# Pauli group

The Möbius–Kantor graph, the Cayley graph of the Pauli group ${\displaystyle G_{1}}$ with generators X, Y, and Z

In physics and mathematics, the Pauli group ${\displaystyle G_{1}}$ on 1 qubit is the 16-element matrix group consisting of the 2 × 2 identity matrix ${\displaystyle I}$ and all of the Pauli matrices

${\displaystyle X=\sigma _{1}={\begin{pmatrix}0&1\\1&0\end{pmatrix}},\quad Y=\sigma _{2}={\begin{pmatrix}0&-i\\i&0\end{pmatrix}},\quad Z=\sigma _{3}={\begin{pmatrix}1&0\\0&-1\end{pmatrix}}}$,

together with the products of these matrices with the factors ${\displaystyle -1}$ and ${\displaystyle \pm i}$:

${\displaystyle G_{1}\ {\stackrel {\mathrm {def} }{=}}\ \{\pm I,\pm iI,\pm X,\pm iX,\pm Y,\pm iY,\pm Z,\pm iZ\}\equiv \langle X,Y,Z\rangle }$.

The Pauli group is generated by the Pauli matrices, and like them it is named after Wolfgang Pauli.

The Pauli group on n qubits, ${\displaystyle G_{n}}$, is the group generated by the operators described above applied to each of ${\displaystyle n}$ qubits in the tensor product Hilbert space ${\displaystyle (\mathbb {C} ^{2})^{\otimes n}}$.

As an abstract group, ${\displaystyle G_{1}\cong C_{4}\circ D_{4}}$ is the central product of a cyclic group of order 4 and the dihedral group of order 8.[1]