Peter Kater & Carlos Nakai (Silver Wave, 1998)
  • The Book of Flame, Michael Manring (Alchemy, 1998)
  • Naked Waters, Kim Rosen (Earth Sea, 1998)
  • Celtic Harpestry (Imaginary Road, 1998)
  • 'Round the Wheel, String Cheese Incident (SCI Fidelity, 1998)
  • Monkey Island II, Michael Land (LucasArts, 1998)
  • Turning, Suzanne Ciani (Wave, 1999)
  • Soundscape (Delta Distribution, 1999)
  • Relaxation and Emotions, Silvia Nakkach (New Earth/Peter Pan, 1999)
  • Relaxation Body, Mind & Spirit, Silvia Nakkach/Sambodhi Prem/Nik Tyndall (Peter Pan, 1999)
  • Pagan Saints, Flesh and Bone (Earth Sea, 1999)
  • Middle Earth, Ensemble Ainulindale (Symphonia/Bluesmiles, 1999)
  • Heritage, Darol Anger (Six Degrees, 1999)
  • Birds of Prey, Peter Kater (Platinum Entertainment, 1999)
  • Freehouse, Kit Walker (HUM, 1999)
  • Collection, Colin Farish (Stillwater Sound, 1999)
  • Mozart for a New Millennium, The Keller Konsortium (Platinum Entertainment, 1999)
  • Monkey Island IV, Michael Land (LucasArts, 2000)
  • Birds of Prey, Peter Kater (Intersound, 2000)
  • Twins Live in Japan 1982, Jaco Pastorius (Warner Bros., 2000)
  • Tony Furtado Band, Tony Furtado (Cojema, 2000)
  • This Time, David Hooper (Orchard, 2000)
  • The Isle of Dreaming, Kate Price (OM Town, 2000)
  • Sonnet, Oberon (Koch International, 2000)
  • Prayer for Peace (2000)
  • Language, Richard Leo Johnson (Blue Note, 2000)
  • Among Friends, Dennis Hysom (Inner Peace, 2000)
  • Wine Country, Mike Marshall (Sunset, 2001)
  • Enskyment (poetry of Robinson Jeffers), Colin Farish (Stillwater Sound, 2001)
  • Prairie, Dennis Hysom (North Star, 2001)
  • Music Meditation: Unwind (The Relaxation Company, 2001)
  • Meant to Be, Jenna Mammina (Mamma Grace, 2001)
  • La Ballata Di Domenica, Paolino Dalla Porta (Splash, 2001)
  • Heart's Desire, Peter Kater (Source UK, 2001)
  • Forgotten Voices, Brian Whisler (Eartrek, 2001)
  • Endless Days, Eberhard Weber (ECM, 2001)
  • Bis an alle Sterne, Schonherz & Fleer's Rilke Projekt (RCA Victor, 2001)
  • BET on Jazz Presents: Jazz Now (NARM Classical and Jazz Committee, 2001)
  • Yoga: Energy (BMG, 2002)
  • Telluride Bluegrass Festival: Alive at 25 (Planet Bluegrass, 2002)
  • Sacred, Taliesin Orchestra (Compendia Music Group, 2002)
  • Perfect Alignment, Steven Halpern (Halpern Sounds, 2002)
  • Night Harvest, Ian Dogole (Global Fusion, 2002)
  • Meditations for Dreams, Relaxation and Sleep, Suzanne Ciani (Seventh Wave, 2002)
  • Inner Works: Piano & Strings, Peter Kater (Source UK, 2002)
  • In Meinem Wilden Herzen, Schonherz & Fleer's Rilke Projekt (RCA Victor, 2002)
  • Celtic Solstice (Decca, 2002)
  • American Gypsy, Tony Furtado (True North, 2002)
  • A Peaceful Christmas, Time-Life (Time, 2002)
  • Xmas Ecstacy, Peter Kater (Silver Wave, 2003)
  • Red Moon, Peter Kater (Silver World, 2003)
  • Pure Romance, Suzanne Ciani (Seventh Wave, 2003)
  • Live Gypsy, Tony Furtado (Dualtone, 2003)
  • Labor & Spirits, Emory Joseph (Capsaicin, 2003)
  • Invocation, Silvia Nakkach (The Relaxation Company, 2003)
  • Hearts, Maye Cavallaro (Redhead, 2003)
  • Überfließende Himme, Schonherz & Fleer's Rilke Projekt (BMG, 2004)
  • Simple Complex, Jon Weber (2nd Century Jazz, 2004)
  • Selected Recordings (Rarum XVIII), Eberhard Weber (ECM, 2004)
  • Os Filhos Do Vento: Children of the Wind, Weber Iago (Adventure Music, 2004)
  • Many Blessings: A Native American Celebration (Zweerz (2004)
  • Full Code, Nguyên Lê (Orchard, 2004)
  • Walking on the Tiger's Tail, Nguyên Lê (HighNote, 2005)
  • Strings of Gold, Celeste Ray Ensemble/Celeste Ray (CATC, 2005)
  • Silver Ship, Suzanne Ciani (Seventh Wave, 2005)
  • Live in Japan, Jaco Pastorius (King, 2005)
  • Heritage, Darol Anger (Six Degrees, 2005)
  • Essential Winter's Solstice (Windham Hill, 2005)
  • Elements Series: Water, Peter Kater (Real Music, 2005)
  • Elements Series: Fire, Peter Kater (Real Music, 2005)
  • Elements Series: Air, Peter Kater (Real Music, 2005)
  • Trinity, John Moulder (Origin, 2006)
  • The Ultimate Most Relaxing New Age Music in the Universe (Denon, 2006)
  • Spin This, Karen Blixt (Hi-Fli, 2006)
  • Rilke Projekt, Schonherz & Fleer's Rilke Projekt (Sony, 2006)
  • Pure Mark Isham, Mark Isham (2006)
  • Lake Suite, Mark Isham (Windham Hill, 2006)
  • Pure Alex de Grassi, Alex de Grassi (Windham Hill, 2006)
  • Lake Suite, Steven Halpern (Inner Peace Music, 2006)
  • Todo Sacbe, Sacbe (Urtext Digital Classics, 2007)
  • Music for Lovers, Vol. 2, Steven Halpern (Steven Halpern's Inner Peace Music, 2007)
  • Faces of the Sun, Peter Kater (Silverwave, 2007)
  • Essence, Marco Pereira (Kind of Blue, 2007)
  • Paul James de Benedictis: Quintets, Arlekin Moscow String Quartet/Paul James De Benedictis (Mnemonic, 2008)
  • Wind of the North, Sacred Earth (Red Feather, 2008)
  • New 2 the Brain, New 2 The Brain (Let's Planet, 2008)
  • As You Drift Away: Lullabies on Guitar, Alex de Grassi (Music for Little People, 2008)
  • The Ultimate Most Relaxing New Age Piano in the Universe (Savoy, 2008)
  • Since Forever, Fred Simon (Naim, 2009)
  • Sangria, Mariah Parker (Ancient-Future, 2009)
  • Rebirth, Osunlade (Yoruba, 2009)
  • Drive Time Rx, Steven Halpern (Inner Peace, 2009)
  • Celebration Earth, Dennis Hysom (North Star, 2009)
  • Best of Hearts of Space, No. 3: Innocence (Valley Entertainment, 2009)
  • Call of Love, Peter Kater, (Point of Light, 2010)
  • Prayer (Valley Entertainment, 2012)
  • Light Body, Peter Kater (Mysterium, 2012)
  • Deep Alpha, Steven Halpern (Inner Peace, 2012)
  • Heart of the Universe, Peter Kater/Snatam Kaur (Spirit Voyage, 2013)
  • The Meditation Music of Peter Kater, Peter Kater (Sounds True, 2014)
  • Ritual, Peter Kater/R. Carlos Nakai (Mysterium, 2014)
  • Hommage to Eberhard Weber, Gary Burton/Jan Garbarek/Pat Metheny (ECM, 2015)
  • Clutter Clearing at the Speed of Sound, Steven Halpern (Steven Halpern, 2016)
  • Arctic, Ratatet (Ridgeway, 2016)[9]

As composer

  • Trios/Solos, Glen Moore/Ralph Towner/Collin Walcott (1973, ECM)
  • Lolita Nation, Game Theory (Enigma, 1987)
  • Mokave Vol. 1, Mokave (Audioquest, 1991)
  • Works of Art, Mokave (Audioquest, 1992)
  • Don't Forget the Way Home, Dan Balmer (Chase Music Group, 1992)
  • A Chance Operation-The John Cage Tribute (Koch International, 1993)
  • Torches on the Lake, Spencer Brewer (Access, 1996)
  • Redbook Relaxers: Daybreak (Windham Hill, 1996)
  • Redbook Relaxation: Tranquility (Windham Hill, 1996)
  • Ananda, Gregory James (Rogue, 1996)
  • Redbook Relaxers: Between Friends (Windham Hill, 1997)
  • Eternity, Vol. 2: A Romantic Collection (Real Music, 1997)
  • Candlelight Moments: Smooth Jazz (BMG, 1997)
  • Candlelight Moments: Serene Sounds (BMG, 1997)
  • Candlelight Moments: Moonlight Reflections (BMG, 1997)
  • A Very Green Christmas (Seventh Wave, 1997)
  • Quiet Moods: Romantic Reflections (BMG, 1998)
  • Quiet Moods: Meditative Moments (BMG, 1998)
  • Best of New Age (Columbia River, 1998)
  • Moonlight Moments (Columbia River, 1999)
  • Redbook: Tranquility (Direct Source, 2000)
  • Redbook: Daybreak (Direct Source, 2000)
  • Redbook: Between Friends (Direct Source, 2000)
  • In a Jazz Mood (BMG, 2000)
  • Head West, Commotion (Sci Fidelity, 2000)
  • Dreamscape (Delta Distribution, 2000)
  • Music Meditation, Brian Scott Bennett (The Relaxation Company, 2001)
  • Meditation: Relax Restore and Revive (BMG, 2001)
  • Primal Elegance, Bud Tristano (New Artists, 2002)
  • Dirt Road, Jim Suhler (Topcat, 2002)
  • Healing Music Project: Bliss (The Relaxation Company, 2003)
  • Girl Like Me, K.J. Denhert (Mother Cyclone, 2003)
  • Tranquility: Music for Yoga and Meditation (Vanguard, 2004)
  • Rose on the Lake (Avant-Acoustic, 2005)
  • Unwind, Silvia Nakkach/Jeffrey D. Thompson (The Relaxation Company, 2006)
  • Convergence, Ian Dogole (Jazzheads, 2006)
  • Soulful Soak Bath Kit, Jeffrey D. Thompson (Relaxation, 2007)
  • Breathe/Unwind, Jeffrey D. Thompson (Relaxation, 2007)
  • Under the Tall Trees, Imogen Manins (ABC Classics, 2008)
  • Crossroads, Hemispheres (Sunnyside, 2009)
  • Unraveled, Threeds (Threeds, 2011)
  • Retro, Gary Willis (Abstract Logix, 2013)[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Jazz band Charged Particles welcomes fusion icon Paul McCandless into the fold". Retrieved 2016-07-08. 
  2. ^ Rinzler, Paul; Kernfeld, Barry (2002). Kernfeld, Barry, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. 2 (2nd ed.). New York: Grove's Dictionaries Inc. p. 647. ISBN 1-56159-284-6. 
  3. ^ a b http://www.chargedparticles.com/with-saxophonist-paul-mccandless.html
  4. ^ "Eberhard Weber Jubilee Concert, Stuttgart, review: 'magical'". Retrieved 2016-07-08. 
  5. ^ Publishing, JJ. "Review: Eberhard Weber Jubilee, Stuttgart". www.jazzjournal.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-07-08. 
  6. ^ "McCandless: Weak Opening 'Punch'". 1992-09-10. 
  7. ^ "CULTURE: CD REVIEWS: New world of excellence. - Free Online Library". www.thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 2016-07-09. 
  8. ^ "THE STRING CHEESE INCIDENT "'Round the Wheel" Fidelity; KELLER WILLIAMS "Breathe" Sci Fidelity". 1999-10-22. 
  9. ^ a b http://www.allmusic.com/artist/paul-mccandless-mn0000026904/credits

Further reading[edit]

  • Gioia, Tedd (2011). "The History of Jazz". Oxford University Press, Editor. Chapter 8 "Freedom and Fusion". ISBN 0195399706
  • "Oregon" in "Dizionario della Musica e dei Musicisti, La Garzantina" (1983–2003). Garzanti, Editor, Milano (Italy). ISBN 88-11-50484-8

External links[edit]