Pay to fly

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Pay-to-fly or pay-to-work programs,[1] sometimes referred to as "pay-to-fly"[2] or "p2f", also known as 'self-sponsored line training',[3] are an aviation industry practice whereby a professional pilot operates an aircraft on revenue-earning commercial operation [4] by paying for it.[5]

Prices range from around 14,000 euros[6] to sometimes over 85,000 euros [7][8] for a 'flight hour package' of generally 500 hours [5][9][10] on an airliner,[9][10][11] no salaries involved.[5][7][12][13][14] When remuneration is offered,[15] substantial loans [16] to third parties (brokers), are enforced,[17] that outweigh (pilots') financial gain.[18][19]

Typical 'customers' include, but are not limited to, 'low timers' (inexperienced pilots) and low-hour type rated pilots [20] (e.g. B737 type rated -or qualified-, A320 type rated etc...) that pay to work to build hours and improve their odds at finding an employment as airline pilots,[21][22] thus challenging the 'pilot shortage' mainstream consensus.[23][24]

The practice extends to airline-dedicated pilot training, in the form of type ratings available for a check,[25][26][27][28] no employment guarantee at stakes, where pilots further shift from investment-worth company assets to source of revenue.[29][30]

Origin[edit]

On 2 November 1924, Harold Pitcairn founded the Pitcairn Flying School and Passenger Service.

Rebranded Eastern Air Lines in 1926, it flourished for decades after the 1950s until acquired by Franz Lorenzo in 1985 amidst indebtment and labour dispute in the new Airline Deregulation Act market. Management decisions (e.g. asset transfer to Continental Airlines) combined with further labour unrest against IAM, TWA and ALPA during the 1989 Easter Airline strike led to the company liquidation in 1991.[31]

In 1988, Thomas L. Cooper, one of its former Boeing 727 captain who flew during the 1989 strike,[32] launched a small charter company named Gulfstream International Airlines (GIA) offering flights around South Florida, the Bahamas and Cuba in Cessna 402s. Early on, Captain candidates paid $15,000 up front starting in 1992 with intermediary business Avtar International doing the recruiting and advertising, selling multi-engine time in Cessna 402s with the assurance from the Miami Flight Standard District Office that this time was loggable. At the time, captains received compensation only following successful completion of Initial Operating Experience (IOE), First Officers would continue to fly without pay for between 150–200 hours. They were often able to continue flying without purchasing additional hours if replacements didn't come in quickly enough.[33]

FAA[edit]

The Colgan Air Flight 3407 crash led to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) passing new pilot qualification standards.[23] These standards also addressed a mandate passed by the U.S. Congress when they enacted H.R. 5900 (111th),[34] the Airline Safety and FAA Extension Act of 2010.[35]

This act also foresaw the modification of "requirements for the issuance of an airline transport pilot certificate"[36] in ways that were implemented by FAA's regulation & policy n°8900.225[37] titled Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations[38] on July 10, 2013 [39]

Aforementioned regulation reduced the scope of 'pay-to-fly' among FAA licensees by raising minimum standards.[23] Indeed, to serve as SIC (Second In Command or First Officer) :

"A pilot may be eligible if he or she was a military-trained pilot; a graduate of a four-year bachelor degree program with an aviation major; a graduate of a two-year associate degree program with an aviation major; or has 1,500 hours total time as a pilot".[40]

No regulations explicitly ban 'pay-to-fly'.

EASA[edit]

"The fact that airlines make their personnel pay does not intervene in aviation safety regulation, as long as pilots are technically qualified"[5] _Dominique Fouda, Head of EASA's Communication Department

In Europe, among EASA licence holders, 'pay-to-fly' is a practice acknowledged to exist,[41][42] though, "neither the European Commission, nor the EASA cared":[43]

"The fact that airlines make their personnel pay does not intervene in aviation safety regulation, as long as pilots are technically qualified",[43] said Dominique Fouda, EASA Head of Communication & Quality Department.[44]

Several studies changed this position however.

Switzerland[edit]

According to FOCA vice director Marcel Zuckschwerdt:[45]

"There is no regulation that would prohibit from doing this [pay-to-fly], it is absolutely possible. One can wonder of course, is it safe? Is it acceptable in terms of safety? And when we examined the matter, we reached the conclusion that, in the end, it's the pilot motivation that is the argument to say it is satisfying in terms of safety" [8] (at 9':50")

France[edit]

'Pay-to-fly' is illegal per social regulation as a work contract can be established on demand by a judge as long as:

  1. there's a proven subordination relationship between the service provider and the party benefiting from said service;
  2. the moral or physical person benefiting from the service enforces a framework to which the service provider abides.

Legal action can be taken in case of violation, and sanctions can amount from 45,000 to 220,000 euros in fines and 3 years of prison.[46] According to the French DGAC, "pay-to-fly is not used among carriers operated under the French flag" [5] which doesn't prevent French pilots from suffering from it.[5][7][22]

Statistics[edit]

In 2013, 1,739 French pilots were registed in Pôle emploi, a 43% rise as per the three preceding years.[5] In December 2014, graduate student pilots from the ENAC (French Civil Aviation University) alone, reported under the AGEPAC association that, from 2006 to 2011 concerning a sample of 319 pilots:[47]

  • 15% were voluntary workers/without activity/registered in Pôle emploi[48]
  • 42% didn't have an activity allowing them to fly[49]
  • 44% deemed their activity wasn't in accordance with their training[49]
  • Salaried employment rate (all employment fields) went gradually from 94% for 2006 trainees to 15% for 2011 ones.[50]

As a result, of the pilots not flying as their main activity:

Norway[edit]

The Civil Aviation Authority, responsible for aviation safety in Norway, is not concerned.

According to Frode Lenning, head of Fleet Operation Section, CAA: “Pilots have been trained within commercial companies for years. However, it is new that some companies ask money to train pilots within their own company [...] We have been training cadet pilots in the cockpit for years, at different levels. What is new here, is the social aspect, and this is not part of the aviation safety regulatory system” [18]".

However, during the pilots' strike of Norwegian in March 2015,[52] 'pay-to-fly' airline Small Planet Airlines [53] performed 50 NAS slots under wet lease,[18] establishing a workforce that pay to work while at the same time breaking their colleagues' strike.

Netherlands[edit]

"Given the fact that EASA tackles this issue appropriately and also given the fact that the Dutch aviation sector to the extent known is currently not using these contracts on a large scale, from a safety point of view there is as yet no reason to intervene at a national level."[54] _Wilma Mansveld

Since 2008 the job market for pilots has deteriorated rapidly. Most pilots that have been trained at a Dutch flight school have to look for a job abroad. According to VNV-DALPA the job market for ab initio pilots is poor. "Some companies outside the Netherlands do hire pilots, but these are so-called pay to fly-schemes. This means pilots have to invest a lot of money for a badly paid job and a temporary contract".[55]

On May 22, 2015, Member of Dutch Parliament Martijn van Helvert issued a first round of four questions to the House of Representatives of the States General on 'pay to fly', answered on June 2, 2015 by former State Secretary for the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment Wilma Mansveld.[54]

A second round of seven questions and answers followed on June 22, 2015.[56]

Statistics[edit]

In February 2015 the Dutch Airline Pilots Association (VNV - Dutch ALPA) reported 1,200 Dutch pilots out of 4,100 worldwide (almost 30%) were unemployed.[57] The unemployment rate remains high.[58]

Germany[edit]

"Given these strongly undesirable developments in the aviation industry [p2f], I would like to see a determined action by the EU Commission. An end to the exploitation of young pilots must now be set."[59] _Jutta Steinruck

On May 5, 2015, Member of European Parliament Jutta Steinruck issued a set of three written questions to the European Commission under the subject "Exploitative employment models at low-cost airlines (‘Pay to Fly’)":[60]

  1. Is the Commission aware that European airlines operate Pay to Fly schemes? [60]
  2. Does the Commission agree that this employment model may undermine aviation safety? [60]
  3. Does the Commission intend to take action against airlines which operate these exploitative schemes, and will it investigate training systems in the aviation sector? [60]

On behalf of the Commission, on July 10th 2015, Violeta Bulc respectively answered:[61]

  1. The Commission has been informed recently by pilots' organisations about pay-to-fly schemes used by certain European airlines. The Commission services are currently investigating this specific matter.[61]
  2. The Commission has so far not received clear evidence as to the impact of this employment model on safety.[61]
  3. Based on the information and data collected, the nature and extent of the phenomenon will be assessed and the need for targeted action discussed at the appropriate level.[61]

The questions were formulated 2 days before the May 7th 2015 EP "Committee on Employment and Social Affairs" meeting in Brussels that MEP Steinruck also attended where 'pay-to-fly' was discussed.[62]

Statistics[edit]

From a 2013 Der Spiegel article, "According to calculations by [VC spokesman Handwerg]'s union, there are already more than 1,500 unemployed pilots in Germany, an upward trend".[63]

United Kingdom[edit]

Following the ECA Conference of February 12-13th 2015 on "Atypical Employment"[64] where one "Nextgen pilot [said] pay to fly is wrong but policy makers turning their backs [...]",[65] BALPA launched the NexGen program on February 27 to "protect the Profession by reaching down to new entrants".[66] Acknowledging "the most difficult part of pilots’ career is the beginning",[67] Wendy Pursey, head of membership and career services[68] at BALPA authored[69] a booklet titled Becoming A Pilot: The Inside Track,[70] warning :

  • Some airlines require the pilot to pay for a type rating in full before commencing training, usually at a cost – about £18,000 to £35,000.[70]
  • It is possible to complete the type rating and line training without having employment. Some agencies and FTOs will charge you to put you through your type rating and place you with an airline to operate as a First Officer until completion of your line training. You would receive no salary during hours-building, so arguably you are paying the airline to work for them.[70]
  • The cost of this varies depending upon the company, and often does not usually come with any guaranteed job offer at the end of the line training or hours-building.[70]
  • The risk to consider here is that you are rating yourself on one particular aircraft, and therefore in the event that you do not continue with that airline, it makes you more attractive only to other airlines operating that type, and can be a waste of money if you land a job with the operator of a different type. This airline may then require you to fund another type rating which might be beyond you financially once you’ve funded the first rating.[70]

"BALPA does not recommend funding type ratings unless absolutely necessary".[70]

Statistics[edit]

Questioned by The Guardian on October 24, 2015, Pursey assessed :

  • there are currently 505 unemployed pilots on Balpa’s books.[69]
  • Cadets can graduate with repayment obligations of up to £1,500 a month, no guarantee of a job.[69]
  • Starting salaries as low as £29,000.[69]

Of the 560 cadets in Balpa’s membership :

  • for more than 50% of them, the cost of training would exceed £100,000.[69]
  • Only 12% had any kind of sponsorship;[69]
  • 45.2% had taken out a loan,[69]
  • 41.9% were being helped by their parents.[69]

Academic research and studies[edit]

French Senate report[edit]

On April 10, 2014, Senator Éric Bocquet released an Information Report on behalf of the European Affairs Commission on social dumping in European transport.[71] In the aviation sector specifically (chapter II), subpart B (frauds), Senator Bocquet acknowledged "Strategic Airlines Luxembourg had, for all intents and purposes, set up a system of pay-to-fly, young pilots having to pay in order to fly and thus acquire flight hours".[71]

Ghent University study[edit]

Co-financed by the European Commission and carried out across 11 countries by the Ghent University on behalf of the European Sectoral Social Dialogue Committee for Civil Aviation (notably the AEA, the ECA and the ETF), the study on "Atypical Employment in Aviation" was presented during the High-Level Atypical Employment conference in Paris on 12 and 13 February 2015.[64]

Accounting for policy options, the study concluded:

"A mandatory internship for newly licensed cadets should be considered. Pilots fresh from school are in an extremely weak labour market position often only finding jobs at deplorable conditions or even having to resort to pay-to-fly schemes in order to clock up the flight experience required by airlines offering better conditions. [...] It is our strong opinion that pay-to-fly schemes should be prohibited, not only in the European Union, but globally".[72]

Expert consultancy[edit]

  • The European Commission (both DG MOVE and DG EMPL) met the ECA and Cockpitseeker on June 18 to collect their views and evidence.[73]
  • Partly in Response to MEP Jutta Steinruck's questions, Steer Davies Gleave delivered to DG MOVE its study on "employment and working conditions in air transport and airports" on October 2, 2015.[74] It found that: "Pay-to-fly schemes are schemes that require pilots to contribute financially to an airline 'in order to be allowed to fly and thus gain requisite flight experience'. Junior pilots without significant amounts of flight (type rating) experience are particularly vulnerable to such practices, although it is not clear how prevalent this is, or precisely which airlines are offering these schemes. [...] Pay-to-fly is acknowledged in published literature (e.g. Atypical employment study, Ghent University) as an issue however stakeholders did not specifically comment in this area."[74]

French National Assembly report[edit]

On June 28, 2016, deputy member of the Assemblée Nationale Gilles Savary presented an Information Report[75] on behalf of the commission for European Affairs and focused on the european strategy for aviation issued by the European Commission on December 7, 2015. Paragraph II.C.1. asserts that Senator Bocquet's report "published little more than two years ago established an enlighting overview on social dumping associated with applicable right in the air transport, which remains fully relevant to this day".[76] Subsequent II.C.1.a. titled "European Commission adopts a near laissez-faire attitude towards the labour aspect" states:

"Representative stakeholder organizations heard by the rapporteur brought an important nuance [...]: labour law in the [aviation] sector is not only poorly applied but also insufficient. Atypical employment forms (zero hours contracts, «pay-to-fly» scheme, fake self-employment and mailbox companies) aren't to blame on diverging rule interpretation but truly on their loopholes".[75]

Related incidents/accidents[edit]

MyTravel Airways[edit]

On 5 July 2007, a First Officer who was not an employee but was paying MyTravel to gain flight experience on their aircraft (pay-to-fly), landed an Airbus A320 heavily at Kos airport in Greece causing substantial damage to the main landing gear.[30] The report was critical of both the pilots training record and non-employees paying airlines to gain experience.

In February the same year, MyTravel Group plc agreed on a merger with Thomas Cook AG[77] that became effective in June.[78] As a result, the accident occurred under the common umbrella of Thomas Cook Group plc (as listed on the London Stock Exchange), with MyTravel Airways and Thomas Cook Airlines UK Ltd fusing into Thomas Cook Airlines on 30 March 2008.[78]

Controversy[edit]

Airlines and brokers involved[edit]

When the information is available, brokers also aviation schools are prefixed: *

TRTOs (Type Rating Training Organisations) prefixed: **

Broker (when applicable) Airlines Type Ratings Line Training
ChinaTaiwanTunisiaAerorganizer Aviation Service International Pilot Recruitment & Training Service Yes Yes
Czech Republic Aerojob[85][86] Travel Service a.s (under SmartWings) Yes[87] No
(Unknown) Aeronova Yes[88][89] Yes[88][89]
Latvia ***Air Baltic Training[90] (subsidiary of Air Baltic) Air Baltic Yes [27][91] Yes [91]
Turkey *Atlantic Flight Academy (AFA)[92] Atlasjet Yes [93][94] Yes [94]
Netherlands Aircrew Training Center (ATC)[95][96] Farnair (and subsidiary Farnair Training), Enter Air,[96] Carpatair Yes [28][96][97] Yes [28][96][97]
Tunisia **Aviation Training Center of Tunisia (ATCT)[98] in partnership with *G Air Training Center (Tunisair)[99] Nouvelair,[12][13] Tunisair [14][99] Yes [100][101] Yes [12][13][14][99][102] (1)
Vietnam Atrans Aviation[103] VietjetAir No Yes[104][105]
Lithuania AviationCV Small Planet Airlines No Yes[106]
Lithuania ***Baltic Aviation Academy Atlasjet,[107] Estonian Air,[107] Royal Air Maroc,[108] VietjetAir[108] Yes [25][26] (Estonian Air) [107] Yes [25][26] (not Estonian Air) [107]
(Unknown) Romania Blue Air BMS srl Yes Yes
(Unknown) Blue Panorama Airlines No No
Republic of Ireland CAE Parc Aviation and United Kingdom Brookfield Aviation International Ryanair, EasyJet Yes [109][110](2) Yes[110][111]
Germany **Cockpit4U Germania [5][112] Yes [5][112][113] Yes [5][112][114](3)
(Unknown) Croatia Airlines No Yes[115]
Republic of Ireland Direct Personnel (Unknown) No No
United States Eagle Jet Hungary BH Air No Yes [116]
United States Eagle Jet [10] Lithuania Lion Air,[10][117] Estonia Nordica through subsidiary Regional Jet OÜ[118] Yes[119][118] Yes [10][117][118]
Spain Elite Sky Aviation [120] (Unknown) No Yes [121]
Hong Kong ETOPS Flight [6] Royal Air Maroc Express [6] Yes (broker only [122][123][124] ) Yes [6]
Malaysia Fly Gosh (Unknown) No No
Spain *FTE Jerez Volotea Yes[125] Yes[125]
(Unknown) Galain Aviation No Yes[126]
United Kingdom **IAGO flight training UK Thomas Cook Yes Yes
Switzerland IXO Aviation Swiss (Unknown) Yes Yes
United Kingdom **Jet Flight Training Ltd (Unknown) Yes Yes
Belgium ***TUIfly Academy Brussels Jetairfly Yes[127][128] No
India/Cyprus Knots Aviation (Unknown) Yes[129][130] Yes [131]
Cyprus Laffair Aviation via France Sim Aviation Group Pegasus Airlines, AtlasGlobal, Turkish Airlines, Onur Air, Sun Express Yes[132] Yes[132]
Estonia Nordic Crew Management (NCM) NAG - Nordic Aviation Group (Nordica) (Unknown) Yes[133]
United Kingdom Northern Flight Training UK (Unknown) Yes Yes
India MSD Aviation Pvt. Ltd. (Unknown) Yes Yes
(Unknown) Pegasus Airlines Yes [134] Yes [134]
Cyprus Pilot Management Services [17][19] Small Planet Airlines [17] No Yes [9]
Germany Planet Air Germany (Unknown) No Yes[135]
New Zealand Rishworth Wings Air, Vietnam Airlines[136] No Yes [137]
Dubai **Skies Aviation (Unknown) Yes Yes
Germany Sky4u / Intex-Aero (Unknown) Yes Yes
Netherlands *Stella Aviation International (SAI) (Unknown) Yes [138] No
(Unknown) Tarom No No
Italy TRTOagency (Unknown) Yes [139] No
Tunisia Type & Train Nouvelair,[21] Tunisair[21] Yes (broker only [21]) Yes [21]
Morocco Type Line Training (Unknown) Yes Yes
Lithuania **UAB Sabenavita (Unknown) Yes Yes
Vietnam ATRANS AVIATION Vietjet Air No Yes[140]
(Unknown) Wingjet Aviation Yes[141][142] Yes [141][142][143]
United States World Airline Services Air Asia, Hainan Airlines, Air Gabon, Air Madagascar, Asiana Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Hong Kong Airlines, Royal Air Maroc, TAAG No No

(1) "Note that [ATCT] work[s] very closely with Brookfield Aviations, the world leading pilot Brookers [sic] who will place you in an airline".[14]

(2) This is "false accusations"_A spokesman for the Irish budget airline[144]

(3) "Pay-to-fly at Germania? That is nonsense"_Karsten Balke, Chief Executive Officer of Germania[145]

References[edit]

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  45. ^ "Marcel Zuckschwerdt nouveau sous-directeur à l'OFAC". www.bazl.admin.ch/index.html?lang=en (in French). OFAC/FOCA. November 30, 2000. 
  46. ^ "Contrat de travail". contrat-de-travail.comprendrechoisir.com/ (in French). ComprendreChoisir. 
  47. ^ "STATISTIQUES DES ELEVES PILOTES DE LIGNE PROMOTIONS 2006 - 2011" (PDF). www.agepac.org/ (in French). AGEPAC (Association Générale des Elèves Pilotes de l’Aviation Civile). 
  48. ^ "STATISTIQUES DES ELEVES PILOTES DE LIGNE PROMOTIONS 2006 - 2011" (PDF). www.agepac.org/ (in French). AGEPAC (Association Générale des Elèves Pilotes de l’Aviation Civile). p. 6. 
  49. ^ a b "STATISTIQUES DES ELEVES PILOTES DE LIGNE PROMOTIONS 2006 - 2011" (PDF). www.agepac.org/ (in French). AGEPAC (Association Générale des Elèves Pilotes de l’Aviation Civile). p. 7. 
  50. ^ "STATISTIQUES DES ELEVES PILOTES DE LIGNE PROMOTIONS 2006 - 2011" (PDF). www.agepac.org/ (in French). AGEPAC (Association Générale des Elèves Pilotes de l’Aviation Civile). p. 8. 
  51. ^ a b "STATISTIQUES DES ELEVES PILOTES DE LIGNE PROMOTIONS 2006 - 2011" (PDF). www.agepac.org/ (in French). AGEPAC (Association Générale des Elèves Pilotes de l’Aviation Civile). p. 11. 
  52. ^ "Norwegian Pilots End Strike After Deal Reached With Airline". ABC News Internet Ventures. March 10, 2015. 
  53. ^ "Small Planet Airline p2f setup with Pilot Management Services (Cyprus)". www.smallplanet.aero/. Small Planet Airlines. 
  54. ^ a b Wilma J. Mansveld (June 2, 2015). "Beantwoording Kamervragen van het lid Van Helvert (CDA) inzake zzp piloten (Answers to Parliamentary questions about selfemployed pilots, asked by Member of Parliament Mr Van Helvert (CDA))". www.rijksoverheid.nl/ (in Dutch). Rijksoverheid. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  55. ^ "Werkloosheid in de luchtvaart (Unemployment in aviation)". www.wordpiloot.nl/ (in Dutch). WordPiloot. 
  56. ^ Wilma J. Mansveld (June 22, 2015). "Beantwoording Kamervragen van het lid Van Helvert (CDA) inzake ZZP-piloten (Answers to Parliamentary questions about selfemployed pilots, asked by Member of Parliament Mr Van Helvert (CDA))". www.rijksoverheid.nl/ (in Dutch). Rijksoverheid. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  57. ^ Driessen, Camil (February 26, 2015). "Komt Turkish Airlines hier 500 werkloze piloten uit de brand helpen? (Is Turkish Airlines coming to the rescue of 500 unemployed pilots?)". NRCQ (in Dutch). 
  58. ^ "Werkloosheid in de luchtvaart (Unemployment in aviation)". www.wordpiloot.nl/ (in Dutch). Word Piloot. 
  59. ^ Jutta Steinruck (July 14, 2015). "EU-Kommission macht wenig bis gar nichts gegen ausbeuterische Praktiken von Billig-Airlines (European Commission makes little to nothing against exploitative practices of budget airlines)". jutta-steinruck.de/ (in German). Jutta Steinruck. Retrieved 23 July 2015. Angesichts dieser krassen Fehlentwicklungen in der Luftfahrtbranche würde ich mir ein entschlossenes Handeln der EU-Kommission wünschen. Der Ausbeutung von jungen PilotInnen muss jetzt ein Ende gesetzt werden. 
  60. ^ a b c d Steinruck, Jutta; Preuß, Gabriele; Regner, Evelyn; Ertug, Ismail (May 5, 2015). "Parliamentary questions". www.europarl.europa.eu/portal/en. European Parliament. Retrieved 23 July 2015. Subject: Exploitative employment models at low-cost airlines (‘Pay to Fly’) 
  61. ^ a b c d Bulc, Violeta (July 10, 2015). "Parliamentary questions". www.europarl.europa.eu. European Parliament. Retrieved 23 July 2015. Answer given by Ms Bulc on behalf of the Commission 
  62. ^ "Committee on Employment and Social Affairs - meeting 07/05/2015 15.00-18.30 (video)". www.europarl.europa.eu. European Parliament. May 7, 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  63. ^ Deckstein Dinah (March 30, 2013). "Prekariat am Himmel (Precarity in the sky)". Der Spiegel (in German). 14: 61. Nach Berechnungen seiner Gewerkschaft gibt es in Deutschland bereits jetzt über 1500 arbeitslose Piloten, Tendenz: steigend. 
  64. ^ a b "Conference Atypical forms of aircrew employment in the European aviation industry". Eurocockpit. ECA - European Cockpit Association. Retrieved 6 November 2015. 
  65. ^ "Nextgen pilot". twitter.com/BALPApilots. BALPA. February 13, 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2015. Nextgen pilot says pay to fly is wrong but policy makers turning their backs. That's the sort of pilot the profession needs #atypicalEMPL 
  66. ^ "nextGen". www.balpa.org. BALPA - British Airline Pilots Association. February 27, 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2016. BALPA has set up the nextGen programme to help protect the profession by reaching down to these new entrants and giving them a voice. 
  67. ^ "How To Become A Pilot". www.balpa.org. BALPA - British Airline Pilots Association. Archived from the original on 13 August 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2015. Probably the most difficult part of a pilots’ career is the beginning. Getting that first job can be like finding a needle in a haystack. Most airlines only recruit experienced pilots who have flown jet aircraft before, and are not willing to employ cadets fresh from flight training. This gap is bridged either by paying for extra training, by networking and getting a job flying smaller aircraft or simply by luck. 
  68. ^ "BALPA Staff Listing". www.balpa.org. BALPA - British Airline Pilots Association. Retrieved 7 November 2016. Membership & Careers Services - Wendy Pursey Head of Membership and Career Services WendyPursey@balpa.org 0208 476 4088 
  69. ^ a b c d e f g h Aida Edemariam (October 24, 2015). "Sky high: who'd be an airline pilot today?". www.theguardian.com. The Guardian. Retrieved 8 November 2015. Wendy Pursey, head of membership and career services at Balpa, wrote a pamphlet, Becoming A Pilot: The Inside Track 
  70. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wendy Pursey (April 23, 2015). "BECOMING A PILOT THE INSIDE TRACK". www.balpa.org. BALPA - British Airline Pilots Association. pp. 16, 23. Retrieved 7 November 2016. 
  71. ^ a b BOCQUET, Éric (April 10, 2014). "RAPPORT D´INFORMATION FAIT au nom de la commission des affaires européennes sur le dumping social dans les transports européens" (PDF). Senat.fr (in French). Sénat (french Senate). p. 41. La compagnie luxembourgeoise Strategic avait, quant à elle, mis en place un système dit de pay to fly, les jeunes pilotes devant payer pour voler et ainsi acquérir des heures de vol. 
  72. ^ "Atypical Employment in Aviation - Final Report" (PDF). Universiteit Gent. UGent. February 2015. p. 296. Retrieved 11 July 2016. A mandatory internship for newly licensed cadets should be considered. Pilots fresh from school are in an extremely weak labour market position often only finding jobs at deplorable conditions or even having to resort to pay-to-fly schemes in order to clock up the flight experience required by airlines offering better conditions. [...] It is our strong opinion that pay-to-fly schemes should be prohibited, not only in the European Union, but globally 
  73. ^ "5. Other analyses from stakeholders and Member States" (PDF). CockpitSeeker. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2015. 
  74. ^ a b Offord, Rosie; Kouris, Stefan; Capek, Hannah; Wainwright, Stephen (2 October 2015). "Study on employment and working conditions in air transport and airports" (pdf). ec.europa.eu (3.0 ed.). Steer Davies Gleave. pp. 21, 159, 163. Retrieved 11 July 2016. Pay-to-fly schemes are schemes that require pilots to contribute financially to an airline 'in order to be allowed to fly and thus gain requisite flight experience'. Junior pilots without significant amounts of flight (type rating) experience are particularly vulnerable to such practices, although it is not clear how prevalent this is, or precisely which airlines are offering these schemes. [...] Pay-to-fly is acknowledged in published literature (e.g. Atypical employment study, Ghent University) as an issue however stakeholders did not specifically comment in this area. 
  75. ^ a b Gilles SAVARY (28 June 2016). "RAPPORT D'INFORMATION DÉPOSÉ PAR LA COMMISSION DES AFFAIRES EUROPÉENNES sur la stratégie européenne pour l'aviation présentée par la Commission européenne le 7 décembre 2015 (COM(2015) 613 final)" (PDF). assemblee-nationale.fr (in French). Commission des affaires européennes. p. 66. Retrieved 13 February 2017. ...la législation sociale dans le secteur aérien n’est pas seulement mal appliquée, elle est aussi insuffisante, les formes de travail atypiques (contrats zéro heures, système « pay-to-fly », faux indépendants et sociétés boîtes aux lettres) ne relevant pas d’une interprétation divergente des règles mais bien des lacunes de ces dernières. 
  76. ^ Gilles SAVARY (28 June 2016). "RAPPORT D'INFORMATION DÉPOSÉ PAR LA COMMISSION DES AFFAIRES EUROPÉENNES sur la stratégie européenne pour l'aviation présentée par la Commission européenne le 7 décembre 2015 (COM(2015) 613 final)" (PDF). assemblee-nationale.fr (in French). Commission des affaires européennes. p. 65. Retrieved 13 February 2017. .Le rapport d’information de M. Éric Bocquet [...] publié voilà un peu plus de deux ans fait un panorama éclairant du risque de dumping social associé au droit applicable dans le transport aérien, qui reste pleinement d’actualité. 
  77. ^ Spikes, Sarah; Blitz, Roger (February 12, 2007). "MyTravel agrees merger with Thomas Cook". ft.com/. Financial Times. Retrieved December 16, 2016. MyTravel, the £1.1bn UK holiday company, and Thomas Cook, its privately-owned Germany-based rival, on Monday agreed a merger of equals that would create a global powerhouse of tour operators. 
  78. ^ a b "Thomas Cook Airlines' history". thomascookairlinesuk. Thomas Cook Airlines UK. Retrieved December 16, 2016. Following the merger between Thomas Cook AG and MyTravel Group plc in June 2007, the new Thomas Cook Airlines (amalgamating Thomas Cook Airlines UK Ltd and MyTravel Airways) is launched at Gatwick on 30th March 2008. 
  79. ^ Deckstein Dinah (March 30, 2013). "Prekariat am Himmel (Precarity in the sky)". Der Spiegel (in German). 14: 61. Es eröffne Berufseinsteigern "Chancen, die sich im europäischen Markt derzeit nicht bieten". Derartige Trainingsprogramme seien im Ausland schon seit Jahren üblich. 
  80. ^ "Line Training: to pay or not to pay?". www.balticaa.com/. Baltic Aviation Academy. February 25, 2015. 
  81. ^ a b AviationCV.com (July 14, 2015). "Line training for pilot: everything you need to know" (PDF). www.aviationcv.com/. AviationCV. Archived from the original on July 14, 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  82. ^ Groenendijk-Feenstra, Nienke (October 18, 2013). "Pilots are slowly strangled by their debt". AirObserver. 
  83. ^ "Even the pilots pay on some low-cost flights". www.independent.co.uk. The Independent. December 29, 2013. 
  84. ^ a b "Fair Competition in aviation is a must!". www.eurocockpit.be/. European Cockpit Association. [...] making use of fake work bases in non-European countries, and ‘pay-to-fly’ (P2F) programs (whereby newly graduated pilots have to pay their airline for gaining flying experience on an aircraft) 
  85. ^ "Aerojob Worldwide" (PDF). www.aerojob.cz/ (in Czech). Aerojob. Archived from the original on April 17, 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015. Type rating B737 and A 320 Sale 12900 EUR Total Price for 68 hours 
  86. ^ "Travel Service pilot jobs Wiki" (PDF). www.pilotjobsnetwork.com/. Pilot Jobs Network. Archived from the original on April 17, 2015. Recruitment Process for Travel Service Pilot Jobs FO+Cadet 3-day assessment organised by AeroJob in Prague 
  87. ^ "Poslání společnosti AeroJOB a program DOPRAVNÍ PILOT (Company Mission AeroJOB and transport pilot program)" (PDF). www.aerojob.cz/ (in Czech). AeroJob. Archived from the original on April 17, 2015. Type rating B737 and A 320 Sale 12900 EUR Total Price for 68 hours 
  88. ^ a b "ESCUELA Con nuestra experiencia mejorarás volando (With our experience, get better at flying)" (PDF). www.aeronova.com/ (in Spanish). Aeronova. Archived from the original on April 17, 2015. Programa Fairchild SA227: Habilitación de tipo + Base training + Line training. [...] Detalle del programa: Habilitación de tipo. 6 tomas y despegues. 120 h. como copiloto en el modelo de avión. 
  89. ^ a b "FAIRCHILD SA227 PROGRAM PRESENTATION" (PDF). www.aeronova.com/. Aeronova. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 17, 2015. The price of the initial program is of 16500 € And the price for the follow-up is of 8000 € Please note that the 120 h per 2 month period (which could be in several separate not continuing contracts) is a guaranteed number of hours. 
  90. ^ "About us". www.airbaltictraining.com. Air Baltic. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  91. ^ a b "Dash 8 Q400 Type Rating + Line Training". www.airbaltictraining.com/en/training-services/flight-crew-training/. Air Baltic Training. 
  92. ^ "AFA Atlantic Flight Academy". www.afa.aero/. Atlantic Flight Academy. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  93. ^ "A320 Family Type Rating Training". www.afa.aero/. AFA - Atlantic Flight Academy. 
  94. ^ a b "Atlasjet pilot jobs Wiki". www.pilotjobsnetwork.com/. December 15, 2014. Atlasjet Pilot Jobs Situation: Current Situation: type rating + line training 100 hours for local via AFA 
  95. ^ "ATC AircrewTraining Center". www.aircrewcenter.nl. Aircrew Center. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  96. ^ a b c d "TYPE RATING PROGRAM". www.aircrewcenter.nl. The Aircrew Training Center is preferred supplier for Enter Air and FARNAIR. 
  97. ^ a b "Flight Training". www.enterair.pl/. Enter Air. Practical training [...] is divided into two phases: the first phase are school flights (on an "empty" plane); the second phase are trainee airline flights (scheduled flights). 
  98. ^ "ATCT Aviation Training Center of Tunisia". www.atct.com.tn. ATCT. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  99. ^ a b c "G Air ATPL Tunisair" (PDF). www.gairg.com/en/. G Air Training Center. Archived from the original on April 16, 2015. [...] A320 Type Rating [...] 300 hours of Line Training (A320) [...] Type Rating and Line Training with Tunisair and ATCT [...] Price: €118,000 
  100. ^ Tarek Benaissi. "Our Training Services". www.atct.com.tn/index.php. Aviation Training Center of Tunisia. Available courses: Type Rating 
  101. ^ Tarek Benaissi; Hela Chiha. "ATCT - A320 Family JAA Type Rating Special Promotion" (PDF). www.atct.com.tn/index.php. ATCT. 
  102. ^ Tarek Benaissi (September 1, 2012). "A320 JAA Type Rating + Base training + Line training available in ATCT Tunisia". www.atct.com.tn/index.php. Tarek Benaissi, Quality Manager at ATCT. A320 JAA Type Rating + Base training + Line training available in ATCT Tunisia, for more information please contact me : tarek.benaissiATatct.com.tn 
  103. ^ "Atrans Aviation". www.atransaviation.com. Atrans Aviation. Retrieved 19 June 2015. A-320 Type Rating + Line Training & Guaranteed 2+ years First Officer Job 
  104. ^ "Vietnam - Airbus 320 - 500 Hours Line Training plus 1 year job contract" (PDF). www.atransaviation.com/. Atrans Aviation. 
  105. ^ "Cambodia - Airbus 320 - 500 Hours Line Training plus 1 year job contract" (PDF). www.atransaviation.com/. Atrans Aviation. 
  106. ^ Gabrielius BileviĊius. "EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM AviationCV" (PDF). www.aviationcv.com/. Aviation CV. pp. 7–8, 10. 
  107. ^ a b c d "Baltic Aviation Academy News Overview". www.balticaa.com/. Baltic Aviation Academy. February 28, 2012. Baltic Aviation Academy has signed a new partnership contract with the Turkish airlines Atlas Jet. The agreement consists of line training package which enable pilots to gather 300-500 flight hours. Type rating contract was signed with Estonian Air. 
  108. ^ a b "Gefahr im Cockpit: Der Germanwings-Absturz und die Folgen" (in German). Archived from the original on 2017-03-22. Retrieved 2017-03-18. 
  109. ^ "B737NG type-qualification program". pilot.cae.com/. Ryanair & CAE. Type Rating Course: € 28,500 excluding VAT (for courses starting before 31 March 2015) - € 29,500 excluding VAT (for courses starting on/after 01 April 2015) 
  110. ^ a b "CAE Oxford Aviation Academy easyJet APP First Officer Plus Programme Now Open" (PDF). www.caeoaa.com. CAE Oxford. April 15, 2015. Must self-fund Type, Base and Line Training including VAT at a cost of £38,400 
  111. ^ David George (2013). "Terms and Conditions of Contract for Services" (PDF). brookfieldav.com/. Brookfield Aviation International Ltd. pp. 1, 5. The "Hirer" means Ryanair Plc [...] The company Representative will be responsible for the cost of line training flights (currently €150 per scheduled block hour (pshb)) for the company representative 
  112. ^ a b c Jost Haugust (June 25, 2012). "Germania - company reference for Cockpit4U" (PDF). www.flygermania.de/en/. Germania. I personnaly have worked with Cockpit4u for many years both in my role as Post Holder Training and Type Rating Examiner [...] I highly recommend them [Cockpit4U] to any client or other airline as 100% reliable Type Rating Training Organization 
  113. ^ "Type Rating". www.cockpit4u.com/en/start/. Cockpit4u. Cockpit4u is the right partner for the type rating training you need. 
  114. ^ Deckstein Dinah (March 30, 2013). "Prekariat am Himmel (Precarity in the sky)". Der Spiegel (in German). 14: 61. In dem Werbezettel offeriert die Berliner Firma Cockpit4u fertig ausgebildeten Flugzeugführern, die noch keine Praxiserfahrung haben, einen befristeten Vertrag als Erster Offizier bei einer "namhaften Airline". Gemeint ist die drittgrößte deutsche Linienfluglinie, Germania, auch wenn die in dem Werbeprospekt nicht konkret genannt wird. 
  115. ^ Joseph Bohutnski (February 2, 2015). "Mladi piloti plaćaju Croatia Airlinesu 30.000 eura da nauče voziti avion (Young pilots pay Croatia Airlines 30,000 euros to learn to fly a plane)". www.vecernji.hr/ (in Croatian). Vecernji list. (Applicants that must have 500 hours of flight time hourly pay 10 euros and are not only free labor but also pay to work) 
  116. ^ "AGREEMENT" (PDF). May 15, 2018. Retrieved May 18, 2018. Eagle’s partner airline BH Air from Bulgaria [...] Pilot agrees to pay Eagle the sum of Twenty Nine Thousand Five Hundred Euros (€29,500) [...] Three hundred (300) block hours from the right seat of A319/320 during Airline operations. 
  117. ^ a b "ADDENDUM - Eagle Jet/Lion Air 737 NG agreement extract". lionair.co.id/. Lion Air. 
  118. ^ a b c Deisy A., Arteaga. "Agreement NORDICA aviation group" (PDF). CockpitSeeker. Retrieved June 15, 2017. Pilot will fly with Eagle’s partner airline Nordic Aviation Group / Regional Jet OU from Estonia [...] student agrees to pay Eagle the sum of Thirty Nine Thousand Nine Hundred Euros (€39,900) 
  119. ^ "Supplementary Statement Credit Application Boeing 737-900ER Type Rating" (PDF). cockpitseeker (in Dutch). ABN AMRO. Retrieved 29 December 2016. Cost Type Training: EUR 31.610,00 
  120. ^ "Elite Sky Aviation". eliteskyaviation.com. Elite Sky Aviation. Retrieved 2 March 2016. 
  121. ^ Posada Elechiguerra, Iñigo González. "BOEING 737-300 EFIS FIRST OFFICER" (PDF). eliteskyaviation.com. Madrid (Spain): General Manager Iñigo González‐Posada Elechiguerra. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 2 March 2016. This program is based in Eastern Europe, and it has a duration of 500 hours [...] PRICE: 39.900,00 € (VAT included) [...] 1.000,00 € before starting Airline Assessment phase. 
  122. ^ "ETOPS Type Rating on ATR 42/72-500". www.etops.net/. ETOPS flight. 
  123. ^ "ETOPS Type Rating on Airbus 320". www.etops.net/. ETOPS Flight. 
  124. ^ "ETOPS Type Rating on Boeing 737NG". www.etops.net/. ETOPS Flight. 
  125. ^ a b Gianfranco Giacchetti Director of Flight Operations Volotea. "Terms" (PDF). www.ftejerez.com/. Volotea via FTE Jerez. Archived from the original on May 7, 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2015. The price for The ATPL course, including the Volotea Boeing 717 Type Rating, is 140,500€, including VAT. This price is inclusive of the following: [...] The full Boeing 717 type rating course [...] a minimum of 125 hours line training 
  126. ^ "Boeing 737 (300/500/700) line training and time building program (Europe)". www.avianation.com. Galain Aviation. March 12, 2009. line training and time building program (Europe) 
  127. ^ TUIfly Academy Brussels. "TUIfly Academy Brussels, Type Rating Training Organization (TRTO)" (PDF). www.jetairfly.com/. Jetairfly. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 27, 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015. [...] advanced pilot training [...] is provided to third party customers, amongst which some other airlines of the TUI-group. This includes Type rating Courses 
  128. ^ ANDRIES WHISTLE (May 25, 2015). "Jonge copiloot: "Ik zal niet toegeven dat ik te moe ben" (Young co-pilot: "I will not admit that I'm too tired")" (PDF). www.demorgen.be/ (in Dutch). DeMorgen. Archived from the original on May 27, 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015. Een net afgestudeerde piloot kreeg van de Antwerpse luchtvaartschool BAFA een voorstelomzo’n training te volgen voor Jetairfly. Kostprijs: 25 à 30 000 euro, zonder garantie op werk bij de Belgische carrier. Wie aanvaard wordt, krijgt alleen een tijdelijk contract voor een paar maanden. () 
  129. ^ "A320 JAA/DGCA/GACA/JCARC/DCAA Type Rating". knotsaviation.com/. Knots Aviation. Knots Aviation provides the best type rating training at unbeatable price [...] Price Includes A320 Type Rating 
  130. ^ "B737 NG JAA/DGCA/GACA/JCARC/DCAA Type Rating". knotsaviation.com/. Knots Aviation. Knots Aviation provides the best type rating training at unbeatable price [...] Price Includes B737 Type Rating 
  131. ^ "Knots Aviation - Line Training". knotsaviation.com/. Knots Aviation. Knots Aviation offers Line Training on Airbus A320 Boeing CL/NG to the pilots in East Europe through its collaborative partnerships with reputed airlines. 
  132. ^ a b "Laffair A320 Type Rating Program with Traineeship in Turkey". sim.aero. Sim Aviation Group. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017. On behalf of Laffair Aviation, SIM Aviation Group [...] offer [...] Assessment Fee: EUR 600 [...] A320 TR Training Program with Traineeship up to 18 months - EUR 77, 000 
  133. ^ Cavegn, Dario (February 15, 2016). "Fly with us, says the Nordic Aviation Group - no thanks, say pilots". News.err. News.err.ee. Retrieved 29 December 2016. Through Nordic Crew Management, NAG hires for a base salary plus hours flown, and at the same time hires based on pay-to-fly, which creates deductions to an already performance-dependent salary. 
  134. ^ a b "Pegasus Airlines pilot jobs Wiki". www.pilotjobsnetwork.com/. October 9, 2009. TR costs 18 000 euro. Plus 6000 euro for 100hrs line training 737 
  135. ^ "Initial Line Training A320" (PDF). www.initiallinetraining.com/. Planet Air. May 18, 2015. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. The contract will allow you to build a solid experience of 500 hours on type with a subsequent employment contract. This is a unique opportunity for candidates who are willing to invest into their future career. The costs of 50.000$US reflect the effort and professionalism of Planetair. 
  136. ^ "Vietnam Airlines Pilot Jobs". www.rishworthaviation.com/home.aspx. Rishworth Aviation. Rishworth Aviation is proud to be the preferred supplier of Vietnam Airlines (VNA) and has a strong and cooperative 14+ year relationship with the airline 
  137. ^ Capt. To Ngoc Giang (January 26, 2015). "Line training project". www.vietnamairlines.com/vi/Welcome. Vietnam Airlines - flight crew division 919. 
  138. ^ "SAI - Training courses". SAI aims to provide you with high quality training solutions such as Multi Pilot License (MPL) [...] and Type Rating courses. 
  139. ^ "Crew Training". www.trtoagency.it/. TRTOagency. A320, A330, Beechcraft Type ratings 
  140. ^ "Vietjet Air" (PDF). www.pilotcareercenter.com/. Pilot Career Center. Archived from the original on April 29, 2015. Current Vietjet policy is for potential flight crew, including those eligible for upgrade to Captain, to pay cash up front for "training". This amount ranges from $25,000 USD up to and over $65,000. 
  141. ^ a b latestpilotjobs; Wingjet Aviation. "Type Rating+ 500 hours Line Training on BNA- Islander + LET-410" (PDF). www.latestpilotjobs.com/index.php. LatestPilotJobs.com. Archived from the original on September 21, 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015. What we provided: 1) Type Rating on Both Aircraft(BNA-Islander + LET-410) 2) Line training of 500 hrs (combined both aircraft) [...] 8) Cost of this program is 27,500 USD. 
  142. ^ a b Wingjet Aviation. "Training". wingjetaviation.com/index.php. Wingjet Aviation. Retrieved 21 September 2015. 1) A-320 300 hours line training : 55000 Euro 2) A-320 500 hours line training : 66000 Euro [...] 1) B-737NG type rating+ 300 hrs line training program : 48,380 USD 
  143. ^ latestpilotjobs; Wingjet Aviation. "Line Training program on B-737NG" (PDF). www.latestpilotjobs.com/index.php. LatestPilotJobs.com. Archived from the original on September 16, 2015. Retrieved 16 September 2015. 500 hrs Line training program on B-737NG [...] Total cost for this program is 65,000 EURO 
  144. ^ "Ryanair ontkent beschuldigingen uitbuiting piloten (Ryanair denies allegations exploitation pilots)". www.nu.nl/ (in Dutch). NU.nl. December 3, 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2015. Ryanair spreekt de aantijgingen tegen dat jonge piloten geld betalen om bij de luchtvaartmaatschappij te mogen vliegen en zo werkervaring op te doen. Volgens een woordvoerder van de Ierse prijsvechter gaat het om valse beschuldigingen en krijgen alle piloten salaris uitbetaald. [...] Zij zouden 30.00 tot 50.000 euro moeten betalen om vier tot zes maanden te mogen vliegen. 
  145. ^ airliner.de (March 6, 2015). ""Pay to fly" bei der Germania? "Das ist Quatsch"". www.airliners.de/ (in German). airliners.de. "Pay to fly" bei der Germania? Das ist Quatsch