Paul Naschy

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Paul Naschy
PaulNaschyPic.jpg
Born
Jacinto Molina Álvarez

(1934-09-06)September 6, 1934
Madrid, Spain
DiedNovember 30, 2009(2009-11-30) (aged 75)
Madrid, Spain
OccupationActor, film director, screenwriter
Spouse(s)
Elvira Primavera
(m. 1969)
Websitehttp://www.naschy.com

Paul Naschy (born Jacinto Molina Álvarez, September 6, 1934 – November 30, 2009)[1] was a Spanish film actor, screenwriter, and director working primarily in horror films. His portrayals of numerous classic horror figures—The Wolfman, Frankenstein's monster, Count Dracula, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Fu Manchu and a mummy—earned him recognition as the Spanish Lon Chaney. He had one of the most recognizable faces in Spanish horror film. Naschy also starred in dozens of action films, historical dramas, crime films, TV shows and documentaries. He also wrote the screenplays for most of his films and directed a number of them as well, signing many of them "Jacinto Molina". King Juan Carlos I presented Naschy with Spain's Gold Medal Award for Fine Arts in 2001 in honor of his work, the Spanish equivalent of being knighted.

Biography[edit]

Naschy was born as Jacinto Molina Alvarez in Madrid in 1934, and grew up during the Spanish Civil War, a period of great turmoil in Spanish history. His father Enrique Molina was a successful furrier, and Naschy grew up in very comfortable surroundings, at one point living in a veritable country mansion. Naschy went to college initially to become an architect. After college, he started out as a professional weightlifter, but soon gravitated to acting and filmmaking.[2] His favorite film character from childhood was the Wolf Man, dating back to when he saw the classic Universal film Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man (1943) as a child. At times, he tried his hand at designing record album covers, writing pulp western novels and drawing comic book stories, but did not meet with much success. In his 20s, Naschy moved back and forth between professional weightlifting and acting, but wasn't able to secure important roles, usually obtaining just bit parts.

Naschy had an uncredited bit part in the classic 1961 Biblical epic King of Kings and a few other films of that period, and the experience drew him further into filmmaking. While appearing as an extra in an episode of the American TV show I Spy that was being filmed in a remote country site in Spain in 1966, Naschy met horror icon Boris Karloff on the set, a thrill he never forgot. (Karloff was in a very poor mood that day, apparently depressed and in poor health. This encounter led to a posthumously produced film biography on Naschy being entitled Paul Naschy: The Man Who Saw Frankenstein Cry.)

In 1968, at age 34, he wrote a screenplay for a werewolf movie entitled The Mark of the Wolfman (about a Polish werewolf named Count Waldemar Daninsky) and managed to interest a Spanish film company called Maxper Producciones Cinematograficas into financing it. Naschy never intended to play "El Hombre Lobo" (as the doomed lycanthrope came to be called in Spain), he just wound up with the part when the producer could not find a suitable actor (they had tried to hire Lon Chaney Jr., but at age 62, the fabled Hollywood horror star was far too sickly to travel).

The German distributors insisted he change his name from Jacinto Molina because it sounded too Spanish, which would have hurt the film's chances at the box offices in various countries outside of Spain. He created the name "Paul Naschy".... "Paul" after Pope Paul VI, and "Naschy" as a Germanic sounding version of "Imre Nagy", one of Naschy's weightlifting idols. Naschy later wrote and starred in 11 sequels featuring his Waldemar Daninsky werewolf character, and spun off a very successful acting and directing career in the process.

Naschy wrote the screenplays for most of the films he starred in, especially the horror movies. His most prolific year was 1972, during which he wrote and starred in no less than seven movies.

During the 1970s, he worked for some of the best Euro-horror film directors in the business, including León Klimovsky, Carlos Aured, Javier Aguirre, José Luis Madrid, Juan Piquer Simón, Francisco Lara Polop and José Luis Merino.

In 1976, he decided to try his hand at directing as well, choosing the costume drama Inquisition (film) as his first project. He did well initially, even producing and directing a number of successful Japanese/Spanish co-productions and made-for-Spanish-TV documentaries, but by 1984, his films were no longer breaking even, and after losing a lot of money on his ill-conceived spy spoof Operation Mantis (1984), Naschy's production company, Aconito Films, wound up in bankruptcy. (Aconito is the scientific term for the herb wolfsbane).

On June 20, 1984, Naschy's father Enrique Molina died of a heart attack while fishing alone on the shores of a lake. Some boys playing in the woods discovered his body, too late to revive him.[3] The unexpected sudden loss of his father (with whom he had always been very close), coinciding with the bankruptcy of his production company, plunged Naschy into a lengthy period of depression, only returning to filmmaking in 1987 with his cult classic El Aullido del Diablo. Naschy's son Sergio starred in the film, along with famed horror icons Howard Vernon and Caroline Munro (the film was very poorly distributed, unfortunately, and is still not available on DVD).

Naschy's career took a second downturn when he suffered a near-fatal heart attack himself on August 27, 1991, triggered by weightlifting in a local gym. He was hospitalized for more than a week, then had major heart surgery performed on September 5. A rumor circulated throughout horror film fandom that Naschy had died, since he disappeared from the film scene for a while after his operation. He had to later contact a number of fanzine publishers in various countries to inform them that he was still very much alive.

In 1996, Naschy wrote and starred in his 11th werewolf film Licántropo, which he thought would be a big comeback film for him, but the movie did not do well at all, critically or financially. He continued to appear in a number of low budget horror films and crime dramas, however, during the following decade, during which time he won a number of prestigious fan awards and appeared as a celebrated guest at many horror film conventions during the 1990s and the 2000s (both in the United States and in Europe), although he was always doing poorly financially and complained bitterly in interviews about the state of the corrupt Spanish film industry. In 1997, Naschy wrote a detailed autobiography entitled Paul Naschy: Memoirs of a Wolf Man (which included his complete filmography as well).

Naschy even traveled to Hollywood briefly in 2004 to appear in two shot-on-video horror films directed by Donald F. Glut and Fred Olen Ray, two former horror fans-turned-directors who must have treated him like royalty on the set. Filming was a bit complicated since Naschy had to be dubbed (since he never learned to speak English). During his sojourn in Hollywood, Naschy even visited the famed "Ackermansion" museum of Forrest J Ackerman, the editor of the legendary magazine Famous Monsters of Filmland.

Paul Naschy died of pancreatic cancer on November 30, 2009 at a hospital in Madrid, Spain at the age of 75. He struggled desperately to stay alive for over one year after being diagnosed with the cancer in 2008, but the end was inevitable.[4] Although he ended his life in relatively poor financial straits, Naschy always received a tremendous outpouring of love from his many fans at the conventions he attended and died knowing he would always be regarded as a major horror film icon.

Naschy was married only once, on October 24, 1969, to a woman named Elvira Primavera, the daughter of an Italian diplomat living in Spain. They were still happily married 40 years later at the time of his death. His wife was always very supportive of his filmmaking projects and was undoubtedly one of the factors that led to his success. He was survived by his widow Elvira and his two sons, Bruno and Sergio Molina.

Naschy's favorite director was León Klimovsky, with whom he made nine horror and action films. Naschy praised Klimovsky's professional workmanlike attitude, but he always felt that Klimovsky rushed through the filming and never allowed for enough retakes that might have improved some of their films. He also enjoyed working for director Carlos Aured, and was proud of the films they did together. Naschy's favorite co-star was Julia Saly, and he cast her in at least a dozen of his films.

Paul Naschy was the only horror film actor and director who ever portrayed Dracula, the Mummy, the Frankenstein Monster, Dr. Fu Manchu, a hunchback, Rasputin, a warlock, a zombie, a medieval Inquisitor and a serial killer (not to mention a werewolf in 16 different films).[5]

A hardcover book entitled Muchas Gracias, Senor Lobo was published in Germany after Naschy's death, collecting hundreds of rare photos, lobby cards, posters, etc. that had been used to promote Naschy's films over the decades in a number of different countries. A comprehensive film biography entitled Paul Naschy: The Man Who Saw Frankenstein Cry (a reference to Naschy's meeting Boris Karloff on the set of "I Spy" in 1966) has also been released on DVD.

Most famous characters[edit]

The werewolf Count Waldemar Daninsky (known in Spain as El Hombre Lobo) is without a doubt Paul Naschy's most famous horror character, since he played Daninsky in 12 different films. In fact, Naschy holds the record for the greatest number of roles as a werewolf, easily beating out Lon Chaney Jr., who played a werewolf only seven times during his career (even counting House of Terror (1960 film) and his appearance on Route 66 (TV series).)[citation needed]

Unlike the Chaney Universal films, however, which formed a somewhat chronological storyline from picture to picture, Naschy's Daninsky films were not connected to each other plotwise. Each film was more or less a free-standing story that was not meant to relate to the other films in the series in the way the old Universal films did. Daninsky's lycanthropy had a different origin in each film (which many Naschy fans find confusing). This was probably for the best, however, since in the 1970s, Euro-horror films were often theatrically distributed in the U.S. several years after they were completed, and they probably would have all been released out of order anyway.

Naschy's only other recurring character was the villainous medieval warlock Alaric de Marnac (who appeared in Naschy's Horror Rises from the Tomb (1972) and returned to life again in a sequel, Panic Beats (1982)). Naschy claims he based this character on a real-life medieval nobleman named Gilles de Rais, a serial killer on whose life story Naschy also based the lead character in his 1974 film El Mariscal del Infierno (The Devil's Possessed)[6][page needed]

The Hombre Lobo series[edit]

Naschy's 12 Hombre Lobo films are not a series in the strictest sense. They seem to be a collection of unrelated plotlines, but all of which involve a werewolf named Count Waldemar Daninsky. Both La Furia del Hombre Lobo (1970) and La Maldicion de la Bestia (1975) refer to an origin involving Waldemar's being bitten by a yeti (and there is a brief yeti reference in La Noche de Walpurgis (1970) as well), but the other films presented him with entirely different origin stories. The fact that these films have also been retitled by the various film distributors many times over the years only adds to the confusion. Despite the numerous plot inconsistencies and convoluted flashbacks, however, Naschy's Wolf Man series as a whole is still considered his most famous work by most of his many fans.[3]

Only 11 of the 12 Hombre Lobo films actually exist today. All traces of Las Noches del Hombre Lobo (1968) apparently vanished before the film was ever shown anywhere (not even Naschy had seen it), and it remains a mystery to this day whether or not the film ever really existed at all in completed form. Naschy said in interviews that he specifically remembered going to Paris for a week to shoot his scenes for the film, but he went right back to Spain after completing his scenes and never saw any rushes. The French producer of the film, Rene Govar (who apparently only directed this one film), is said to have died in a car accident in Paris a week after the filming was completed, and no one ever picked up the lab bill that was outstanding. Hence it is thought that the lab may have confiscated the film negative and years later they probably just discarded it. Naschy claimed he only became aware decades later that the film had never been released anywhere. Some Naschy fans think the film was scrapped in 1968 and the script may have been later rewritten to become the fourth film in the series, La Furia del Hombre Lobo (1970). This is possible, since Naschy himself vaguely remembered both films as having virtually the same plot.

In order of production, the Hombre Lobo films are as follows:

  1. La Marca del Hombre Lobo / The Mark of the Wolf Man (1968) a.k.a. Frankenstein's Bloody Terror (U.S.), a.k.a. The Vampire of Dr. Dracula (Germany/France/Yugoslavia), a.k.a. Hell's Creatures (U.K./Australia/Belgium), a.k.a. The Nights of Satan (Italy), a.k.a. Hell Creature (Pakistan/Turkey), The Ghosts of Dracula and the Werewolf (Belgium), Mark of the Wolf Man (Mexico) and re-released years later in Germany as Hexen des Grauens / The Witches of Horror; directed by Enrique Eguiluz; originally filmed in 3-D and 70mm, but it was only shown that way in Germany; first released theatrically in Spain in July 1968; in Germany in Feb. 1969; in England in Feb. 1970; and in the U.S. in an edited version as Frankenstein's Bloody Terror in 1971; released to U.S. late-night television (edited) in 1974; re-released theatrically in Spain in 1976; released on VHS (edited) and later on DVD (unedited / letterboxed) as Frankenstein's Bloody Terror.[7]
  2. Las Noches del Hombre Lobo / The Nights of the Wolf Man (1968) directed in Paris allegedly by "Rene Govar" (this is apparently a lost film today, but Naschy insisted that he wrote the screenplay and stayed in Paris for a week to star in this film; it was apparently never completed, because no one (including Paul Naschy) has ever seen it. No reference books have ever turned up any information on the film or its alleged director, one Rene Govar, who Naschy said was killed in a car accident in Paris a week after Naschy's scenes were completed. Naschy himself was not even able to recall the names of any of his co-stars on the project.
  3. Los Monstruos del Terror / The Monsters of Terror (1969) a.k.a. Dracula vs. Frankenstein (U.K./France/Germany/Yugoslavia), a.k.a. Dracula and the Wolf Man vs. Frankenstein (Belgium), a.k.a. Operation Terror (Mexico), a.k.a. Reincarnator (French re-release title), a.k.a. Assignment Terror (U.S. TV title); the film's original shooting title was The Man Who Came From Ummo; co-directed by Hugo Fregonese and Tulio Demichelli (who finished the film after Fregonese quit midway through); first released theatrically in Germany in Feb. 1970 and in Spain in Aug. 1971; shown in the U.S. (on late night TV only) in 1973 as Assignment Terror (because the title Dracula vs. Frankenstein had already been used in the U.S. by Al Adamson for his 1971 film); eventually released on U.S. video (in spliced pan-and-scan format) as Dracula vs. Frankenstein;[8] still officially unreleased on DVD (aside from bootlegs).
  4. La Furia del Hombre Lobo / The Fury of the Wolf Man (1970) a.k.a. Wolf Man Never Sleeps (Sweden); directed by Jose Maria Zabalza; only released theatrically (edited) in Spain and Argentina in 1975; shown in the U.S. (on late night TV only) in 1974 (edited) as Fury of the Wolf Man; released on video/ DVD as Fury of the Wolf Man (the DVDs are edited, and the old Charter Video VHS edition actually contains more nudity than the DVD release).[9] The Swedish theatrical version Wolf Man Never Sleeps (sic) is the most complete of all.
  5. La Noche de Walpurgis / Walpurgis Night (1970) a.k.a. The Werewolf vs. the Vampire Woman (U.S.), a.k.a. Shadow of the Werewolf (U.K.), a.k.a. Night of the Vampire (Germany), a.k.a. Night of the Bloody Witches (Germany, re-release title), a.k.a. The Black Mass of Countess Dracula (Italy), a.k.a. Werewolf Shadow (Canada), a.k.a. Fury of the Vampires (France), a.k.a. Night of the Werewolves (Belgium); directed by León Klimovsky; Naschy's most famous and highest-grossing horror film, this was made in 70mm Stereo Technicolor; first released theatrically in Spain in May 1971, in Germany in October 1971 and in England in Oct. 1972; released theatrically in the U.S. in 1972 as The Werewolf vs. the Vampire Woman (accompanied by a movie tie-in novelization in paperback); released on VHS as both Blood Moon and The Werewolf vs. the Vampire Woman; released later on DVD uncut as Werewolf Shadow (sic).[10]
  6. Dr. Jekyll y el Hombre Lobo / Dr. Jekyll and the Wolf Man (1971) a.k.a. Dr. Jekyll and the Werewolf (U.S./U.K.), a.k.a. Night of the Bloody Wolf (Germany); directed by León Klimovsky, co-starring Jack Taylor; first released theatrically in Spain in Nov. 1972, in Germany in April 1974 and in the U.K. in 1974; released theatrically in the U.S. in 1973 as Dr. Jekyll and the Werewolf; available on DVD uncut (in Spanish/subtitled) as Dr. Jekyll and the Wolf Man.[11]
  7. El Retorno de Walpurgis / The Return of Walpurgis (1973) a.k.a. Curse of the Devil (U.S./U.K./Canada), a.k.a. Night of the Fiendish Orgy (Germany), a.k.a. Die Todeskralle des Grausamen Wolfes / Death Grip of the Cruel Wolves (Germany, alternate title), a.k.a. Night of the Killer (Mexico), a.k.a. L'Empreinte de Dracula / The Mark of Dracula (France), a.k.a. Return of the Werewolf (Belgium); directed by Carlos Aured; first released theatrically in Spain in September 1973 and in Germany and England in summer 1974; it was only released theatrically in the U.S. in 1976 as Curse of the Devil; released on DVD uncut as Curse of the Devil.[12]
  8. La Maldicion de la Bestia / The Curse of the Beast (1975) a.k.a. Night of the Howling Beast (U.S.), a.k.a. The Werewolf and the Yeti (international release title), a.k.a. In the Claws of the Werewolf (France), a.k.a. Curse of the Beast (Mexico), a.k.a. Loup Garou / The Werewolf (Belgium); directed by Miguel Iglesias Bonns; Naschy won Best Actor Award for "Curse of the Beast" at the 1975 Catalan Int'l Film Festival at Sitges, Spain; first released theatrically in Spain in January 1975; theatrically released in the U.S. in 1977 as Night of the Howling Beast; released on U.S. video alternately as The Werewolf and the Yeti, Night of the Howling Beast, and Hall of the Mountain King; still officially unreleased on DVD (except for bootlegs).[13]
  9. El Retorno del Hombre Lobo / The Return of the Wolf Man (1980) a.k.a. The Craving (U.S.), Night of the Werewolf (international release title), a.k.a. The Werewolf (Germany); directed by Paul Naschy; this was Naschy's all-time favorite Hombre Lobo film, being a remake of his earlier Walpurgis Night; first released theatrically in Spain in 1981 and in Germany in 1984; released theatrically in the U.S. in 1985 as The Craving; released on U.S. video in 1986 as The Craving; later released on DVD as Night of the Werewolf.[14]
  10. La Bestia y la Espada Magica / The Beast and the Magic Sword (1983); a Spanish/Japanese co-production; written, co-produced and directed by Paul Naschy; Naschy's wife and two sons appeared in a brief cameo in this film; released theatrically only in Spain in Nov. 1983; never released theatrically in Japan; never dubbed into English nor shown in the U.S.; still unavailable on DVD.[15]
  11. Licántropo: El Asesino de la Luna Llena / Lycantropus: the Full Moon Killer (1996), a.k.a. Lycantropus: The Moonlight Murders (U.S.); directed by Francisco Gordillo; film was only shown theatrically in Spain in 1996; no U.S. theatrical release; released directly to U.S. DVD dubbed into English as Lycantropus: The Moonlight Murders.[3]
  12. Tomb of the Werewolf (2004); directed in Hollywood by Fred Olen Ray, co-starring Michelle Bauer; the original shooting title was The Unliving; filmed on video in English (Naschy was dubbed by another actor because he barely spoke any English); no theatrical release; distributed directly to VHS (edited) as Tomb of the Werewolf and then issued as an uncensored DVD (with behind the scenes material) as The Unliving by Retromedia Entertainment.

There were four other Paul Naschy werewolf films that were not part of the Waldemar Daninsky series, which are as follows:

  • Buenas Noches, Señor Monstruo / Good Night, Mr. Monster (1982) Naschy played a generic werewolf in this children's Spanish TV musical/comedy; he reportedly did the show just for the money; never shown outside of Spain; never dubbed into English.
  • El Aullido del Diablo / The Howl of the Devil (1987) directed by Paul Naschy, co-starring Caroline Munro, Howard Vernon and Naschy's real-life son Sergio Molina in a major role; Naschy plays an insane ex-actor who dresses up as various famous monsters in this film, in one scene specifically playing the werewolf Waldemar Daninsky (Sergio addresses the werewolf as "Waldemar" in the scene), but it is only a very brief cameo appearance; no theatrical release anywhere; shown only on Spanish TV in 1988; never dubbed into English; not available on U.S. DVD.[3]
  • Aqui Huele A Muerto (Pues Yo No He Sido) / It Smells Like Death Here (Well, It Wasn't Me) (1990); Starring Spanish comedians Martes y Trece (Josema Yuste and Millan Salcedo), Naschy is limited to a glorified cameo which climaxes in an all-out monster mash reminiscent of the Universal Monsters series, but in which he of course reprises his iconic Wolf Man role once more; never dubbed into English nor shown outside of Spain; a Region 2 DVD is available, however.
  • Um Lobisomem na Amazônia / A Werewolf in The Amazon (2005) a.k.a. Amazonia Misteriosa; filmed in Brazil, directed by Ivan Cardoso; Naschy plays a mad doctor who transforms into a werewolf-type creature in this remake of H. G. Wells' novel The Island of Dr. Moreau; never dubbed into English nor shown outside of Spain.

Filmography[edit]

Paul Naschy starred in many other horror films that did not feature el Hombre Lobo, as well as a number of crime films, costume dramas, action thrillers, etc. Below is a comprehensive list of all his movies, in strict chronological order of production. Dates shown are when the films were made, not when they were theatrically released in various foreign markets.[3] This information was taken from Naschy's own autobiography (Paul Naschy: Memoirs of a Wolfman) and the release date information in it is much more accurate than that found on any other websites.[3]

Note: Naschy allegedly played uncredited bit parts in the following films: King of Kings (1960, playing a servant to Pontius Pilate); El Principe Encadenado / The Chained Prince (1960, a.k.a. King of the Vikings, playing a Mongol chieftain); Operation Plus Ultra (1966, playing a masked surgeon); Las Viudas / The Widows (1966, acting as assistant director in the "Luna de Miel" segment only); and La Esclava del Paraiso / Slave of Paradise (1968, a.k.a. 1001 Nights, playing a palace servant named Chantal). In most of these films, if you blinked, you would miss him. Naschy allegedly acted as an assistant to the director on two other films, Aventura en el Palacio Viejo (1967) and Cronica de Nueve Meses (1967).

  • I Spy (American television series) 1966, Naschy played a very, very small part in the episode titled "Mainly on the Plains", which starred Boris Karloff, Robert Culp and Bill Cosby (he plays one of a group of teenagers having a picnic in one very brief sequence, although Karloff was in the scene with them). Broadcast February, 1967[16]
  • Agonizando en el Crimen (Agonizing in Crime) 1967, directed by Enrique Eguiluz (a crime drama) (never dubbed in English or released in the U.S.); Naschy played one of the police officials hunting a serial killer, credited as David Molba (Naschy later used his friendship with director Eguiluz to get his film The Mark of the Wolf Man made).
  • La Furia de Johnny Kidd (The Fury of Johnny Kidd) 1967, a.k.a. Ultimate Gunfighter, a.k.a. Dove si Spara di Piu; an Italian/Spanish co-production directed by Gianni Puccini, who died in Italy soon after finishing the film; Naschy had a very small uncredited role in this spaghetti Western, in which he is shown arm-wrestling another gunfighter in a bar (never released in the U.S., this may actually be a lost film).
  • La Marca del Hombre Lobo (The Mark of the Wolf Man) 1968, directed by Enrique Eguiluz (a.k.a. Frankenstein's Bloody Terror, a.k.a. Hell's Creatures).
  • Las Noches del Hombre Lobo (The Nights of the Wolf Man) 1968, directed by Rene Govar (a lost film today, if indeed it was actually completed); this film was never released anywhere, but Naschy insisted he starred in it!
  • Plan Jack 03 / Plan Jack Cero Tres (1968) a short film noir spoof made by Cecilia Bartolome as a college project; Naschy plays a Humphrey Bogart-type character (never released in the U.S.).
  • Los Monstruos del Terror (The Monsters of Terror) 1969, directed by Hugo Fregonese and Tulio Demichelli (a.k.a. Assignment Terror, a.k.a. Dracula vs. Frankenstein).
  • La Furia del Hombre Lobo (The Fury of the Wolf Man) 1970, directed by Jose Maria Zabalza.
  • El Vertigo del Crimen (The Vertigo of Crime) 1970, a.k.a. Bombones para Cecilia; a crime drama directed by Pascual Cervera; Naschy plays a sadistic criminal gang leader (never released in the U.S.).
  • La Noche de Walpurgis (Walpurgis Night) 1970, directed by Leon Klimovsky (a.k.a. Werewolf Shadow, a.k.a. The Werewolf vs the Vampire Woman).
  • Dr. Jekyll y el Hombre Lobo (Dr. Jekyll and the Wolf Man) 1971, directed by Leon Klimovsky.
  • Jack el Destripador de Londres (Jack the Ripper of London) 1971, a.k.a. Seven Murders for Scotland Yard (U.S.), a.k.a. Sette Cadaveri per Scotland Yard / Seven Corpses for Scotland Yard (Italy); a giallo directed by Jose Luis Madrid; first released in Italy in 1971 and in Spain in July 1972; released theatrically in the U.S. in 1976 as Seven Murders for Scotland Yard.
  • Los Crimenes de Petiot (The Crimes of Petiot) 1972, a crime drama directed by Jose Luis Madrid; Naschy plays a masked murderer; filmed in Berlin and made in Techniscope (never released in the U.S.).
  • Disco Rojo (Red Light) 1972 (a.k.a. La Ruleta Paulista); an action film directed by Rafael Romero Marchent; Naschy played Sergio Meleter, a villainous drug lord (never released in the U.S.).
  • El Espanto Surge de la Tumba (Horror Rises From the Tomb) 1972, a.k.a. Blood Mass for the Devil (Germany), a.k.a. Blood Mass of the Zombies (1980 German re-release title), a.k.a. Horror Rises From the Tomb (U.S. and England); the Spanish title technically translates as either "Fright Rises From the Grave" or "The Spook Rises From the Grave" (as "el Espanto" does not translate as "horror" in Spanish); Naschy plays a dual role in this film; also starred Helga Line and Emma Cohen; directed by Carlos Aured, this film introduced the medieval warlock Alaric de Marnac, who returned later in Naschy's 1982 sequel Panic Beats; filmed at Naschy's father's palatial estate; first released in Spain in April 1973 and in Germany in October 1974; released theatrically in the U.S. in a Spanish-language print called El Espanto Surge de la Tumba for Spanish theaters only, then later released to U.S. cable television in 1974 in English (edited) as Horror Rises From the Tomb; later released to VHS and DVD (unedited) as Horror Rises From the Tomb.
  • El Gran Amor de Conde Dracula (The Great Love of Count Dracula) 1972, a.k.a. Count Dracula's Great Love (U.S.), a.k.a. Cemetery Girls (U.S. re-release title), a.k.a. Dracula's Virgin Lovers (U.K.), a.k.a. The Diabolical Loves of Nosferatu (Italy), a.k.a. La Orgia de Dracula (Mexico); directed by Javier Aguirre; first released in Spain in May 1973; released in the U.S. and England in 1974 as Count Dracula's Great Love and Dracula's Virgin Lovers, respectively; released on VHS and DVD as Cemetery Girls and as Count Dracula's Great Love. (Note: contrary to some sources, this film was never released under the title Vampire Playgirls).
  • El Jorobado de la Morgue (The Hunchback of the Morgue) 1972, directed by Javier Aguirre; this film is considered one of Naschy's all-time greatest horror films (Naschy won the Best Actor Award for "Hunchback" at the 1973 Paris Convention of Fantastic Cinema); first released in Spain in July 1973 and in Germany in February 1974; theatrically released in the U.S. in 1973 as The Hunchback of the Morgue; released on video in the U.S. as The Rue Morgue Massacres; released on DVD as The Hunchback of the Morgue.[3]
  • La Orgia de los Muertos (The Orgy of the Dead) 1972, a.k.a. The Hanging Woman (U.S.), a.k.a. Beyond the Living Dead (U.S.), a.k.a. Zombies - Terror of the Living Dead (U.K.); a.k.a. Die Bestie aus dem Totenreich (Germany); a.k.a. Les Orgies Macabres (France); a.k.a. Bracula, Terror of the Living Death (Australia); directed by Jose Luis Merino; first released in Spain in 1974 and in Germany in 1976; released theatrically in the U.S. in 1974 as The Hanging Woman; released on VHS and DVD as both Return of the Zombies, Beyond the Living Dead and The Hanging Woman.
  • La rebelión de las muertas (The Rebellion of the Dead Women) 1972, (a.k.a. Walk of the Dead (US/Canadian 1974 release title), a.k.a. Vengeance of the Zombies (1974 international release title), a.k.a. Rebellion of the Living Dead (1974 German release title), a.k.a. Invocation of the Devil (1974 German re-release title), a.k.a. Blood Lust of the Zombies (1980 German re-release title), a.k.a. Revenge of the Living Dead (Italy); directed by Leon Klimovsky; at least three differently edited versions of this film exist; first theatrically released in Spain in June 1973 and in Germany in 1974; released theatrically in the U.S. in 1974 as both Walk of the Dead and Vengeance of the Zombies; released on VHS and DVD as Vengeance of the Zombies.
  • El Retorno de Walpurgis (The Return of Walpurgis) 1973, directed by Carlos Aured (a.k.a. Curse of the Devil).
  • La Venganza de la Momia (The Revenge of the Mummy) 1973, Naschy plays a dual role in this film; directed by Carlos Aured, this film was supposedly released in both an edited version (for Spain and Mexico) and an unedited international version containing nudity, but the unedited version apparently no longer exists; first theatrically released only in Spain and Mexico in October 1975; an English-dubbed version was released edited and in terrible pan-and-scan in 1974 in the U.S. (on late-night TV only) as The Mummy's Revenge; not available on DVD.
  • Una Libelula Para Cada Muerto (A Dragonfly For Each Corpse) 1973, a.k.a. The Vigiliante Challenges the Police (Italian), a.k.a. Redkiller; a giallo directed by Leon Klimovsky; first theatrically released in Spain in November 1975 and in Italy in 1977 (although never released in the U.S., an English-dubbed version exists on bootleg DVD).
  • El Asesino Esta Entre Los Trece (The Killer is One of the Thirteen) 1973, a giallo directed by Javier Aguirre; theatrically released only in Spain in 1973 (never released in the U.S. or dubbed in English).
  • Las Ratas no Duermen de Noche (The Rats Don't Sleep At Night) 1973, a.k.a. Crimson (Argentinian release title); a French/Spanish co-production directed by Juan Fortuny, music by Daniel J. White; first released (slightly censored) in Spain in June 1976; later released on VHS and DVD in the more adult version entitled Crimson.
  • Tarzan en las Minas del Rey Salomon (Tarzan in King Solomon's Mines) 1973; directed by Jose Luis Merino, this film was unauthorized by the Edgar Rice Burroughs estate; David Carpenter played Tarzan and Naschy played a hunter; co-starred sexy model Nadiuska; theatrically released only in Spain (never released in the U.S. or dubbed in English).
  • Los Ojos Azules de la Muneca Rota (The Blue Eyes of the Broken Doll) 1974, a.k.a. House of Psychotic Women (U.S.), a.k.a. Mystery of the Blue Eyes (Belgium); directed by Carlos Aured; first released in Spain in 1974 and in the U.S. in 1976; a slightly edited version exists missing a scene in which a pig is slaughtered on screen; released on VHS in the U.S. as House of Psychotic Women (slightly edited), released on TV in the U.S. as House of Doom (even more edited); released on DVD in the U.S. as Blue Eyes of the Broken Doll (unedited).
  • Todos los Gritos del Silencio (All the Screams of Silence) 1974, a slasher film directed by Ramon Barco; released theatrically only in Spain.
  • La Diosa Salvaje (The Savage Goddess) 1974 (a.k.a. Kilma, Queen of the Jungle / Kilma, la Regina della Jungla (Italy), a.k.a. Tanrica (Turkey)); directed by Miguel Iglesias Bonns (never released in the U.S.).
  • El Mariscal del Infierno (The Marshal from Hell) 1974; a.k.a. The Devil's Possessed (English-dubbed international title), a.k.a. Der Duivels Maarchalk; directed by Leon Klimovsky; story was based on the real-life medieval activities of Gilles de Rais, who was also Naschy's inspiration for his Alaric de Marnac character; theatrically released in Spain and Belgium in 1974; the international English-dubbed version was apparently released direct to VHS and DVD only as The Devil's Possessed.[3]
  • La Cruz del Diablo (The Cross of the Devil) 1974; based on the works of Gustavo Adolfo Becquer, this film was directed by British Hammer Films veteran John Gilling; Naschy wrote the original screenplay, but lost creative control of the project and then was replaced entirely in the film by another actor after feuding with Gilling; Naschy later wished his name had been removed entirely from the credits; theatrically released only in Spain in March 1975; available on DVD in Spanish language only (never released in the U.S. or dubbed in English).
  • Exorcismo (Exorcism) 1974, a.k.a. The Nights of Satan (Italy), a.k.a. Night of the Exorcist (Argentina); directed by Juan Bosch; Naschy claimed he wrote this film long before The Exorcist was released; Naschy plays Father Dunning, a heroic role for once; first released in Spain in March 1975; released direct to VHS and DVD in the U.S. as Exorcism.
  • Los Pasajeros (The Passengers) 1975, a slasher film directed by Jose Antonio Barrero (never released in the U.S.).
  • Muerte de un Quinqui (Death of a Hoodlum) 1975, directed by Leon Klimovsky (crime drama); Naschy plays a crazed criminal who terrorizes a helpless family; co-starred Julia Saly (never dubbed in English or released in the U.S.).
  • Docteur Justice [fr] (Dr. Justice) 1975, (a.k.a. Ambicion Fallida / Failed Ambition (Spain)) a.k.a. La Petroliera Fantasma (Italy), a.k.a. Karate Killers; directed by Christian-Jaque; a crime drama based on a French comic book called Dr. Justice; starred Gert Fröbe and John Phillip Law; Naschy has only a small part in this film (never released in the U.S.).
  • La Maldicion de la Bestia (The Curse of the Beast) 1975, directed by Miguel Iglesias Bonns (released on VHS as The Werewolf and the Yeti, Hall of the Mountain King (the least complete version of all), and Night of the Howling Beast).
  • Inquisicion (Inquisition) 1976, first film ever directed by Paul Naschy; co-starred Julia Saly; first released in Spain in 1978; an English-dubbed version was released direct to VHS and DVD in the U.S. as Inquisition.
  • Secuestro (The Kidnapping) 1976, a crime drama inspired by the Patricia Hearst case, directed by Leon Klimovsky; Naschy plays one of the kidnappers in the film (never shown in the U.S.).
  • Ultimo Deseo (The Last Desire) 1976, a.k.a. The People Who Own the Dark (U.S. release title); film's original working title was Planeta Ciego / Blind Planet; a sci-fi film directed by León Klimovsky, co-starring Julia Saly; this film was released in both an edited "clothed" and unedited "nude" version; theatrically released in Spain in Nov. 1976, and in the U.S. in 1979; available on DVD as The People Who Own the Dark.
  • Muerte de un Presidente (Death of a President) 1977, (a.k.a. Comando Txikia); an action film directed by Jose Luis Madrid; Naschy only acted in this film and did not help write it; co-starred Julia Saly; it was based on the 1973 real life assassination of Spanish president Carrero Blanco by four anarchists (never released in the U.S.).
  • El Transexual (The Transsexual) 1977, a controversial social drama inspired by the life story of Spanish transvestite Lorena Capelli, who died during a sex change operation; co-written by Naschy (who also starred in it) and directed by Jose Jara (never released in the U.S.).
  • El Francotirador (The Sniper) 1977, an action film directed by Carlos Puerto (never released in the U.S.).
  • El Huerto del Francés (The Frenchman's Garden) 1977 (a.k.a. La Casa que Abre de Noche (Mexico); a crime drama based on a true story, co-written and directed by Paul Naschy; co-starred Julia Saly; theatrically released only in Spain and Mexico in 1977 (never released in the U.S.).
  • Pecado Mortal (Mortal Sin) 1977, directed by Miguel Angel Diez (never released in the U.S.).
  • Madrid al Desnudo (Naked Madrid) 1979; a controversial satire on Madrid's upper class, written and directed by Naschy (never released in the U.S.).
  • El Caminante (The Traveler) 1979, written and directed by Paul Naschy, who plays the devil in this highly acclaimed fantasy film (Naschy won awards for this film in 1979 at both the 9th Annual Festival of Fantastic Cinema and Sci-Fi in Paris and the International Festival of Imaginary Cinema and Sci-Fi in Madrid); theatrically released only in Spain in April 1980 (never released in the U.S.).
  • Amor Blanco (1979 Japanese film, a.k.a. Howaito rabu) Naschy produced this film, but did not appear in it (never released in the U.S.).[17]
  • El Carnaval de las Bestias (The Carnival of the Beasts) 1980, a.k.a. The Pig (alternate Spanish title was Bestias Humanas / Human Beasts); directed by Paul Naschy, this film was a Spanish/Japanese co-production dealing with cannibalism; co-starred Julia Saly; theatrically released only in Spain in December 1980; later released direct to DVD in the U.S. as Human Beasts.
  • El Retorno del Hombre Lobo (The Return of the Wolf Man) 1980, directed by Paul Naschy (a.k.a. The Craving); co-starred Julia Saly.
  • Los Cantabros (The Cantabrians) 1980, peplum written and directed by Paul Naschy; Naschy took over this project from Spanish horror film director Amando de Ossorio, who had originally been hired to direct it; Naschy totally rewrote the screenplay and recast the whole film; co-starred Julia Saly (never released in the U.S.).
  • Misterio en la Isla de los Monstruos (Jules Verne's Mystery on Monster Island) 1981, a.k.a. Das Geheimnis der Monsterinsel (Germany); directed by Juan Piquer Simon, said to be based on a Jules Verne story; Paul Naschy and Peter Cushing each play a small role in this action-adventure film, but do not share any scenes; theatrically released in Spain, France, Germany and Belgium in 1981; released directly to TV and VHS only in the U.S. and England.
  • El dragon negro (1981), a Japanese TV miniseries; Naschy played a Mafia drug dealer (never released in the U.S.).[18]
  • La Batalla del Porro (The Battle of the Dullard) 1982, a comedy directed by Joan Minguell (never released in the U.S.).
  • Buenas Noches, Señor Monstruo (Good Night, Mr. Monster) 1982, directed by Antonio Mercero; Naschy played a werewolf in this children's musical comedy (never released in the U.S.).
  • Latidos de Panico (Panic Beats) 1982; directed by Paul Naschy, this film featured the return of Naschy's medieval warlock Alaric de Marnac; this was the first film produced by Naschy's own production company Aconito Films; co-starred Julia Saly; theatrically released only in Spain in May 1983; later released direct to DVD in the U.S in Spanish/subtitled format only.
  • La Bestia y la Espada Magica (The Beast and the Magic Sword) 1983, directed by Paul Naschy; this was a Spanish/Japanese co-production; Naschy's wife, Elvira, and his two sons played a cameo in one scene (never dubbed in English or released in the U.S.).
  • Mi Amigo el Vagabundo (My Friend, the Vagabond) 1984, written, directed by and starring Paul Naschy; co-starred Julia Saly (never released in the U.S.).
  • La Tercera Mujer (The Third Woman) 1984, a serial made for Japanese TV; directed by Juan Pinzas; Naschy plays an Interpol detective hunting a killer; never released anywhere outside Japan.[19]
  • El Ultimo Kamikaze (The Last Kamikaze) 1984, an action film directed by Paul Naschy, this was a Spanish/Japanese co-production; co-starred Julia Saly (never released in the U.S.).
  • Operation Mantis (1984) a spy spoof directed by Paul Naschy; this was the film that resulted in Naschy's production company (Aconito Films) going bankrupt; Naschy's father, Enrique Molina, died during this time (the film was never released in the U.S.).
  • Mordiendo la Vida (Biting Life) 1987; directed by Martin Garrido; never released anywhere outside Spain.
  • El Aullido del Diablo (The Howl of the Devil) 1987, written and directed by Paul Naschy (starring Caroline Munro and Howard Vernon); features a brief cameo of Naschy made up as el Hombre Lobo and stars Naschy's son, Sergio Molina, in a major role; released directly to TV only in Spain in 1988; (never released in the U.S. or dubbed in English).
  • Shadows of Blood (1988), an amateurish crime film shot on video in the Netherlands; directed by Sydney Ling; Naschy later regretted appearing in this film (never released in the U.S.).
  • El Ultimo Guateque 2 (The Last Party II) 1988, a comedy directed by Juan Jose Porto (never released in the U.S.).
  • Aqui Huele a Muerto...Pues yo no he sido! (It Smells Like Death Here, Well, It Wasn't Me!) 1990, directed by Alvaro de Heredia (never released in the U.S.).
  • Brigada Central (Central Brigade) 1990, made for Spanish TV; directed by Pedro Maso.
  • La Hija de Fu Manchu (The Daughter of Fu Manchu) 1990, a short film directed by Santiago Aguilar and Luis Guridi; Naschy played Dr. Fu Manchu; never released outside Spain.[20]
  • Horror en el Musea de Cera (Horror in the Wax Museum) 1990, written and directed by Paul Naschy; this film was, for some reason, never released.
  • Olla de Grillos (Madhouse) 1991, a.k.a. Bedlam; a children's series of live episodes made for Spanish TV in which Naschy was to play various monsters; his heart attack on August 27th, 1991 forced him to break his contract after appearing in only three episodes.[21]
  • State of Mind (1992), directed by Reginald Adamson; this was a violent prison film co-starring Fred Williamson (never released in the U.S.).
  • La Noche del Ejecutor (The Night of the Executioner) 1992, a violent and gory vigilante movie directed by Paul Naschy (never released in the U.S.).
  • El Necrofago 1994, a short film directed by Gonzalo Fuentes (never released in the U.S.).
  • Los Resucitados (The Resurrected) 1995, an unfinished project Naschy was scheduled to have starred in (in fact, the film was finally finished, re-edited and released on DVD in Spain in 2019 by a company called 'Red Rum').
  • Hambre Mortal (Mortal Hunger) 1996, a short satirical homage directed by Toni Escalonilla (never released in the U.S.).
  • Cientificament Perfectes (Scientifically Perfect) 1996, a sci-fi special effects film directed by F. X. Capell (never released in the U.S.).
  • Licántropo: El Asesino de la Luna Llena (Lycantropus: The Full Moon Killer) 1996, a.k.a. Lycantropus: The Moonlight Murders; directed by Francisco Gordillo; available in the U.S. on DVD.
  • El Ojo de la Medusa (The Eye of the Medusa) 1997, a crime drama directed by Jose Cabanach (never released in the U.S.).
  • Quano el Mundo se Acabe te Sqguire Amando (I'll Still Love You When the World Ends) 1998; a drama directed by Pilar Sueiro (never released in the U.S.).
  • Querido Maestro (1998), Naschy played a gym teacher in 11 episodes of this Spanish TV series (never released in the U.S.).[22]
  • Rondadores Nocturno (1999), a short film written by Naschy, in which he played "the Redeemer's Spirit" (never released in the U.S.).[23]
  • Erase Otra Vez (Once Upon A Time Again) a.k.a. Once Upon Another Time (2000), a drama written and directed by Juan Pinzas; Naschy played a gardener (never released in the U.S.).
  • La Gran Vida (The Great Life) 2000, a.k.a. Living It Up; a comedy directed by Antonio Cuardi (never released in the U.S.).
  • Antivicio (2000), a Spanish TV show; Naschy played a police official in one episode.[24]
  • El Comisario (2000), a Spanish TV show; Naschy played a police official in one episode.[25]
  • El Lado Oscuro (The Dark Side) 2001, directed by Luciano Berriatua (never released in the U.S.).
  • School Killer (a.k.a. The Vigilante) 2001, a crime drama directed by Carlos Gil; never dubbed in English; released on DVD in Spanish/subtitled as School Killer.
  • Mucha Sangre (Much Blood) 2001, a crime/sci-fi/comedy directed by Pepe de las Heras (never released in the U.S.).
  • El quinto rincon (2002), a short film in which Naschy plays a boxing coach (never released in the U.S.).
  • Octavia (2002), a drama directed by Basilio Patino (never released in the U.S.)'
  • El Corazon Delator (The Tell-Tale Heart) 2003, a 10-minute short horror film directed by Alfonso Suarez, based on the famous Edgar Allan Poe story; Naschy played the madman (never released in the U.S.).
  • Tomb of the Werewolf (a.k.a. The Unliving) 2004, directed in Hollywood by Fred Olen Ray; filmed on video; no theatrical release; released on DVD.
  • Countess Dracula's Orgy of Blood, 2004, directed in Hollywood by Don Glut, this film was shot back-to-back with Fred Olen Ray's Tomb of the Werewolf in 2004; filmed on video; no theatrical release; released on DVD.
  • Rojo Sangre (Blood Red) (2004), directed by Christian Molina; Naschy plays an aging ex-horror film actor in this horror thriller; released in the U.S. direct to DVD.
  • Rottweiler (2004), directed by Brian Yuzna in Spain (sci-fi/ horror); available on DVD in Spanish language only.
  • Um Lobisomem na Amazonia (A Werewolf in the Amazon) (2005), a.k.a. Amazonia Misteriosa; directed in Brazil by Ivan Cardoso; story based on H. G. Wells' novel The Island of Dr. Moreau (never released in the U.S.).
  • El Perdon (2006), a short film that starred Naschy and his old director friend Carlos Aured (never released in the U.S.).[26]
  • The Vampyre by John W. Polidori (2006) a short film in which Naschy played Lord Ruthven (never released in the U.S.).[27]
  • La duodécima hora (The Twelfth Hour) (2007), directed by Juanma Ruiz and Rodrigo Plaza; a faux-documentary about a hidden mystery within the copies of F. W. Murnau's Nosferatu; limited film festival screenings in Spain and South America; publicly available only on the Internet.

Posthumously released projects[edit]

Naschy died on November 30, 2009 in Madrid, Spain.

  • La Herencia Valdemar (The Valdemar Legacy) (released in 2010) directed in Spain by Jose Luis Aleman; filmed in 2008.
  • La Herencia Valdemar 2: La Sombra Prohibida (The Valdemar Legacy 2: The Forbidden Shadow) (released in 2010) directed in Spain by Jose Luis Aleman; filmed in 2009.
  • O Apóstolo (released in 2011) an animated film in which Naschy did the voice of a character; he died before his work on this film was completed.
  • The Great Croton (released in 2011) scripted by Naschy, but he died before he could appear in it; co-starred Antonio Mayans; shown only at film festivals, posthumously.[28]
  • Empusa (released in 2012) a vampire film directed in Spain by Paul Naschy in 2009; film was co-written by Paul Naschy and Carlos Aured, who both died before the film was completed; co-starring Paul Naschy, Julia Saly and Antonio Mayans; the original screenplay title was Gaviotas (Seagulls)[29]
  • Culto al terror (2017) Argentinian-made documentary by Gustavo Mendoza about the horror film convention circuit; interviews celebrities such as Naschy, Robert Englund, Barbara Crampton, Dario Argento and others.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hasta Siempre, Paul Archived December 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Scifiworld.es
  2. ^ Howarth, Troy (2018). Human Beasts: The Films of Paul Naschy. WK Books. p. 13.ISBN 978-1718835894.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Naschy, Paul. Paul Naschy: Memoirs of a Wolfman. Midnight Marquee Press.
  4. ^ He was truly the "Spanish Lon Chaney". R.I.P. Paul Naschy
  5. ^ Rest in Peace: Jacinto Molina AKA Paul Naschy
  6. ^ Howarth, Troy (2018). Human Beasts: The Films of Paul Naschy. WK Books.ISBN 978-1718835894.
  7. ^ Benzel, Thorsten (2012). Muchas Gracias, Senor Lobo. Creepy Images. p. 12
  8. ^ Benzel, Thorsten (2012). Muchas Gracias, Senor Lobo. Creepy Images. p. 62
  9. ^ Benzel, Thorsten (2012). Muchas Gracias, Senor Lobo. Creepy Images. p. 63
  10. ^ Benzel, Thorsten (2012). Muchas Gracias, Senor Lobo. Creepy Images. p. 71
  11. ^ Benzel, Thorsten (2012). Muchas Gracias, Senor Lobo. Creepy Images.
  12. ^ Benzel, Thorsten (2012). Muchas Gracias, Senor Lobo. Creepy Images. p. 221
  13. ^ Benzel, Thorsten (2012). Muchas Gracias, Senor Lobo. Creepy Images. p. 305
  14. ^ Benzel, Thorsten (2012). Muchas Gracias, Senor Lobo. Creepy Images. p. 345
  15. ^ Benzel, Thorsten (2012). Muchas Gracias, Senor Lobo. Creepy Images. p. 363
  16. ^ Howarth, Troy (2018). Human Beasts: The Films of Paul Naschy. WK Books. p. 296.ISBN 978-1718835894
  17. ^ Howarth, Troy (2018). Human Beasts: The Films of Paul Naschy. WK Books. p. 296.ISBN 978-1718835894
  18. ^ Howarth, Troy (2018). Human Beasts: The Films of Paul Naschy. WK Books. p. 296.ISBN 978-1718835894
  19. ^ Howarth, Troy (2018). Human Beasts: The Films of Paul Naschy. WK Books. p. 297.ISBN 978-1718835894
  20. ^ Howarth, Troy (2018). Human Beasts: The Films of Paul Naschy. WK Books. p. 298.ISBN 978-1718835894
  21. ^ Howarth, Troy (2018). Human Beasts: The Films of Paul Naschy. WK Books. p. 298.ISBN 978-1718835894
  22. ^ Howarth, Troy (2018). Human Beasts: The Films of Paul Naschy. WK Books. p. 299.ISBN 978-1718835894
  23. ^ Howarth, Troy (2018). Human Beasts: The Films of Paul Naschy. WK Books. p. 299.ISBN 978-1718835894
  24. ^ Howarth, Troy (2018). Human Beasts: The Films of Paul Naschy. WK Books. p. 299.ISBN 978-1718835894
  25. ^ Howarth, Troy (2018). Human Beasts: The Films of Paul Naschy. WK Books. p. 299.ISBN 978-1718835894
  26. ^ Howarth, Troy (2018). Human Beasts: The Films of Paul Naschy. WK Books. p. 300.ISBN 978-1718835894
  27. ^ Howarth, Troy (2018). Human Beasts: The Films of Paul Naschy. WK Books. p. 300.ISBN 978-1718835894
  28. ^ Howarth, Troy (2018). Human Beasts: The Films of Paul Naschy. WK Books. p. 300.ISBN 978-1718835894
  29. ^ Empusa (2010) at IMDb

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]