Pavel Mishchenko

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Pavel Ivanovich Mishchenko
Mishenko P I.jpg
Born (1853-01-22)January 22, 1853
Temir-Khan-Shura, Dagestan, Russia
Died 1918
Temir-Khan-Shura, Dagestan, Russia
Allegiance  Russian Empire
Service/branch Imperial Russian Army
Years of service 1871-1917
Rank General
Battles/wars Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878)
Boxer Rebellion
Russo Japanese War
World War I

Pavel Ivanovich Mishchenko (Ukrainian: Павло Іванович Міщенко, Russian: Павел Иванович Мищенко, 22 January 1853 - 1918 ) was a career military officer and statesman in the Russian Empire.

Biography[edit]

Mishchenko was born in 1853 in the Russian fortress settlement of Temir-Khan-Shura in Dagestan. He graduated in 1871 from Pavlovsk Military School as an officer in the artillery, and was assigned to the 38th Artillery Brigade. He participated in the Russian conquest of Khiva in 1873.

He subsequently participated in the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878) and the conquest of Turkmenistan under General Mikhail Skobelev. From 1899, Mischchenko was assigned to Russian-occupied Manchuria as assistant chief of security for the East Chinese Railway. He fought during the Boxer Rebellion, and afterwards was promoted to major general and decorated with the Order of St. George (4th degree).

From 1903, Mischchenko was commander of the Trans-Baikal Cossack Brigade. During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 he commanded a separate East-Baikal Cossack Brigade, which was active in many of the battles of that war. Initially, his forces were in Korea, with instructions to obstruct the landing of the Japanese First Army and its march towards Manchuria. However, after several minor skirmishes, Mischchenko retreated across the Yalu River. [1] He played a minor role on the flanks of the Battle of the Yalu, and was also part of the Russian defenses at the Battle of Hsimucheng, and Battle of Te-li-Ssu. At the Battle of Liaoyang and at the Battle of Shaho, he commanded the Russian cavalry formations covering the rear guard of the Russian retreat. [1] He was promoted to lieutenant general in October 1904, and appointed commander of the new Cavalier Corps in December 1904 and led a major raid south on 6 January 1905 with 6000 horsemen on a mission to destroy Japanese supplies stockpiled at Niuchang. The mission was a disaster, and the force returned twelve days later with massive casualties. [1] He was wounded in the leg during the Battle of Sandepu and although reinstated as commander of the Cavalier Corps in March 1905, was not in the Battle of Mukden.

After the war, from 2 May 1908 to 17 March 1909, Mischchenko was commander of the Turkestan Military District [1] and Governor-General of Turkestan. He also was chieftain of the Semirechye Cossack Host. He was promoted to General of Artillery in 1910, and from 1911 to 1912 was acting ataman of the Don Cossacks. With the start of World War I, Mischchenko was appointed commander of the 2nd Caucasian Army Corps, and from 1915, the Russian 31st Army Corps on the Southwestern Front.

However, after the February Revolution, he was dismissed from his posts by the new Russian Provisional Government as part of a purge by the new government of known pro-monarchists, and retired from military service. He returned to his hometown of Temir-Khan-Shura, where he continued to wear his uniform and insignia. After the October Revolution, local Bolshevik authorities demanded that he surrender his decorations and epaulets, and when he resisted, he was manhandled and either committed suicide or murdered by the Bolsheviks at his home. [1]

Honors[edit]


References[edit]

  • Connaughton, Richard (2003). Rising Sun and Tumbling Bear. Cassell. ISBN 0-304-36657-9
  • Kowner, Rotem (2006). Historical Dictionary of the Russo-Japanese War. Scarecrow. ISBN 0-8108-4927-5. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Kowner, Historical Dictionary of the Russo-Japanese War, p. 223-224.