Paul Taylor (choreographer)
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Taylor in 1960, photo by Carl Van Vechten
|Born||July 29, 1930|
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
|Died||August 29, 2018 (aged 88)|
Manhattan, New York, U.S.
|Education||Juilliard School (B.S. 1953)|
Paul Belville Taylor, Jr. (July 29, 1930 – August 29, 2018) was an American dancer and choreographer. He was among the last living members of the third generation of America's modern dance artists. He founded the Paul Taylor Dance Company in 1954 in New York City.
Early life and education
Taylor was born in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania, to Paul Belville Taylor, Sr., a physicist, and to the former Elizabeth Rust Pendleton. He grew up in and around Washington, DC. By his teens, he had grown to more than six feet in height. He was a swimmer and student of painting at Syracuse University in the late 1940s. Upon discovering dance through books at the school library, he transferred to Juilliard, where he earned a B.S. degree in dance in 1953 under director Martha Hill.
In 1954 Taylor assembled a small company of dancers and began making his own works. A commanding performer despite his late start, he joined the Martha Graham Dance Company in 1955 for the first of seven seasons as soloist where he created the role of the evil Aegisthus in Graham's Clytemnestra. All the while he was continuing to choreograph on his own small troupe. He also worked with the choreographers Doris Humphrey, Charles Weidman, Jose Limon and Jerome Robbins. In 1959 he was invited by George Balanchine to be a guest artist with New York City Ballet, performing his Episodes.
Taylor's early choreographic projects have been noted as distinctly different from the modern, physical works he would come to be known for later, and have even invited comparison to the conceptual performances of the Judson Dance Theatre in the 1960s. For Duet (1957), Taylor and the pianist, who played a "non score" by the composer John Cage, remained completely motionless. On the same program was a work called Epic, in which Taylor moved slowly across the stage in a business suit while a recorded time announcement played in the background. The Dance Observer critic Louis Horst published a blank page as a review in November 1957 as a response; it was part of Seven New Dances in which Martha Graham called him a "naughty boy."
With his landmark work Aureole (1962), he departed from such an avante garde aesthetic. The performance was still intended to provoke dance critics, as he cheekily set his modern movements not to contemporary music but to a baroque score. A choreographer as concerned with subject matter as he was with form, many of Taylor's pieces and movements are pointedly about something. Some movements relate to his fascination with insects and the way they move. Other movements are influenced by his love of swimming. While he may propel his dancers through space for the sheer beauty of it, he has frequently used them to illuminate such profound issues as war, piety, spirituality, sexuality, morality and mortality. He is perhaps best known for his 1975 dance, Esplanade. In Esplanade Taylor was fascinated with the everyday movement that people enacted on a daily basis—from running to sliding, to walking, jumping and falling. The work is set in five movements to Bach's Violin Concerto No.2 in E-flat Major.
Another well-known work of his is Private Domain (1969). Taylor was intrigued by the idea of perspective and the relationship of reality and appearance. In Private Domain, Taylor commissioned a set by renowned visual artist Alex Katz, whose rectangular panels obstructed the audience from seeing a portion of the stage depending on their vantage points. The seen and unseen relationship that the audience experienced was well received. In another work, Lost, Found, Lost (1969) Taylor again showed his interest in everyday movement by having dancers move one-by-one into the wing as they wait to use a public telephone.
Taylor choreographed his own version of The Rite of Spring in 1980 that he named The Rehearsal. Accompanied by a two-piano version of the original Stravinsky score, The Rehearsal is a detective story complete with gangsters and kidnappings, but Taylor balanced his version with an ode to the original. In one scene a grieving mother echoes the Chosen Maiden from Nijinsky's version. This balance of old and new was widely praised, in addition to the challenging technical demands of the movement.
Other well-known and highly regarded or controversial Taylor works include Big Bertha (1970), Airs (1978), Arden Court (1981), Sunset (1983), Last Look (1985), Speaking in Tongues (1988), Brandenburgs (1988), Company B (1991), Piazzolla Caldera (1996), Black Tuesday (2001), Promethean Fire (2002), and Beloved Renegade (2008). Some of these dances, performed by the Paul Taylor Dance Company, are also licensed by such companies as the Royal Danish Ballet, Miami City Ballet, American Ballet Theatre and Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater.
Taylor collaborated with artists such as Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Ellsworth Kelly, Alex Katz, Tharon Musser, Thomas Skelton, Gene Moore, John Rawlings, William Ivey Long, Jennifer Tipton, Santo Loquasto, James F. Ingalls, Donald York and Matthew Diamond. His career and creative process has been much discussed, as he is the subject of the Oscar-nominated documentary, Dancemaker, and author of the autobiography Private Domain and a Wall Street Journal essay, "Why I Make Dances."
Taylor was a recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors in 1992 and received an Emmy Award for Speaking in Tongues, produced by WNET/New York the previous year. In 1993 he was awarded the National Medal of Arts by United States President Bill Clinton. He received the Algur H. Meadows Award for Excellence in the Arts in 1995 and was named one of 50 prominent Americans honored in recognition of their outstanding achievement by the Library of Congress's Office of Scholarly Programs. He is the recipient of three Guggenheim Fellowships and honorary Doctor of Fine Arts degrees from California Institute of the Arts, Connecticut College, Duke University, The Juilliard School, Skidmore College, the State University of New York at Purchase, Syracuse University and Adelphi University. Taylor's Awards for lifetime achievement include a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship – often called the "genius award" – and the Samuel H. Scripps American Dance Festival Award. Other awards include the New York State Governor's Arts Award and the New York City Mayor's Award of Honor for Art and Culture. In 1989 Taylor was elected one of ten honorary American members of the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters.
Having been elected to knighthood by the French government as Chevalier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 1969 and elevated to Officier in 1984 and Commandeur in 1990, Taylor was awarded France's highest honor, the Légion d'Honneur, for exceptional contributions to French culture, in 2000.
Private Domain, originally published by Alfred A. Knopf and re-released by North Point Press and later by the University of Pittsburgh Press, was nominated by the National Book Critics Circle as the most distinguished biography of 1987. Dancemaker, Matthew Diamond's award-winning feature-length film about Taylor, was hailed by Time as "perhaps the best dance documentary ever." Taylor's Facts and Fancies: Essays Written Mostly for Fun, was published by Delphinium in 2013.
The 2019 American Dance Festival's season, its 86th, was dedicated to Paul Taylor.
Paul Taylor Dance Company
The choreographer's works, now totaling 144, are performed by the 16-member Paul Taylor Dance Company, the chamber-sized Taylor 2, and ballet companies throughout the world.
Of his works 50 are documented in Labanotation. In each completed score there is a section "Introductory Material," which includes topics such as: Casts, Stylistic Notes, as well as other Production information.
A 2015 documentary titled Paul Taylor: Creative Domain showcased his creative process. It was described as "a fly-on-the-wall depiction of the 2010 creation of Three Dubious Memories, his 133rd modern-dance piece for the eponymous company that he founded 61 years ago."
Paul Taylor American Modern Dance
In 2015, Taylor began a new program, called Paul Taylor American Modern Dance, in which works of modern dance by choreographers other than Taylor—performed by dancers practiced in those styles—are included in the company’s annual season at the Koch Theater at Lincoln Center. In addition, contemporary choreographers receive commissions to create new works on the Taylor company. Thus far, dances by Doris Humphrey, Shen Wei, Merce Cunningham, Martha Graham, Donald McKayle, and Trisha Brown have been presented. New commissions by Doug Elkins, Larry Keigwin, Lila York, Bryan Arias, and Doug Varone have been set on and danced by Paul Taylor Dance Company. Since 2015, live music has been performed on every program by the Orchestra of St. Luke’s.
- Circus Polka (1955)
- 3 Epitaphs (1956)
- Seven New Dances (1957)
- Rebus (1958)
- Tablet (1960)
- Fibers (1961)
- Junction (1961)
- Aureole (1962)
- La Negra (1963)
- Scudorama (1963)
- Party Mix (1963)
- The Red Room (1964)
- Duet (1964)
- Post Meridian (1965)
- Orbs (1966)
- Lento (1967)
- Public Domain (1968)
- Private Domain (1969)
- Churchyard (1969)
- Big Bertha (1970)
- Fetes (1971)
- So Long Eden (1972)
- Noah's Minstrels (1973)
- American Genesis (1973)
- Sports and Follies (1974)
- Esplanade (1975)
- Runes (1975)
- Cloven Kingdom (1976)
- Polaris (1976)
- Images (1977)
- Dust (1977)
- Airs (1978)
- Nightshade (1979)
- Profiles (1979)
- Le Sacre Du Printemps (1980)
- Arden Court (1981)
- House of Cards (1981)
- Mercuric Tidings (1982)
- Sunset (1983)
- Equinox (1983)
- Roses (1985)
- Musical Offering (1986)
- Counterswarm (1988)
- Danbury Mix (1988)
- The Sorcerer's Sofa (1989)
- Fact & Fancy (1991)
- Company B (1991)
- Spindrift (1993)
- Prim Numbers (1997)
- Eventide (1997)
- Piazzola Caldera (1997)
- The Word (1998)
- Oh, You Kid! (1999)
- Cascade (1999)
- Dandelion Wine (2000)
- Black Tuesday (2001)
- Antique Valentine (2001)
- In The Beginning (2003)
- Le Grand Puppetier (2004)
- Spring Rounds (2004)
- Troilus and Cressida (2006)
- Lines Of Loss (2007)
- De Suenos Que Se Repiten (2007)
- Changes (2008)
- Also Playing (2009)
- Three Dubious Memories (2010)
- The Uncommitted (2011)
- To Make Crops Grow (2012)
- Perpetual Dawn (2013)
- Sea Lark (2014)
- Death and the Damsel (2015)
- The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. "Modern Dance - Later Dancers", Retrieved 28 February 2016.
- Berkeley, University of California (30 August 2018). "Register ...: With announcements". The University Press – via Google Books.
- "Paul Taylor Dies at 88; Brought Poetry and Lyricism to Modern Dance". nytimes.com.
- Taylor, Paul (1988). Private Domain. San Francisco: North Print Pages.
- "Current and New Donors Offer Generous Support". Juilliard Journal. Juilliard School. April 2010.
- Dunning, Jennifer (1986-05-30). "Dancer and Choreographer Restore Lost Solo". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
- Kane, Angela (1999). "Heroes and Villains: Paul Taylor's "Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rehearsal)" and Other American Tales". Dance Research: The Journal of the Society for Dance Research. 17 (2): 47–72. doi:10.2307/1290838. JSTOR 1290838.
- Kriegsman, Alan (January 13, 1980). "The Washington Post". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 16, 2019.
- Taylor, Paul (2008-02-23). "The Choreographer on Why He Makes Dances". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
- Dance Maker. Matthew Diamond. Docu Rama, 1999. Video
- "Paul Taylor: Creative Domain: Film Review". The Hollywood Reporter. 12 September 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- Kourlas, Gia (2015-03-06). "Paul Taylor, at 84, Has a New Mission With American Modern Dance". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-19.
- "Paul Taylor, a Giant of Modern Dance, Is Dead at 88". The New York Times. 30 August 2018. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
- Official website Paul Taylor Dance Company
- PBS:American Masters biography
- Kennedy Center biography
- American Ballet Theater biography
- Paul Taylor on IMDb
- Paul Taylor at the Internet Broadway Database
- The Paul Taylor Dance Company Comes to Israel
- Paul Taylor interviewed on Conversations from Penn State
- Brooklyn Rail In Conversation: Paul Taylor with Nancy Dalva