Pax Sinica (Latin for "Chinese peace") is a historiographical term for the periods of peace in East Asia, maintained by Chinese hegemony. China maintained the dominant civilization in the region, due to its political, economic, military and cultural power.
The Pax Sinica of the eastern world by Han China coincided with the Pax Romana of the western world by Rome. It stimulated the long-distance travel and trade in Eurasian history. The Pax Sinica and Pax Romana both eroded at about 200 AD.
Tang China (618–907) had established another Pax Sinica. This was considered one of the golden ages of China. The economy, commerce, culture, and science was flourishing and reached new heights. During the early Tang-era, most notably during Emperor Taizong's reign, the Chinese brought their nomadic neighbors to submission. By securing the safety and peace at the many trade routes, this era of Pax Sinica saw a new age for exchange via the Silk Road. The Chinese civilization became open and cosmopolitan to all people from near and far away. Many people from different backgrounds and denominations traveled to the capital of Chang'an. These included clerics, merchants, and envoys from India, Persia, Arabia, Syria, Korea, and Japan.
A resurgence of this term has happened in recent years, as the rise of China changes the geopolitical landscape in Asia. The view has been expressed that a renewed Pax Sinica in Central Asia may help maintain stability in the region.
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