Paw Paw Tunnel
|Location||Allegany County, Maryland|
|Work begun||June 1836|
|Owner||National Park Service|
|Traffic||Canal and towpath/trail|
|Character||Boats, pedestrians, wheelchairs, bicycles, horses|
|Length||3,118 feet (950 m)|
|Tunnel clearance||24 feet (7.3 m)|
|Width||27 feet (8.2 m)|
The Paw Paw Tunnel is a 3,118-foot (950 m) long canal tunnel on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (C&O) in Allegany County, Maryland. Located near Paw Paw, West Virginia, it was built to bypass the Paw Paw Bends, a 6-mile (9.7 km) stretch of the Potomac River containing five horseshoe-shaped bends. The town, the bends, and the tunnel take their name from the pawpaw trees that grow prolifically along nearby ridges.
The project began in 1836 with scheduled completion in two years, but there were many difficulties in the process of construction. The construction company seriously underestimated the difficulty of the job, violence frequently broke out between immigrant laborers of different ethnicities, and wages were often unpaid due to the company's financial problems. The tunnel was finally completed but it nearly bankrupted the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company. The lengthy construction and high cost forced the company to end canal construction at Cumberland, Maryland, in 1850, rather than continue to Pittsburgh as originally planned.
The tunnel was used by canal boats until the C&O closed in 1924. The tunnel and towpath are now maintained for public use as part of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park. Though never one of the longest tunnels in the world, Paw Paw Tunnel remains one of the greatest engineering feats of its day.
At Paw Paw, the canal engineers had a quandary with no easy solutions: follow the river (with its cliffs which would have required crossing over to West Virginia, damming the river to make a slackwater, and hacking out from the cliffs on the Maryland side) or make a tunnel. The newly appointed engineer, Charles B. Fisk, managed to convince the board of directors of a tunnel's superiority. The tunnel plan was approved in February 1836, with an expected completion date of July 1838.
Lee Montgomery, a Methodist minister who had experience from building the canal tunnel for the Union Canal was awarded the contract on March 15, 1836. Construction on the tunnel began in 1836. Unfortunately for Montgomery, the Irish workers were not skilled at tunnel work, so he obtained English masons, English and Welsh miners, and some "Dutch" [i.e. German] labourers. More unfortunately, this caused ethnic tensions which exploded into violence in 1837 and 1838, specifically between the Irish and everyone else; rioters destroyed the tavern at Oldtown, burned shanties, and the like. There were more riots in 1839 at Little Orleans. Montgomery succeeded in boring the tunnel through on June 5, 1840, at a point 1505 feet from the south portal, but did not finish it.
Due to construction and financial problems, no work was done from 1841 to 1847.
In 1848, a subcontract was let to McCulloch and Day to finish the tunnel. The tunnel was opened for traffic (and essentially completed) in 1850, but the brick liner was not finished until after the tunnel was opened. The construction costs were $616,478.65, much more than had originally been budgeted.
In 1872, a semaphore signal was installed at the west end of the tunnel to control traffic.
Boatmen and the tunnel
Boatmen could usually tell if another boat was in the tunnel because the water level would be down about 4 inches (10 cm). The loaded boat going downstream had the right of way, but that was not often honored, and there were occasional fistfights between rival boatmen over the right of way.
The tunnel was so narrow that nobody could pass between the mules and the side of the tunnel. There are records of passengers playing music (to hear the echo) or singing in the tunnel to keep up their courage.
The tunnel today
Today the Paw Paw Tunnel can be easily explored with a flashlight, as the towpath is still intact. Trekkers can return via the tunnel, or hike back over the 2-mile-long (3.2 km) Tunnel Hill Trail. This passes interpretive markers of the German and Irish workers who lived along the path during the tunnel's construction.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park. National Park Service. Retrieved July 25, 2006.
- Mozier, Jeanne. "Paw Paw Tunnel, A Handcarved Wonder". Travel Berkeley Springs. Retrieved August 22, 2010.
- Peck, Garrett (2012). The Potomac River: A History and Guide. Charleston, S.C.: The History Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-1609496005.
- Hahn, Thomas F. Swiftwater (1993). Towpath Guide to the C&O Canal: Georgetown Tidelock to Cumberland, Revised Combined Edition. Shepherdstown, WV: American Canal and Transportation Center. ISBN 0-933788-66-5. p. 198
- Hahn, p. 200
- Unrau, Harlan D. (2007). Historic Resource Study: Chesapeake & Ohio Canal (PDF). Hagerstown, Md.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park. p. 251. LCCN 2007473571.
- Hahn, p. 199
- Davies, William E. (1999). The Geology and Engineering Structures of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal: An Engineering Geologist’s Descriptions and Drawings (PDF). Glen Echo, Md.: C&O Canal Association. Retrieved 2014-07-21. p. 509
- Davies, p. 511
- Hahn, Thomas F. (1984). The Chesapeake & Ohio Canal: Pathway to the Nation's Capital. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press. p. 251. ISBN 0810817322.
- Hahn, Boatmen, p. 69
- "Paw Paw Tunnel Closure". Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park. National Park Service. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
- "Paw Paw Tunnel Rock Slide Removed Towpath Reopens to the Public". Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park. National Park Service. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paw Paw Tunnel.|
- Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) No. MD-810, "Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Paw-Paw Tunnel, 155.2-155.8 miles above tidewater, Oldtown, Allegany County, MD", 7 photos, 1 photo caption page