Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson
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Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson were the sons of Thorfinn Sigurdsson and Ingibiorg Finnsdottir. Through Ingibiorg's father Finn Arnesson and his wife, the family was related to the Norwegian Kings Olav II and Harald II.
Their lives and times are recounted in the Orkneyinga Saga. The first mention of the brothers is when they accompanied the Norwegian king Harald Hardrade and Tostig Godwinson on the ill-fated expedition to England in 1066. Paul and Erlend were with Harald's son Olaf Kyrre, guarding the ships, when the battle of Stamford Bridge was fought. Along with Olaf they were allowed to leave by the English king Harold Godwinson. Olaf overwintered on Orkney with them and left on good terms with the Thorfinssons.
The Orkneyinga saga says that Paul and Erlend were on good terms until their children grew to adulthood, after which the disputes between their sons led to a quarrel and open hostility between the brothers. As the disputes between the descendants of Paul and Erlend loomed large in the affairs of 12th century Orkney, the saga goes into some detail on their family relationships.
Erlend married Thora, daughter of Sumarlidi Ospaksson, and they had two sons and two daughters, while Erlend had a third, illegitimate daughter as well. Erland's daughter Gunnhild was married to Kol Kalison and Rognvald Kali Kolsson was their son.Erlend's son Magnus Erlendsson appears in the saga as earl, martyr and saint. The troubles between the earls began with rivalry between Hakon Paulsson and Magnus's brother Erling Erlendsson. Both are described as talented but also quarrelsome and arrogant. 
In 1098, King Magnus III of Norway took possession of the islands, deposing of both Erlend and Paul. Paul's son, Haakon Paulsson, then became regent on behalf of the Norwegian prince, the future King Sigurd I of Norway, who made Haakon earl in 1105.
- Per Norseng. "Erlend Torfinnsson". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Per Norseng. "Pål Torfinnsson". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Per Norseng. "Torfinn Sigurdsson". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Nils Petter Thuesen. "Pål Torfinnsson". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Nils Petter Thuesen. "Ragnvald Kolsson". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Narve Bjørgo. "Erlend Torfinnsson". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Jan Erik Ringstad. "Magnus Erlendsson Den Hellige". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Nils Petter Thuesen. "Håkon Pålsson". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Anon., Orkneyinga Saga: The History of the Earls of Orkney, tr. Hermann Pálsson and Paul Edwards. Penguin, London, 1978. ISBN 0-14-044383-5
- Donaldson, Gordon, A Northern Commonwealth: Scotland and Norway. Saltire Society, Edinburgh, 1990. ISBN 0-85411-044-5
- Sturluson, Snorri, Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway, tr. Lee M. Hollander. Reprinted University of Texas Press, Austin, 1992. ISBN 0-292-73061-6