|Halakhic texts relating to this article|
|Babylonian Talmud:||Makkot 20a|
|Mishneh Torah:||Avodath Kokhavim 12:6|
|Shulchan Aruch:||Yoreh Deah 181|
Payot[a] (Hebrew: פֵּאָה, plural: פֵּאוֹת) is the Hebrew term for sidelocks or sideburns. Payot are worn by some men and boys in the Orthodox Jewish community based on an interpretation of the Tenach injunction against shaving the "sides" of one's head. Literally, pe'ah means "corner, side, edge". There are different styles of payot among Haredi or Hasidic, Yemenite, and Chardal Jews. Yemenite Jews call their sidelocks simonim (סִימָנִים), literally, "signs", because their long-curled sidelocks served as a distinguishing feature in the Yemenite society (differentiating them from their non-Jewish neighbors).
As kabbalistic teachings spread into Slavonic lands, the custom of payot became accepted there. In 1845, the practice was banned in the Russian Empire. Crimean Karaites did not wear payot, and the Crimean Tatars consequently referred to them as zulufsız çufutlar ("Jews without payot"), to distinguish them from the Krymchaks, referred to as zuluflı çufutlar ("Jews with payot"). Many Hasidic and Teimani Jews let their sidelocks grow particularly long. Some Haredi men grow sidelocks, but trim them or tuck them behind the ears. Even in some communities where payot are not customary among the men, young boys may grow them until the age of bar mitzvah.
The Torah says, "you shall not round off the pe'ah of your head (פְּאַת רֹאשְׁכֶם)". The word pe'ah was taken to mean the hair in front of the ears extending to beneath the cheekbone, on a level with the nose (Talmud – Makkot 20a). The Mishnah interpreted the regulation as applying only to men. Thus it became the custom in certain circles to allow the hair over the ears to grow, and hang down in curls or ringlets. According to Maimonides, shaving the sidelocks was a heathen practice. There is considerable discussion in the halachic literature as to the precise location of the payot and of the ways in which their removal is prohibited.
The lengths and maintenance of the payot vary noticeably among Jewish groups:
- Satmar Jews have notably thicker sidelocks. They also tend to tuck their sidelocks behind their ears.
- Belz Hasidim wrap their sidelocks around their ears as many times as necessary without trimming.
- Many Breslov Hasidim wear long twisted locks as did their Rabbi, Nachman of Breslov. However, others wear different styles in line with the teaching of Rabbi Nachman that his followers do not have to have a uniform garb.
- The Chabad-Lubavitch Hasidim's payot are not evident, but they exist. So long as there is hair around the ear and behind it that can be plucked out, that is considered payot.
- Some Gerer Hasidim raise their sidelocks from the temples and tuck them under their yarmulke. Others, especially in Israel, let them hang down.
- The Skver Hasidim twist their sidelocks into a tight coil, and leave them protruding in front of the ear.
- Some traditional Yemenite Jews still wear distinctive long and thin twisted locks, often reaching to the upper arm. The actual area where the hair grows and where the ringlet begins is neat and tidy.
Most other Hasidic groups wear their payot down and curled.
The Lithuanian Jews are less influenced by Kabbalistic practises, but still retain sidelocks to a degree, in a small number of variant styles:
- Lithuanian Jews often cut their sidelocks, but leave a bunch of strands uncut, and place them behind the ear; this style is most commonly found among yeshiva students, who sometimes remove the uncut strands when they have grown sideburns.
- The Brisk movement's members brush their hair straight down, usually so that it reaches to the ear lobe; sometimes, some of the sidelock is not cut, and is curled back behind the ear.
A Teimani (Yemenite) Jew with peyot
Young Hasidic man with peyot
A religious Jew with peyots, Jerusalem, Israel
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Payots.|
References and notes
- Also pronounced pe'ot, peyot; or payos, peyos, peyois, payois in Ashkenazi pronunciation
- Jewish Encyclopedia
- Why do some Chassidic Jews have long sidelocks
- Leviticus 19:27
- "Shaving in Judaism". Judaism.about.com. 2009-06-11. Retrieved 2013-11-10.
- Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh Deah:181
- "Halachos Of Payos Harosh". Yutorah.org. Retrieved 2013-11-10.
- (Sichot Haran?); The Master of Prayer (from Tales of Rabbi Nachman), where the Master is "not particular about garb at all; see  for a video showing a variety of styles among Breslevers.