|Place of origin||Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg, Duchy of Württemberg, Kingdom of Württemberg, Electorate of Bavaria, Kingdom of Bavaria, Switzerland, German Empire|
|Members||Albert Einstein, Maja Einstein, Hermann Einstein, Pauline Koch|
|Connected families||Koch, Moos, Overnauer|
The Einstein family is the family of the renowned physicist Albert Einstein (1879–1955). Einstein's great-great-great-great-grandfather, Jakob Weil, was his oldest recorded relative, born in the late 17th century, and the family continues to this day. Albert Einstein's great-great-grandfather, Löb Moses Sontheimer (1745–1831), was also the grandfather of the prominent tenor Heinrich Sontheim (1820–1912) of Stuttgart.
Albert's three children were from his relationship with his first wife, Mileva Marić, his daughter Lieserl being born a year before they married.
Albert Einstein's second wife was Elsa Einstein, whose mother Fanny Koch was the sister of Albert's mother, and whose father, Rudolf Einstein, was the son of Raphael Einstein, a brother of Albert's paternal grandfather. Thus Albert and Elsa were first cousins through their mothers and second cousins through their fathers.
Einstein (English: //; German: [ˈaɪnʃtaɪn]): 1. German: habitation name from various places named with a Middle High German derivative of the verb einsteinen ‘to enclose, surround with stone’. 2. Jewish (Ashkenazic): adaptation of the German name or else an ornamental name using the ending -stein ‘stone’.
Einstein family table
|1st||Jakob Weil from Wallerstein (?) (father of Jüttle Sara)|
|2nd||Juda from Nordstetten (?), Chaja [last name unknown] (?),
Hoyna Moses Sontheimer (1705–?), Gölla [last name unknown] (?)
|Jakob Weil (?), Jüttle Sara Weil (1722–1808),
Löb Moses Sontheimer (1745–?)
|Jakob Simon Bernheimer (1756–1790), Leah Hajm (1753–1833)|
Bernard (Beerle) Weil (1750–1840), Rösle Katz (1760–1826)
|4th||Naftali Einstein (1733–1801), Hayum Moos, Helene Steppach (1737–1790)|
|5th||Rupert Einstein (1759–1834) Veit Hirsch (1763–1820) Rebekka Overnauer (1770–1843)
Hayum Moos (1788–?), Fanny Schmal (1792–?)
|Zadok Löb Dörzbacher (1783–1852), Blumle Sontheimer (1786–1856)|
|6th||Abraham Einstein (1808–1868). Siblings: Hirsch Einstein (1799–?), Judith Einstein (1802–?), Samuel Rupert Einstein (1804–?), Raphael Einstein (1806–?), David Einstein (1810–?)
Helene Moos (1814–1887, Siblings: None)
|Julius Dörzbacher (1816–1895, Siblings: None),
Jette Bernheimer (1825–1886, Siblings: None)
|7th||Hermann Einstein (1847–1902). Siblings: August Ignaz Einstein (1841–?), Jette Einstein (1844–?), Heinrich Einstein (1845–?), Jakob Einstein (1850–?), Friederike Einstein (1855–?)||Pauline Koch (1858–1920). Siblings: Fanny Koch (1852–1926), Jacob Koch (?), Caesar Koch (?)|
|8th||Albert Einstein (1879–1955). Siblings: Maja Einstein (1881–1951).||Albert's wives: Mileva Marić (1875–1948), Elsa Einstein (1876–1936)|
|9th||Albert's children: Lieserl Einstein (1902–1903?), Hans Albert Einstein (1904–1973), Eduard Einstein (1910–1965)|
|10th||Bernhard Caesar Einstein (1930–2008), Klaus Martin (1933–1939); David Einstein (16 October 1939 – 21 November 1939); and Evelyn (1941–2011, adopted child)|
|11th||Thomas Martin Einstein (1955–), Paul Michael Einstein (1959–), Eduard Albert (Ted) Einstein (1961–), Mira Einstein-Yehieli (1965–), Charles Quincy Ascher (Charly) Einstein (1971–)|
Pauline Koch (Albert's mother)
Pauline Einstein (née Koch)
|Died||20 February 1920 (aged 62)|
|Children||Albert Einstein |
|Parent(s)||Julius Derzbacher |
Pauline Einstein (née Koch) (8 February 1858 – 20 February 1920) was the mother of the physicist Albert Einstein. She was born in Cannstatt, Kingdom of Württemberg. She was Jewish and had an older sister, Fanny, and two older brothers, Jacob and Caesar. Her parents were Julius Doerzbacher, who had adopted the family name Koch in 1842, and Jette Bernheimer. They were married in 1847. Pauline's father was from Jebenhausen, now part of the city of Göppingen, and grew up in modest economic circumstances. Later, he lived in Cannstatt and together with his brother Heinrich, made a considerable fortune in the corn trade. They even became "Royal Württemberg Purveyor to the Court". Their mother was from Cannstatt and was a quiet and caring person.
At 18 years old, Pauline married the merchant Hermann Einstein who lived in Ulm. They married in Cannstatt on 8 August 1876. After the wedding, the young couple lived in Ulm, where Hermann became joint partner in a bed feathers company. Their son, Albert was born on 14 March 1879. On the initiative of Hermann's brother Jakob the family moved to Munich in the summer of 1880, where the two brothers together founded an electrical engineering company called  Einstein & Cie. The second child of Hermann and Pauline, their daughter Maria (called Maja), was born in Munich on 18 November 1881. Pauline Einstein was a well-educated and quiet woman who had an inclination for the arts. She was a talented and dedicated piano player. She made Albert begin violin lessons at the age of five.
The factory of Hermann and Jakob was moved to Pavia, Italy in 1894. Hermann, Maria and Pauline moved to Milan in the same year and one year later, moved to Pavia. Albert stayed with relatives in Munich to continue his education there. Unfortunately, the business was unsuccessful and the brothers had to abandon their factory in 1896. Though Hermann had lost most of his money, he founded (without his brother) another electrical engineering company in Milan. This time business was better. However, Hermann's health had deteriorated, and he died of heart failure in Milan on 10 October 1902.
In 1903, Pauline went to live with her sister Fanny and her husband Rudolf Einstein, a first cousin of Hermann, in Hechingen, Württemberg. Fanny's daughter, Elsa was to become the second wife of Albert in 1919. In 1910, Pauline moved with her sister, Fanny and her family to Berlin. She took on a job as housekeeper in Heilbronn, Kingdom of Württemberg in 1911. She lived with her brother Jacob Koch in Zurich and since 1915 in Heilbronn again.
During World War I, Pauline fell ill with cancer. In 1918, when visiting her daughter, Maria, and son-in-law, Paul Winteler, in Luzern, Pauline was taken to the sanatorium Rosenau, due to her illness. At the end of 1919, Albert took his terminally-ill mother out of the sanatorium in Luzern and brought her to Haberlandstrasse 5, Berlin, to stay with him and his second wife, Elsa, where she later died.
Hermann Einstein (Albert's father)
|Died||10 October 1902 (aged 55)|
|Citizenship||Subject of Kingdom of Württemberg (1847–1894) |
Subject of Kingdom of Italy (1894–1902)
|Occupation||Scientific utility salesman, electrician|
|Children||Albert Einstein |
|Parent(s)||Abraham Einstein |
|Relatives||Hans Albert Einstein (grandson)|
Lieserl Einstein (granddaughter)
Eduard Einstein (grandson)
He had six siblings:
- Raphael (3 December 1839 – 15 January 1842); male
- Jette (13 January 1844 – 7 January 1905); female
- Heinrich (12 October 1845 – 16 November 1877); male
- August Ignaz (23 December 1849 – 14 April 1911); male
- Jakob (25 November 1850 – 1912); male
- Friederike "Rika" (15 March 1855 – 17 June 1938); female
At the age of 14, Hermann attended the secondary school in the regional capital Stuttgart and was academically successful. He had a strong affection for mathematics, and would have liked to study in this or a related area, but as the financial situation of the family precluded further education, he decided to become a merchant and began an apprenticeship in Stuttgart.
Marriage to Pauline
Hermann married 18-year-old Pauline Koch in Cannstatt, Kingdom of Württemberg on 8 August 1876. After their wedding, the young couple lived in Ulm, where Hermann became joint partner in the feather bed shop of his cousins, Moses and Hermann Levi. In Ulm, their eldest son Albert was born on 14 March 1879. On the initiative of Hermann's brother Jakob, the family moved to Munich in the summer of 1880. There, the two brothers founded the electrical engineering company Einstein & Cie, with Hermann being the merchant and Jakob the technician. The second child of Hermann and Pauline, their daughter Maria (called Maja), was born in Munich on 18 November 1881.
The Einsteins' electrical firm manufactured dynamos and electrical meters based on direct current. They were instrumental in bringing electricity to Munich. In 1885, they won the contract that provided DC lights to illuminate the Oktoberfest for the first time.
In 1893 the Einstein brothers lost a bid on a contract for the electrification of Munich to Schukert; Hermann and Jakob's small company lacked the capital to convert their equipment over from the direct current (DC) standard to the more efficient alternating current (AC) standard being used by Schukert. Their fortunes took a downward turn from there. They were forced to sell their Munich factory and, in search of business, the two brothers moved their company to Pavia, Italy in 1894. Hermann, Pauline and Maja moved to Milan in the same year and one year later moved to Pavia. Albert stayed with relatives in Munich to continue his education there.
Due to poor business, Hermann and Jakob had to abandon their factory in 1896. Though Hermann had lost most of their money, he founded another electrical engineering company in Milan, this time without his brother. He was supported financially by his relative Rudolf Einstein in this venture. Though business was better this time, Hermann was preoccupied with "worries due to the vexatious money".
Maria "Maja" Einstein (Albert's younger sister)
Maria 'Maja' Einstein
18 November 1881
|Died||25 June 1951 (aged 69)|
Princeton, New Jersey, United States
|Nationality||German, Swiss, American|
|Parent(s)||Hermann Einstein |
|Relatives||Albert Einstein (brother)|
Maria "Maja" Einstein (18 November 1881 – 25 June 1951) and her older brother, Albert, were the two children of Hermann Einstein and Pauline Einstein (née Koch), who had moved from Ulm to Munich in June 1881, when Albert was one. There Hermann and his brother Jakob had founded Einstein & Cie., an electrical engineering company.
She attended elementary school in Munich from 1887 to 1894. She then moved with her parents to Milan, where she attended the German International School; Albert had stayed behind with relatives in Munich to complete his schooling. From 1899 to 1902, she attended a workshop for teachers in Aarau. After she passed her final exams, she studied Romance languages and literature in Berlin, Bern and Paris. In 1909, she graduated from the University of Bern; her dissertation was entitled "Contribution to the Tradition of the Chevalier au Cygne and the Enfances Godefroi".
In the year following her graduation, she married Paul Winteler, but they were to be childless. The young couple moved to Luzern in 1911, where Maja's husband had found a job. In 1922, they moved to Colonnata near Florence in Italy.
After the Italian leader Benito Mussolini introduced anti-Semitic laws in Italy, Albert invited Maja to emigrate to the United States in 1939 and live in his residence in Mercer Street, Princeton, New Jersey. Her husband was denied entry into the United States on health grounds. Maja spent some pleasant years with Albert, until she had a stroke in 1946, and became bedridden. She later developed progressive arteriosclerosis, and died in Princeton on 25 June 1951 four years before her brother.
Lieserl Einstein (Albert's daughter)
|Born||27 January 1902|
|Relatives||Marija Marić née Ružić, Miloš Marić|
Pauline Einstein née Koch (paternal grandmother)
Hermann Einstein (paternal grandfather)
Hans Albert Einstein
According to the correspondence between her parents, Lieserl was born on 27 January 1902, a year before her parents married, in Novi Sad, Vojvodina, present-day Serbia, and was cared for by her mother for a short time while Einstein worked in Switzerland before Marić joined him there without the child.
Marić had hoped for a girl, while Einstein would have preferred a boy. In their letters, they called the unborn child "Lieserl", when referring to a girl, or "Hanserl", if a boy. Both "Lieserl" and "Hanserl" were diminutives of the common German names Liese (short for Elizabeth) and Hans.
The first reference to Marić's pregnancy was found in a letter Einstein wrote to her from Winterthur, probably on 28 May 1901 (letter 36), asking twice about "the boy" and "our little son", whereas Marić's first reference was found in her letter of 13 November 1901 (letter 43) from Stein am Rhein, in which she referred to the unborn child as "Lieserl". Einstein goes along with Marić's wish for a daughter, and referred to the unborn child as "Lieserl" as well, but with a sense of humour as in letter 45 of 12 December 1901 "... and be happy about our Lieserl, whom I secretly (so Dollie doesn't notice) prefer to imagine a Hanserl."
The child must have been born shortly before 4 February 1902, when Einstein wrote: "... now you see that it really is a Lieserl, just as you'd wished. Is she healthy and does she cry properly? [...] I love her so much and don't even know her yet!"
The last time "Lieserl" was mentioned in their extant correspondence was in Einstein's letter of 19 September 1903 (letter 54), in which he showed concern that she had scarlet fever. His asking "As what is the child registered?" adding "We must take precautions that problems don't arise for her later" may indicate the intention to give the child up for adoption.
As neither the full name nor the fate of the child are known, several hypotheses about her life and death have been put forward:
- Michele Zackheim, in her book on "Lieserl", Einstein's Daughter, states that "Lieserl" was developmentally disabled, and that she lived with her mother's family and probably died of scarlet fever in September 1903.
- Another possibility, favoured by Robert Schulmann of the Einstein Papers Project, is that "Lieserl" was adopted by Marić's close friend, Helene Savić, and was raised by her and lived under the name "Zorka Savić" until the 1990s. Savić did in fact raise a child by the name of Zorka, who was blind from childhood and died in the 1990s. Before his death in 2012, her grandson Milan N. Popović, upon extensive research of the relationship between Einstein and Marić, rejected the possibility that it was "Lieserl", and also favoured the hypothesis that the child died in September 1903.
Hans Albert Einstein (Albert's first son)
Eduard "Tete" Einstein (Albert's second son)
|Born||28 July 1910|
|Died||25 October 1965 (aged 55)|
Psychiatric Clinic Burghölzli, Zurich
|Resting place||Cemetery Hönggerberg,|
|Parent(s)||Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić|
|Relatives||Hans Albert Einstein, Lieserl|
Eduard Einstein (28 July 1910 – 25 October 1965) was born in Zürich, Switzerland, the second son of physicist Albert Einstein from his first wife Mileva Marić. Albert Einstein and his family moved to Berlin in 1914. Shortly thereafter the parents separated, and Marić returned to Zürich, taking Eduard and his older brother Hans Albert with her. His father remarried in 1919 and in the 1930s emigrated to the United States under the threat of the German Nazi regime.
Eduard was a good student and had musical talent. After gymnasium, he started to study medicine to become a psychiatrist, but by the age of twenty one he was diagnosed with schizophrenia. He was institutionalized two years later for the first of several times. Biographers of his father have speculated that the drugs and "cures" of the time damaged rather than aided the young Einstein. His brother Hans Albert Einstein believed that his memory and cognitive abilities had been deeply affected by electroconvulsive therapy treatments Eduard received while institutionalized.
After a breakdown, Eduard had told his father that he hated him. Albert Einstein emigrated to the United States from Germany in 1933 after the rise of the Nazi German government and never saw his son again. The father and son, whom the father fondly referred to as "Tete" (for petit), corresponded regularly before and after Eduard became ill. Their correspondence continued after the father's immigration to the U.S.
His mother cared for him until she died in 1948. From then on Eduard lived most of the time at the psychiatric clinic Burghölzli in Zurich, where he died in 1965 of a stroke at age 55. He is buried at Hönggerberg Cemetery in Zurich.
Abraham Einstein (Albert's grandfather)
Abraham Einstein (8 April 1808 – 21 November 1868), the son of Ruppert Einstein and Rebekha Overnauer, is the father of Hermann Einstein and grandfather of Hermann's son, Albert. Abraham married Helene Moos, also a German Jew, in April 1839 in Bad Buchau. Together, they had several children:
- Raphael (3 December 1839 – 15 January 1842), male
- Jette (13 January 1844 – 7 January 1905), female
- Heinrich (12 October 1845 – 16 November 1877), male
- Hermann (30 August 1847 – 10 October 1902), male
- August Ignaz (23 December 1849 – 14 April 1911), male
- Jacob (25 November 1850–1912), male
- Friederikeh "Rikah" (15 March 1855 – 17 June 1938), female
Surnames are Einstein and places are in Germany unless otherwise noted.
Einsteins and Ainsteins
First known is Moses Ainstein (fl. c. 1700). He had two sons: Leopold (born c. 1700); and Baruch Moses E/Ainstein (1665 in Wangen – 1750).
Baruch was married to Borichle (born 1635) and had three sons: Moyses (1689 in Bad Buchau – 1732); Daniel (born 1690 in Fellheim), and Abraham. He may have been married again.
Moyses was married twice. His first marriage produced a son, Abraham Einstein (born c. 1704 in Bad Buchau), a daughter, and possibly another son, David Veit Einstein (1713 in Buchau, Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg – 1763). His second marriage was to Judith Haymann. David was either Judith's son or that of Moyses' first wife. Judith also had two biological sons: Daniel (1690 in Fellheim, Duchy of Bavaria – after 1720) and Leopold (1700 – after 1719).
Daniel had four wives, but despite this he had only one child, either a son or stepson:
- Leopold (1720 in Ulm, Holy Roman Empire – 6 November 1796 in Laupheim, Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg)
- Descendent families: Einsteins, Bernheins, Bukas, Steiners, Nathans, Noerdlingers, Straussses, Saengers
Leopold had one wife called Karoline (born 1700 in Buchau, Germany) and had:
- Abraham (12 January 1718 in Buchau, Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg – 16 June 1787)
- Descendent families: Guggenheims and Einsteins
Abraham had one unknown wife and a son:
- Joseph (1726 in Sontheim, Holy Roman Empire – 29 April 1795 in Jebenhausen, Duchy of Württemberg)
- Descendent families: Lindauer, Rohrbacher, Weils, Einsteins, Lindauers, Kohns, Levis, Fellheimers, Franks, Lindauers, Heumanns Sulzbergs, Katzs and Wormsers
From marriage with Karoline Ehrlich he had:
- Naphatali (1733 in Buchau, Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg – 1799) (Einstein's great-great-grandfather), his is grandfather of Abraham above, who had been the Spouse of Greta.
Rupert Einstein (Albert's 1st great-grandfather)
Birthdate: July 21, 1759
Birthplace: Buchau, Biberach, Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg, Holy Roman Empire
Death: Died April 4, 1834 in Buchau, Biberach, Kingdom of Württemberg
Son of Naphtali Hirsch Einstein and Helene Handle Steppach Husband of Rebecca Obernauer Father of Judith Einstein; Raphael Einstein; Abraham Rupert Einstein; Samuel Rupert Einstein; David Einstein and 1 other Brothers of Judith Jetle Einstein; Joseph Einstein;Daniel Einstein; Veit Hirsch Einstein and Helene Rieser
Naphtali Hirsch Einstein (Albert's 2nd great-grandfather)
Also Known As: "Nepthali ben David"
Birthplace: Bad Buchau, Biberach, Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg, Holy Roman Empire
Death: Died 1799
Son of David Veit Einstein and Caroline Einstein Husband of Helene Handle Steppach Father of Judith Jetle Einstein; Joseph Einstein;Daniel Einstein; Rupert Einstein; Veit Hirsch Einsteinand 1 other Brother of Moyses (Moses) Einstein
David Veit Einstein (Albert's 3rd great-grandfather)
Birthdate: estimated between 1695 and 1729
Birthplace: Buchau, Biberach, Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg, Holy Roman Empire
Death: Died 1763 in Bad Buchau, Biberach, Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg, Holy Roman Empire
Son of Moyses Einstein and Judith Einstein Husband of Caroline Einstein Father of Moyses (Moses) Einstein and Naphtali Hirsch Einstein Brother of Joseph Einstein; Unknown Einstein;Abraham Einstein; Daniel Einstein and Leopold Einstein
Moyses Einstein (Albert's 4th great-grandfather)
Birthplace: Fellheim, Bavarian Swabia, Electorate of Bavaria, Holy Roman Empire
Death: Died 1732
Son of Baruch Moses Ainstein and Borichle Einstein; Husband of Judith Einstein; Father of Joseph Einstein, David Veit Einstein, Abraham Einstein, Daniel Einstein and 1 other.
Baruch Moses Ainstein (Albert's 5th great-grandfather)
Birthdate: estimated between 1615 and 1675
Birthplace: Wangen, Duchy of Württemberg, Holy Roman Empire
Death: Died in Bad Buchau, Tübingen, Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg, Holy Roman Empire
Son of Moses Ainstein, Husband of Borichle Einstein, Father of Moyses Einstein.
Moses Ainstein (Albert's 6th great-grandfather)
Birthdate: estimated before 1676
Father of Baruch Moses Ainsteinui
- Genius, a television series depicting the Einsteins
- Aron Tanzer (1988). Die Geschichte der Juden in Jebenhausen und Göppingen (The History of Jews in Jebenhausen and Göppingen). Weissenhorn, Germany: Anton H. Konrad Verlag. pp. 220, 301, 334, 378, 383.
- "Short life history: Elsa Einstein".
- Modified from P. Hanks, F. Hodges: A dictionary of surnames, New York/Oxford, 1997, Oxford University Press.
- Tanzer 1988, p. 220
- "Short life history: Pauline Einstein". Albert Einstein In The World Wide Web. ETH-Bibliothek, Zurich. January 2015.
- "Albert Einstein – Biography". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 6 March 2007. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- Schwartz, Joseph (2005). Introducing Einstein. ISBN 1-84046-667-7.
- Botstein, Leon; Galison, Peter; Holton, Gerald James; Schweber, Silvan S. (2008) Einstein for the 21st Century: His Legacy in Science, Art, and Modern Culture, Princeton Univ. Press
- "Short life history: Hermann Einstein" Archived 8 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine in Albert Einstein, autobiographic writings, 1946
- Barry R. Parker, Einstein: The Passions of a Scientist, Prometheus Books - 2003, page 31
- "Short life history: Hermann Einstein". Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- [Christof Rieber, Albert Einstein. Biografie eines Nonkonformisten, Thorbecke 2018, page 78 f.
- Short life history: Maria Winteler-Einstein
- Highfield & Carter 1993, p. 203
- Highfield & Carter 1993, p. 248
- The Love Letters, p. 54
- The Love Letters, p. 63
- the english translation of the german "Doxerl", one of the names Einstein used for Marić
- The Love Letters, p. 66
- The Love Letters, p. 73
- The Love Letters, p. 78
- Lieserl Einstein's biography
- Milan Popović: In Alberts Shadow. The life and letters of Mileva Marić, Einstein's first wife, Johns Hopkins University Press, London 2003, p.11, ISBN 978-0-8018-7856-5
- The Truth Behind Einstein’s Letter on the ‘Universal Force’ of Love
- "A Universal Force". Snopes.com. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
- Clark, Ronald W. (1971). Einstein: The Life and Times[page needed]. Avon. ISBN 0-380-44123-3.
- Barry Parker (2003): Einstein: The Passions of a Scientist. Prometheus Books. New York. p. 236.
- Parker (2003): Einstein, pp. 236-237.
- "Albert Einstein to Eduard Einstein, 1928". Shapell Manuscript Collection. Shapell Manuscript Foundation.
- "Albert Einstein to Eduard Einstein, 1944". Shapell Manuscript Collection. Shapell Manuscript Foundation.
- "Albert Einstein to Eduard Einstein, circa 1933". Shapell Manuscript Collection. Shapell Manuscript Foundation.
- "Albert Einstein to Eduard Einstein, 1933". Shapell Manuscript Collection. Shapell Manuscript Foundation.
- "Albert Einstein on Sigmund Freud"
- Robert Dünki, Anna Pia Maissen: «... damit das traurige Dasein unseres Sohnes etwas besser gesichert wird» Mileva und Albert Einsteins Sorgen um ihren Sohn Eduard (1910–1965). Die Familie Einstein und das Stadtarchiv Zürich. In: Stadtarchiv Zürich. Jahresbericht 2007/2008. (german)
- Einstein, Albert and Marić, Mileva (1992) The Love Letters. Edited by Jürgen Renn & Robert Schulmann. Translated by Shawn Smith. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. ISBN 0-691-08760-1
- Highfield; Carter, Paul (1993). The Private Lives of Albert Einstein. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-17170-2.
- Christof Rieber: Albert Einstein. Biografie eines Nonkonformisten. Thorbecke: Ostfildern 2018 ISBN 978-3-7995-1281-7
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