Paul Volcker

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Paul Volcker
Paulvolcker.jpg
Chair of the President's Economic Recovery Advisory Board
In office
February 6, 2009 – February 6, 2011
President Barack Obama
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Jeff Immelt (Council on Jobs and Competitiveness)
12th Chairman of the Federal Reserve
In office
August 6, 1979 – August 11, 1987
President Jimmy Carter
Ronald Reagan
Deputy Frederick Schultz
Preston Martin
Manley Johnson
Preceded by William Miller
Succeeded by Alan Greenspan
President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York
In office
May 2, 1975 – August 5, 1979
Preceded by Alfred Hayes
Succeeded by Anthony Solomon
Under Secretary of the Treasury for International Affairs
In office
1969–1974
President Richard Nixon
Personal details
Born Paul Adolph Volcker Jr.
(1927-09-05) September 5, 1927 (age 90)
Cape May, New Jersey, U.S.
Political party Democratic[1][2]
Spouse(s) Barbara Bahnson (1954–1998)
Anke Dening (2010–present)
Children 2 (with Bahnson)
Education Princeton University (BA)
Harvard University (MA)
London School of Economics

Paul Adolph Volcker Jr.[3] (/ˈvlkər/; born September 5, 1927) is an American economist. He was Chairman of the Federal Reserve under Presidents Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan from August 1979 to August 1987. He is widely credited with ending the high levels of inflation seen in the United States during the 1970s and early 1980s. He was the chairman of the Economic Recovery Advisory Board under President Barack Obama from February 2009[4] until January 2011.[5]

Early life and education[edit]

Volcker was born in Cape May, New Jersey, the son of Alma Louise (née Klippel) and Paul Adolph Volcker.[6] All his grandparents were German immigrants. Volcker grew up in Teaneck, New Jersey, where his father was the township's first municipal manager. As a child, he attended his mother's Lutheran church, while his father went to an Episcopal church. Volcker graduated from Teaneck High School in 1945.[6]He is of Jewish origin.[7]

Volcker's undergraduate education was at Princeton University; he graduated in 1949. He earned his M.A. in political economy from Harvard University's Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and Graduate School of Public Administration in 1951 and then attended the London School of Economics from 1951 to 1952 as a Rotary Foundation Ambassadorial Fellow, under the Rotary's Ambassadorial Scholarships program.

Career[edit]

In 1952 he joined the staff of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York as a full-time economist. He left that position in 1957 to become a financial economist with the Chase Manhattan Bank. In 1962, Robert Roosa, who had been his mentor at the Federal Reserve, hired him at the Treasury Department as director of financial analysis.[8] In 1963, he became deputy under secretary for monetary affairs. He returned to Chase Manhattan Bank as vice president and director of planning in 1965.

From 1969 to 1974, Volcker served as under-secretary of the Treasury for international monetary affairs. He played an important role in President Nixon's decision leading to the suspension of gold convertibility on August 15, 1971, which resulted in the collapse of the Bretton Woods system. Volcker considers the suspension of gold convertibility "the single most important event of his career."[9] In general he acted as a moderating influence on policy, advocating the pursuit of an international solution to monetary problems. After leaving the U.S. Treasury, he became president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York from 1975 to 1979, leaving to become the chairman of the Federal Reserve in August 1979.

In 1975, Volcker also became a senior fellow in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University.

Chairman of the Federal Reserve[edit]

President Jimmy Carter nominated Paul Volcker to serve as chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System on July 25, 1979.[10] He was confirmed by the Senate on August 2, 1979, and took office on August 6, 1979.[11] President Ronald Reagan renominated Volcker to a second term in 1983.[12][13]

Inflation emerged as an economic and political challenge in the United States during the 1970s. The monetary policies of the Federal Reserve board, led by Volcker, were widely credited with curbing the rate of inflation and expectations that inflation would continue. US inflation, which peaked at 14.8 percent in March 1980, fell below 3 percent by 1983.[14][15] The Federal Reserve board led by Volcker raised the federal funds rate, which had averaged 11.2% in 1979, to a peak of 20% in June 1981. The prime rate rose to 21.5% in 1981 as well, which helped lead to the 1980–1982 recession,[16] in which the national unemployment rate rose to over 10%. Volcker's Federal Reserve board elicited the strongest political attacks and most widespread protests in the history of the Federal Reserve (unlike any protests experienced since 1922), due to the effects of high interest rates on the construction, farming, and industrial sectors, culminating in indebted farmers driving their tractors onto C Street NW in Washington, D.C. and blockading the Eccles Building.[17] US monetary policy eased in 1982, helping lead to a resumption of economic growth.

Volcker's high interest rate caused immediate and drastic drops in investment into the real economy. One sector hit hard was machine tools. The birthplace of replaceable metal parts is New England, and in 1980 that region was still the center of the US machine tool sector. By 1981, firms that had been in business for a hundred years had steep layoffs, and major cuts in pay. At Brown and Sharpe in Rhode Island, violent conflict between striking workers and the police set in.[18] In Springfield, Vermont, Jones and Lamson went into steep decline and was sold by 1989 to a financial engineer (at one point, the president of J&L had been the Chair of Boston Federal Reserve).[19][20] In New Hampshire, Kingsbury Machine Tool went from 3 shifts a day with hefty bonuses to laying off hundreds between 1982 and 1989.[21]

The late seventies were a time when Japanese productivity was rising, so that internally to Japan, machine tools fell in price by 12%. The dollar should have depreciated given the relative fall in prices of Japanese tradables, so that the now-cheaper Japanese products would have remained at a price comparable to American-made products in US stores. Instead, precisely the opposite happened: The Volcker interest rate shock made the dollar appreciate in value. In effect, the Volcker shock put Japanese-made products on sale at US stores. [22]. The US current account was in permanent deficit by the nineties. Volcker himself tried to remedy the situation by the Plaza Accord in 1986, which called for Germany and Japan to revalue relative to the US dollar.[23] The revaluation did take place, but perhaps by then too much damage had occurred in the industrial base, because the machine tool sector never recovered.

The combination of the Fed's tight money policies and the expansive fiscal policy of the Reagan Administration (large tax cuts and a major increase in military spending) produced large federal budget deficits and significant macroeconomic imbalances in the U.S. economy. The combination of growing federal debt and high interest rates led to a substantial rise in federal net interest costs. The sharp rise of interest costs and large deficits led Congress to take some steps towards fiscal constraint.[24]

Nobel laureate Joseph Stiglitz said about him in an interview:

Paul Volcker, the previous Fed Chairman known for keeping inflation under control, was fired because the Reagan administration didn't believe he was an adequate de-regulator.[25]

Congressman Ron Paul, well known as a harsh critic of the Federal Reserve, has offered qualified praise of Volcker:

Being in Congress in the late 1970s and early 1980s and serving on the House Banking Committee, I met and got to question several Federal Reserve chairmen: Arthur Burns, G. William Miller, and Paul Volcker. Of the three, I had the most interaction with Volcker. He was more personable and smarter than the others, including the more recent board chairmen Alan Greenspan and Ben Bernanke.[26]

Paul also said in a 2011 presidential debate that, "If I had to name a Federal Reserve chairman that did a little bit of good, that would be Paul Volcker."

In 1983, Volcker received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.[27]

In 2015, Volcker donated his public service papers to Princeton University's Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library.[28]

Post-Federal Reserve[edit]

Volcker in 2014 with Alan Greenspan and Ben Bernanke

After leaving the Federal Reserve in 1987, he became chairman of the prominent New York investment banking firm, Wolfensohn & Co., a corporate advisory and investment firm run by James D. Wolfensohn (who later became president of the World Bank).

In 1993 he chaired the Group of 30 Report on the Derivatives market entitled "Derivatives: Practices and Principles" [29] with several appendices and a survey on how practices may have changed since the original 1993 report.[30] The Group of 30 is a "consultative group on international economic and monetary affairs." Volcker is their Chairman emeritus.[31]

In 1996, he took up the chair of the Independent Committee of Eminent Persons (Volcker Commission) to look into the dormant accounts of Jewish victims of the Holocaust lying in Swiss banks. This included a "massive accounting of Swiss bank records." In the midst of a contentious process (the committee was formed by three Jewish representatives and three representatives of Swiss banks), he was able to bring about an agreement among the parties for a settlement of $1.25 billion.[32]

In 2000 he accepted the Chairmanship of the IFRS Trustees, the not-for-profit funding arm of the International Accounting Standards Board (later the IFRS). The IFRS is a private sector enterprise based in London which seeks to develop a single global accounting model, subject to adoption country by country under their rules of law.[33]

In April 2004, the United Nations assigned Volcker to research possible corruption in the Iraqi Oil for Food program. In the report summarizing its research, Volcker criticized Kojo Annan, son of then-UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, and the Swiss company Cotecna Inspection SA, Kojo's employer, for trying to conceal their relationship. He concluded in his March 2005, report that "there is no evidence that the selection of Cotecna, in 1998, was subject to improper influence of the Secretary General in the bidding or selection process."[34] While Volcker did not implicate the Secretary General in the selection process, however, he did cast serious doubt on Kofi Annan, whose "management performance ... fell short of the standards that the United Nations Organization should strive to maintain."[35] Volcker was a director of the United Nations Association of the United States of America between 2000 and 2004, prior to his being appointed to the Independent Inquiry by Kofi Annan.

As of October 2006, he is the current chairman of the board of trustees of the influential Washington-based financial advisory body, the Group of Thirty, and is a member of the Trilateral Commission. He has had a long association with the Rockefeller family, not only with his positions at Chase Bank and the Trilateral Commission, but also through membership of the trust committee of Rockefeller Group, Inc., which he joined in 1987. That entity managed, at one time, the Rockefeller Center on behalf of the numerous members of the Rockefeller family. He is former chairman and an honorary trustee of International House, the cultural exchange residence and program center in New York City. He is a founding member of the Trilateral Commission and is a long-time member of the Bilderberg Group.

In January 2008, he endorsed Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama.[36]

On April 8, 2008, he was the featured speaker at The Economic Club of New York, and spoke about the issues and causes of the U.S. recession, and critiqued the U.S. financial system and Federal Reserve policies.[37]

Paul Volcker appeared in the Charles Ferguson's movie Inside Job. He was interviewed about current Wall Street CEO pay, claiming it is "excessive."[38]

Volcker was an economic advisor to President Barack Obama, heading the President's Economic Recovery Advisory Board.[39][40][41] During the financial crisis, Volcker has been extremely critical of banks, saying that their response to the financial crisis has been inadequate, and that more regulation of banks is called for.[42][43][44] Specifically, Volcker has called for a break-up of the nation's largest banks, prohibiting deposit-taking institutions from engaging in riskier activities such as proprietary trading, private equity, and hedge fund investments.[45][46] Volcker left the board when its charter expired on February 6, 2011, without being included in discussions on how the board would be reconstituted.[47]

On January 21, 2010, President Barack Obama proposed bank regulations which he dubbed "The Volcker Rule," in reference to Volcker's aggressive pursuit of these regulations.[48] Volcker appeared with the president at the announcement. The proposed rules would prevent commercial banks from owning and investing in hedge funds and private equity, and limit the trading they do for their own accounts.[49] According to SEC Commissioner Luis A. Aguilar, "[t]he success or failure of the Volcker Rule will depend on the manner in which banking entities comply with the letter and spirit of the rule, and on the willingness of regulators to enforce it." [50]

Volcker has been known to defy the stereotype of a Wall Street insider. A profile in The Week for February 5, 2010, claimed that Volcker doesn't even buy the conventional wisdom that "financial innovation" is necessary for a healthy economy. In fact, he likes to say, "the only useful banking innovation was the invention of the ATM."[51]

On April 6, 2010, at the New-York Historical Society's Global Economic Panel, Volcker commented that the United States should consider adding a national sales tax similar to the Value Added Tax (VAT) imposed in European countries, stating "If, at the end of the day, we need to raise taxes, we should raise taxes." [52]

World Justice Project[edit]

Paul Volcker serves as an honorary co-chairman for the World Justice Project. The World Justice Project works to lead a global, multi-disciplinary effort to strengthen the rule of law for the development of communities of opportunity and equity.

Volcker Alliance[edit]

In 2013, Volcker founded the nonprofit organization the Volcker Alliance to address the challenge of effective execution of public policies and to rebuild public trust in government.[53][54] The nonpartisan Alliance works toward that objective by partnering with other organizations—academic, business, governmental, and public interest—to strengthen professional education for public service, conduct needed research on government performance, and improve the efficiency and accountability of governmental organization at the federal, state, and local levels.[55]

Personal life[edit]

Volcker married Barbara Bahnson, the daughter of a physician, on September 11, 1954. They had two children, Janice, a nurse and a Georgetown University graduate,[56] and James, a research assistant and a New York University graduate[57] who was born with cerebral palsy, as well as four grandchildren.[58][59][60]

Volcker is an avid fly-fisherman,[61] who recounted in 1987, "The greatest strategic error of my adult life was to take my wife to Maine on our honeymoon on a fly-fishing trip."[62][63]

Volcker is also known as "Tall Paul" for his height of 6 feet 7 inches (2.01 m),[64][65] standing exactly a foot (30 cm) taller than his first wife, Barbara, when they first met.[58] She died on June 14, 1998, having suffered from lifelong diabetes, as well as rheumatoid arthritis.

Over Thanksgiving, 2009, he became engaged to Anke Dening, a long-time assistant.[66] They married in February 2010.[67]

Honorary degrees[edit]

Volcker has received honorary degrees from several educational institutions including: Baytown Christian Academy, Hamilton College (1980), University of Notre Dame, Princeton University, Dartmouth College, New York University, University of Delaware,[68] Fairleigh Dickinson University, Bryant College, Adelphi University, Lamar University, Bates College (1989), Fairfield University (1994), Williams College (2003),[69] Northwestern University (2004), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (2005), Brown University (2006), Georgetown University (2007), Syracuse University (2008),[70] Queen's University at Kingston in Canada (2009), Amherst College (2011), and at the University of Toronto (2015).[71]

Works[edit]

  • Changing Fortunes, Paul Volcker and Toyoo Gyohten, Crown, May 26, 1992, ISBN 978-1-58648-752-2
  • Forbes Great Minds Of Business, Fred Smith, Peter Lynch, Andrew Grove, Paul Volcker (Author), Pleasant Rowland, John Wiley and Paul A. Volcker, Simon and Schuster Audio, October 1, 1997, ISBN 978-0-671-57722-3
  • Good Intentions Corrupted: The Oil for Food Scandal And the Threat to the U.N., Paul Volcker, Jeffrey A. Meyer and Mark G. Califano, Public Affairs Gorgias Press, August 28, 2006, ISBN 978-1-58648-472-9

Other[edit]

In 2015, Paul Volcker had a rock band named after him[72]. A political rock band named Volcker from Portland, Oregon formed in early 2015, and released an eponymous album on January 27, 2016[73]. According to their Facebook page, the group is planning to release their second album, Gorge on Fire, this spring[74].

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hoffman, Nicholas von (December 2, 1979). "Can Volcker Stand up to Inflation?". The New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  2. ^ Silk, Leonard (November 8, 1987). "Volcker on the CRASH". The New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  3. ^ Rebello, Kathy (June 3, 1987). "Inflation fighter: 'A time to leave'". USA Today. archive.is. Archived from the original on February 1, 2013. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  4. ^ "Obama Announces Economic Advisory Board". Whitehouse.gov. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2011. 
  5. ^ Zeleny, Jeff (November 26, 2008). "Obama Names Volcker to Head New Economic Panel". The New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  6. ^ a b Treaster (2004), pp. 87–92.
  7. ^ Roni Sofer: Obama mulls naming Jewish economist secretary of treasury, ynetnews.com, 11.09.08
  8. ^ Treaster (2004), p. 38.
  9. ^ Silber (2012) p. 2.
  10. ^ President Jimmy Carter (July 25, 1979). "Federal Reserve System Nomination of Paul A. Volcker To Be Chairman of the Board of Governors". Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  11. ^ "Senate Confirms Miller and Volcker". The New York Times. August 3, 1979. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  12. ^ Robert D. Hershey, Jr. (June 3, 1987). "Volcker Out after 8 Years as Federal Reserve Chief; Reagan Chooses Greenspan". The New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  13. ^ "Paul A. Volcker – Council on Foreign Relations". Cfr.org. Retrieved March 12, 2011. 
  14. ^ "Bureau of Labor Statistics Data". Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  15. ^ "To Treat the Fed as Volcker Did". The New York Times. November 4, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  16. ^ NBER, US Business Cycle Expansions and Contractions Archived October 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ Shull, Bernard. 2005. The Fourth Branch: The Federal Reserve's Unlikely Rise To Power And Influence. Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 1-56720-624-7. p. 142.
  18. ^ Gerald Carbone (2017). Brown & Sharpe and the Measure of American Industry: Making the Precision Machine Tools That Enabled Manufacturing, 1833–2001. Macfarland.
  19. ^ Robert Forrant (2009). Metal Fatigue. Baywood Publishing.
  20. ^ Koistinen, David (2013). Confronting Decline. Gainesville: University of Florida.
  21. ^ Marie Duggan (2017). Deindustrialization in the Granite State Part I. In Dollars and Sense, Nov/Dec. issue.
  22. ^ Marston, Richard (1988). Misalignment of Exchange Rates: Effects on Trade and Industry. National Bureau of Economic Research
  23. ^ Paul Volcker and Toyoo Gyohten (1992). Changing Fortunes.
  24. ^ "Volcker: The Triumph of Persistence (Bloomsbury Press; 2012) 454 pages, p. 8."
  25. ^ Gardels, Nathan. Stiglitz: The Fall of Wall Street Is to Market Fundamentalism What the Fall of the Berlin Wall Was to..., HuffPost, September 16, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2017.
  26. ^ Chan, Sewell (December 11, 2010). "The Fed? Ron Paul's Not a Fan". The New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2017.
  27. ^ "Jefferson Awards Foundation". Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  28. ^ "Former Federal Reserve chairman Volcker donates public service papers to Princeton". Princeton University. Princeton University. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  29. ^ "Derivatives Practices and Principles" (PDF). Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  30. ^ "Derivatives: Practices and Principles: Follow-up Surveys of Industry Practice". Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. 
  31. ^ "Group of 30 Current Members". Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  32. ^ Treaster (2004), p. x.
  33. ^ "Annual Report of the IFRS Trustees Foundation" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 11, 2015. 
  34. ^ Independent Inquiry Committee into the United Nations Oil-for-Food Programme – Second Interim Report (29 March 2005) Archived August 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. p.77.
  35. ^ Traub, James. 2006. The Best Intentions: Kofi Annan and the UN in the Era of American Power. New York: Picardor, n.d., p. 420.
  36. ^ Calmes, Jackie (January 31, 2008). "Volcker Joins List of Obama Backers". Washington Wire. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  37. ^ The Economic Club of New York: April 8, 2008 Transcript 101st Year, 395th Meeting, (8 April 2008) p. 2, and pp. 5–8.
  38. ^ 101st Year, 395th Meeting, (8 April 2008) Archived October 31, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. pp. 2, 5–8.
  39. ^ Kudlow, Lawrence (June 27, 2008). "Where's Bernanke's Inner Volcker?". Townhall.com. Townhall.com. Archived from the original on September 18, 2012. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  40. ^ "Transcript of Third Presidential Debate". October 15, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  41. ^ ""President-elect Barack Obama establishes President's Economic Recovery Advisory Board" change.gov". Change.gov. November 26, 2008. Archived from the original on February 24, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2011. 
  42. ^ Werdigier, Julia (December 8, 2009). "Volcker Criticizes Calls to Limit Bank Regulation". The New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  43. ^ Murray, Alan (December 14, 2009). "Paul Volcker: Think More Boldly". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  44. ^ Rose, Charlie (December 30, 2009). "Paul Volcker: The Lion Lets Loose". Business Week. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  45. ^ Johnson, Simon (December 17, 2009). "Paul Volcker Finds a Hammer". The New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  46. ^ McGrane, Victoria (January 4, 2010). "'Big is bad' catches on in Congress". The Politico. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  47. ^ Onaran, Yalman (January 6, 2010). "Volcker Sidelined as Obama Reshapes Economic Advisory Panel". Bloomberg. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  48. ^ David Cho, and Binyamin Appelbaum (January 22, 2010). "Obama's 'Volcker Rule' shifts power away from Geithner". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  49. ^ Conway, Brendan (January 26, 2010). "'Volcker Plan' Bank Units Worth Tens Of Billions". Dow Jones & Company. Archived from the original on January 30, 2010. Retrieved January 27, 2010. 
  50. ^ Aguilar, Luis (December 10, 2013). "Statement on the Volcker Rule: Reducing Systemic Risk By Banning Excessive Proprietary Trading with Depositors' Money". Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  51. ^ "Spotlight" in The Week, 2010 February 5 (Volume 10 Issue 449), p. 38.
  52. ^ Geoff Earle and Tony Davenport (April 7, 2010). "Bam man pitching national sales tax". New York Post. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  53. ^ "Paul Volcker Launches Volcker Alliance". Forbes. May 12, 2015. 
  54. ^ Schwartz, Nelson D. (2013-05-29). "Volcker Plans to Restore Faith in Government". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-03-19. 
  55. ^ "Our Mission". The Volcker Alliance. 2014-11-04. Retrieved 2018-03-19. 
  56. ^ "Janice Volcker Is Married". The New York Times. September 20, 1981. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  57. ^ "WEDDINGS; Martha DeJong and James Volcker". The New York Times. August 1, 1993. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  58. ^ a b Treaster (2004), pp. 83, 86, 110.
  59. ^ "Paid Notice: Deaths: VOLCKER, BARBARA". The New York Times. June 16, 1998. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  60. ^ "Speakers Platform Speakers Bureau: Paul Volcker, Keynote Speaker On: Economics, Global Affairs, Finance / Tax". Speakers Platform. Archived from the original on February 23, 2008. Retrieved March 25, 2008. 
  61. ^ Faber, Eberhard (September 29, 1986). "Fishing with Volcker". Fortune Magazine. CNN. p. 4. Retrieved December 22, 2009. 
  62. ^ Lyons, Nick (May 3, 1987). "Gone off fly-fishing". The New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  63. ^ Russell, George (June 15, 1987). "The New Mr. Dollar". Time Magazine. Time Inc. p. 4. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  64. ^ Freeland, Chrystia (April 11, 2008). Man in the News: Paul Volcker. Financial Times. Retrieved on November 27, 2008 from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved November 27, 2008. .
  65. ^ Cuff, Daniel F. (September 3, 1987). "BUSINESS PEOPLE; Of Volcker's Laundry and Fiscal Restraint". The New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  66. ^ Loomis, Carol (December 24, 2009). "Paul Volcker is Engaged!". CNN. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  67. ^ Caren Bohan, Kristina Cooke: ""Cheap cigars, politics and the Volcker Rule". Reuters. March 12, 2010. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  68. ^ "Honorary Degrees / UD Alumni Relations". Udconnection.com. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2011. 
  69. ^ "Honorary Degrees". Office of the President. 
  70. ^ Syracuse University honorary degrees 2008
  71. ^ "Former Fed Chairman Paul Volcker to Be Honored at Amherst College Commencement May 22". Amherst College. May 3, 2011. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  72. ^ http://www.volcker.org
  73. ^ https://volcker.bandcamp.com/releases
  74. ^ https://www.facebook.com/volckerband

Sources[edit]

  • Morris, Charles W. (2009). The Sages: Warren Buffett, George Soros, Paul Volcker, and the Maelstrom of Markets. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-752-2. 
  • Silber, William L. (2012). Volcker: The Triumph of Persistence. Bloomsbury Press. p. 464. ISBN 978-1-620-40292-4. 
  • Treaster, Joseph (2004). Paul Volcker: the making of a financial legend. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-42812-1. 

External links[edit]

Government offices
Preceded by
Alfred Hayes
President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York
1975–1979
Succeeded by
Anthony Solomon
Preceded by
William Miller
Chair of the Federal Reserve
1979–1987
Succeeded by
Alan Greenspan
Political offices
New office Chair of the President's Economic Recovery Advisory Board
2009–2011
Succeeded by
Jeff Immelt
as Chair of the Council on Jobs and Competitiveness