Paymaster of the Forces

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sir Stephen Fox was the first Paymaster of the Forces

The Paymaster of the Forces was a position in the British government. The office, which was established 1661 after the Restoration, was responsible for part of the financing of the British Army. Its full title was Paymaster-General of His Majesty's Forces. This should not be confused with the post of Paymaster General, created in 1836 by the merger of the positions of Paymaster of the Forces, Treasurer of the Navy, Paymaster and Treasurer of Chelsea Hospital and Treasurer of the Ordnance.

The first to hold the office was Sir Stephen Fox. Before his time there was no standing army and it had been the custom to appoint Treasurers at War, ad hoc, for campaigns. Within a generation of the Restoration, the status of the Paymastership began to change. In 1692 the then Paymaster, the Earl of Ranelagh, was made a member of the Privy Council; and thereafter every Paymaster, or when there were two Paymasters at least one of them joined the council if not already a member. From the accession of Queen Anne the Paymaster tended to change with the government. By the 18th century the office had become a political prize and perhaps potentially the most lucrative that a parliamentary career had to offer. Appointments to the office were therefore often made not upon merit alone, but by merit and political affiliation. It was occasionally a cabinet-level post in the 18th and early 19th centuries, and many future prime ministers served as Paymaster.[1]

The duty of the Paymaster was to act as sole domestic banker of the army. He received, mainly from the Exchequer, the sums voted by Parliament for military expenditure. Other sums were also received, for example from the sale of old stores. He disbursed these sums, by his own hands or by Deputy Paymasters; these payments being made under the authority of sign manual warrants as far as related to the ordinary expenses of the army, and under Treasury warrants in the case of extraordinary expenses (the expenses which were unforeseen and unprovided for by Parliament).[1]

During the whole time in which public money was in his hands, from the day of receipt until the issue of his final discharge, the Quietus of the Pipe Office, his private estate was liable for the money in his hands; and failing the Quietus this liability remained without limit of time, passing on his death to his legal representatives.

Appointments were made by the Crown by letters patent under the Great Seal. The patent salary was £400 from 1661 to 1680 and 20 shillings a day thereafter, except for the years 1702–07 when it was fixed at 10 shillings a day.[2]

The office of Paymaster of the Forces was abolished in 1836 and superseded with the formation of the post of Paymaster General.

List of Paymasters of the Forces[edit]

Portrait Name(s) Term of office Government Monarch
(Reign)
Sir Stephen Fox (1627–1716) by John James Baker.jpg Sir Stephen Fox[note 1] 18 March 1661[2] 9 February 1676[2] Clarendon

Cabal


Danby I

King Charles II by John Michael Wright or studio.jpg
Charles II
(1660–1685)
Fond blanc.svg Sir Henry Puckering, Bt 9 February 1676[2] 23 May 1679[2] //
Sir Stephen Fox (1627–1716) by John James Baker.jpg Sir Stephen Fox 23 May 1679[2] 3 January 1680[2] The Chits
Fond blanc.svg Nicholas Johnson[note 2]
and
William Fox[note 3]
3 January 1680[2] 20 April 1682[2]
(†Johnson)
28 April 1682[2]
Fond blanc.svg Charles Fox[note 4] 28 April 1682[2] 26 December 1685[2]
Richard Jones, 1st Earl of Ranelagh.jpg The Earl of Ranelagh 26 December 1685[2] 22 December 1702[2] James II by Peter Lely.jpg
James II
(1685–1688)
Carmarthen–Halifax

Carmarthen


First Whig Junto


Pembroke

William and Mary cropped.jpg
William and Mary
(1689–1694)
William III
(1694–1702)
Godolphin–Marlborough Anne Stuart.jpg
Anne
(1702–1714)
Fond blanc.svg John Grubham Howe 22 December 1702[2] 3 October 1714[2]
Harley
Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford by Arthur Pond.jpg Sir Robert Walpole 3 October 1714[2] 17 October 1715[2] Townshend

Stanhope–Sunderland I


Stanhope–Sunderland II

GeorgeIKneller1714.jpg
George I
(1714–1727)
7th Earl of Lincoln by Kneller.jpg The Earl of Lincoln 17 October 1715[2] 11 June 1720[2]
Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford by Arthur Pond.jpg Sir Robert Walpole 11 June 1720[2] 19 April 1721[2]
Charles Cornwallis, 4th Baron Cornwallis by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg The Lord Cornwallis 19 April 1721[2] 20 January 1722[2] Walpole–Townshend
Spencer Compton 1st Earl of Wilmington.jpg Hon. Spencer Compton
(Lord Wilmington from 1728)
15 March 1722[2] 15 May 1730[2]
People 18 George II.jpg
George II
(1727–1760)
Henry Pelham, Parliamentary Art Collection.jpg Hon. Henry Pelham 15 May 1730[2] 24 December 1743[2] Walpole

Carteret

Thomas Winnington by John Giles Eccardt.jpg Thomas Winnington 24 December 1743[2] 23 April 1746 Broad Bottom
William Pitt the Elder by William Hoare crop.jpg William Pitt the Elder 7 May 1746[2] 16 December 1755[2]
Newcastle I
Thomas Hay 9th Earl of Kinnoull.jpg
Dupplin
The Earl of Darlington
and
The Viscount Dupplin
16 December 1755[2] 8 December 1756[2]
The Viscount Dupplin
and
Thomas Potter
8 December 1756[2] 15 July 1757[2] Pitt–Devonshire

1757 caretaker

Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland by John Giles Eccardt.jpg The Lord Holland 15 July 1757[2] 12 June 1765[2] Newcastle II
George III of the United Kingdom-e.jpg
George III
(1760–1820)
Bute

Grenville

CharlesTownshend.jpg Hon. Charles Townshend 12 June 1765[2] 21 August 1766[2] //

Rockingham I


Chatham

Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford (1753).jpg
North
Lord North
and
George Cooke
21 August 1766[2] 9 December 1767[2] //
Viscount Sydney by Gilbert Stuart.jpg
Townshend
George Cooke
and
Thomas Townshend
9 December 1767[2] 5 June 1768[2]
(†Cooke)
17 June 1768[2]
Fond blanc.svg Richard Rigby 17 June 1768[2] 10 April 1782[2] //

Grafton


North

EdmundBurke1771.jpg Edmund Burke 10 April 1782[2] 1 August 1782[2] Rockingham II
Brooklyn Museum - Colonel Isaac Barré - Gilbert Stuart - overall.jpg Isaac Barré 1 August 1782[2] 16 April 1783[2] Shelburne
EdmundBurke1771.jpg Edmund Burke 16 April 1783[2] 8 January 1784[2] Fox–North Coalition

Pitt the Younger I

1st Baron Grenville.jpg William Wyndham Grenville 8 January 1784[2] 7 April 1784[2] //
Constantine John Phipps.jpg
Mulgrave
William Wyndham Grenville
and
The Lord Mulgrave
7 April 1784[2] 2 September 1789[2]
The Lord Mulgrave
and
The Duke of Montrose
2 September 1789[2] 7 March 1791[2]
Hon. Dudley Ryder
and
Thomas Steele
7 March 1791[2] 5 July 1800[2]
Thomas Steele
and
George Canning
5 July 1800[2] 26 March 1801[2]
Thomas Steele
and
The Lord Glenbervie
26 March 1801[2] 3 January 1803[2] Addington
Thomas Steele
and
John Hiley Addington
3 January 1803[2] 7 July 1804[2]
George Rose by Sir William Beechey.jpgLord Charles Henry Somerset.jpg George Rose
and
Lord Charles Somerset
7 July 1804[2] 17 February 1806[2] Pitt the Younger II
Earl Temple by George Romney.jpgPortrait of Lord John Townshend.jpg The Earl Temple
and
Lord John Townshend
17 February 1806[2] 4 April 1807[2] All the Talents
Lord Farnborough by John Hoppner.jpgLord Charles Henry Somerset.jpg Charles Long
and
Lord Charles Somerset
4 April 1807[2] 26 November 1813[2] Portland II

Perceval


Liverpool

Lord Farnborough by John Hoppner.jpgFrederick John Robinson, 1st Earl of Ripon by Sir Thomas Lawrence cropped.jpg Charles Long
and
Hon. F. J. Robinson
26 November 1813[2] 9 August 1817[2] //
Lord Farnborough by John Hoppner.jpg Charles Long
(Lord Farnborough from 1826)
9 August 1817[2]
(continued)
14 July 1826[2]
George IV of the United Kingdom.jpg
George IV
(1820 – 1830)
Fond blanc.svg William Vesey Fitzgerald 14 July 1826[2] 10 July 1828[2] //

Canningite Govt.
Canning · Goderich


Wellington

John Calcraft Yr NPG.jpg John Calcraft 10 July 1828[2] 30 December 1830[2] //
John Russell, 1st Earl Russell by Sir Francis Grant detail.jpg Lord John Russell 30 December 1830[2] 30 December 1834[2] Whig Govt.
Grey · Melbourne I
William IV of Great Britain.jpg
William IV
(1830–1837)
Sir Edward Knatchbull, 9th Baronet.jpg Sir Edward Knatchbull, Bt 30 December 1834[2] 28 April 1835[2] Peel I
HB Parnell, Lord Congleton by HB Doyle.jpg Sir Henry Parnell, Bt 28 April 1835[2] 1 December 1836[2] Melbourne II

Office merged into that of Paymaster General, 1836.

Paymaster of the Forces Abroad[edit]

From 1702 to 1714, during the War of the Spanish Succession, there was a distinct Paymaster of the Forces Abroad, appointed in the same manner as the Paymaster.[2] These were appointed to a special office to oversee the pay of Queen Anne's army in the Low Countries, and are not in the regular succession of Paymasters of the Forces.[3] The salary of the position was 10 shillings a day.[2] Colonel Thomas Moore was paymaster of the land forces in Minorca and in the garrisons of Dunkirk and Gibraltar and is not always counted among the Paymasters of the Forces Abroad.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Knighted 1 July 1665[2]
  2. ^ Brother-in-law of Sir Stephen Fox
  3. ^ The second son of Sir Stephen Fox.[2]
  4. ^ The third son of Sir Stephen Fox.
References
  1. ^ a b Sutherland, Lucy S.; Binney, J. (1955). "Henry Fox as Paymaster General of the Forces". The English Historical Review. Oxford University Press. 70 (275): 229. doi:10.1093/ehr/lxx.cclxxv.229. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr Sainty, J. C. "Paymaster of Forces 1661–1836". Office-Holders in Modern Britain. The Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 8 July 2016. 
  3. ^ Gater, G. H.; Wheeler, E. P., eds. (1935). "Office of the Paymaster-General". St Martin-in-The-Fields I: Charing Cross. Survey of London. 16. London: London County Council. pp. 17–27 – via British History Online.