|Raja of Kingdom of Kottayam, Kerala Simham, Chandrakula Vira, Shaktan Rajah, Vira Pazhassi|
Painting of Pazhassi Raja by Raja Ravi Varma displayed in Pazhassiraja Museum, Kozhikkode
|Predecessor||Vira Varma (uncle)|
|Successor||Vira Varma (uncle)|
3 January 1753
|Died||30 November 1805(aged 52)|
|Part of a series on the|
|History of Kerala|
Pazhassi Raja (3 January 1753-30 November 1805) was born as Kerala Varma and was also known as Cotiote Rajah and Pychy Rajah. He was one of the earliest freedom fighters in India. He was a warrior prince and de facto head of the kingdom of Kottayam, otherwise known as Cotiote, in Malabar, India, between 1774 and 1805. His struggles with the British East India Company is known as the Cotiote War. He is popularly known as Kerala Simham (Lion of Kerala) on account of his martial exploits. He was the only person to defeat Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington in a war.
Pazhassi Raja was a member of the western branch of the Kottayam royal clan. When Hyder Ali of the Kingdom of Mysore occupied Malabar in 1773, the Raja of Kottayam found political asylum in Travancore. Pazhassi Raja, the fourth prince in line for succession to the throne during this period, became one of the de facto heads of state, surpassing several older royal contenders. He fought a war of resistance against the Mysorean army from 1774 to 1793. On account of his refusal to flee and due to his effective resistance to Mysoreans, he gained firm support of his subjects.
In 1792, after the Third Anglo-Mysore War, the East India Company imposed control in Kottayam in violation of an earlier agreement of 1790 which had recognised its independence. Vira Varma, to whom Raja was a nephew, was appointed by the East India Company authorities as the Raja of Kottayam. To meet revenue targets fixed by Company authorities, Vira Varma ordered an exorbitant tax to be collected from the peasantry and this move was met in 1793 by a mass resistance led by Pazhassi Raja, who had always been opposed to the Company's rule. In 1796, the Company made an attempt to arrest Pazhassi Raja, but he evaded capture and instead fought back using guerilla warfare. After a string of serious setbacks, the Company sued for peace in 1797. The conflict was renewed in 1800 over a dispute on Wayanad and after a five-year long war of insurgency, Pazhassi Raja was killed on 30 November 1805 in a gun-fight at Mavila Todu, near what is now the Kerala-Karnataka border.
- 1 Kingdom
- 2 Resistance to Mysore occupation (1773–1793)
- 3 Resistance to British rule — the Cotiote War
- 4 Assessment
- 5 Supporters
- 6 Forest forts
- 7 In popular culture
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
Pazhassi Raja was born in the Padinjare Kovilakam (Western Branch) of Purannattu Swarupam, the royal clan of the kingdom of Kottayam in North Malabar not Kottayam District in south Kerala. This branch was located at Pazhassi which lay south west of Mattannur. Kerala Varma got the name Pazhassi Raja as he was a native of Pazhassi. The early British documents wrote Pazhassi Raja as Pychy Rajah, while the name Cotiote Raja comes from the anglicizing of Kottayam to Cotiote. Kottayam covers what is today the Thalassery taluk of the Kannur District and Wayanad district, along with the Gudalur taluk of Nilgiris district.
As a royal clan, Purannattu Swarupam had three branches: the a western branch (Padinjare Kovilakam) at Pazhassi, near Mattannur, an eastern branch (Kizhakke Kovilakam) at Manatana, near Peravoor, and a southern branch (Tekke Kovilakam) at Kottayampoil, near Koothuparamba.
Resistance to Mysore occupation (1773–1793)
Pazhassi Raja's warfare with Mysore troops can be divided into two phases based on the rulers of the kingdom of Mysore. First phase lasted from 1773 to 1782 during this time Mysore ruler was Hyder Ali. Second phase extended from 1784 to 1793 and during this phase he fought troops of Tipu Sultan, son and successor of Hyder Ali:
Resistance to Hyder Ali (1773–1782)
In 1773, Hyder Ali marched into Malabar for the second time, for non-payment of tributes from the Rajas (kings) of Malabar as agreed after war in 1768. Most of the Rajas of Malabar, along with many Naduvazhis or vassals fled to seek political asylum in Travancore. Princes and younger noblemen who refused to flee the invasion organised resistances. The Malabari partisans made excellent use of the wooded hills that covered most of Malabar during this rebellions.
In 1774, at age of 21, Pazhassi Raja took over the throne to replace his uncle who had fled to Travancore. He vowed to resist Hyder Ali's troops, and stayed in Kottayam where he gathered a force and began guerrilla battles against the troops of Mysore as he had neither guns or troops enough to face them in an open battle. He set up a large number of bases in the nearly impenetrable forested mountains of Puralimala and Wynad and repeatedly inflicted severe minor losses to the Mysore army in Kottayam as well as in Wynad.[page needed]
Once true Raja of Kottayam had fled away, a three royals rose to power in Kottayam. Nephew of escaped Raja named Vira Varma and his nephews, Ravi Varma and Pazhassi Raja now took over the reins of government. Vira Varma was skilled in political intrigue and manipulation whereas Ravi Varma was too incompetent to play any serious political role and hence his role only was nominal. Pazhassi Raja become the most powerful figure in Kottayam, much to the chagrin of his uncle Vira Varma. Hence Vira Varma played a series of power games aiming to check the growing clout of his niece. So the relation between Vira Varma and Pazhassi Raja was one of enmity right from onset.
Military situation was grim for Pazhassi Raja and his troops – in 1774, Coorgs had joined hands with Hyder Ali on promise of being gifted Wynad and a large Coorg army camped in Wynad to help Mysore troops. In 1776, Hyder Ali re-installed Hindu Raja in Chirakkal  and latter joined Mysore war effort to crush Pazhassi Raja. This triple alliance which lasted till 1780 reached nowhere near defeating Kottayam army.[page needed]
During his long war with the Mysore and then the English East India Company, Pazhassi Raja increased his sphere of influence significantly eastwards as far as the outskirts of Mysore. His men regularly looted enemy treasuries and sandalwood from southern Karnataka and his enemies could do little to check these raids. This enabled him to lay claim on a great chunk of the Mysore district – as far as Nanjangod in the east. Also Pazhassi Raja and his men frequently raided the domains of neighbouring Rajas in northern Malabar and Coorg to harass the enemy regiments posted there and he was often supported by local population of those territories. Along with this he had close ties with Ravi Varma and Krishna Varma, who were princes of Calicut and popular rebel leaders of southern Malabar.
Siege of Thalasseri
Thalasseri or Tellicherry in the late 18th century was a harbour-fort which was held by British East India Company as a factory. Value of Tellicherry as a naval base meant that her capture could seriously impact the British naval situation in West Coast. Also rebels in North Malabar bought arms and ammunition from the British in Tellicherry. So if Hyder could capture this fort, he could at a stroke cripple both rebels in North Malabar as well as British military power at a regional basis.
So in 1778, Hyder’s vassal, the Raja of Chirakkal, besieged Thalasseri and enforced an economic blockade-under orders from Hyder himself. The British factors at Talassery armed Pazhassi Raja’s men to enable them to recover Kottayam from the Mysorean occupation army. This move by the British ensured that the Chirakkal army was now at risk of being struck in the rear by Pazhassi Raja’s force. The Chirakkal troops began to retreat. But Pazhassi chased and devastated the Chirakkal army, and then marched to Kottayam where he obliterated the Mysorean occupation and over-ran all of Western Kottayam. But at this critical moment when the Mysorean army in Malabar could have been destroyed by a joint action on the part of British and the Rajas, the British factors at Talassery were instructed by the Governor not to upset the nominal peace with Hyder.[page needed]
Thus the British decision not to exploit the victory at Thalasseri was exploited by Mysore. The Chirakkal army reinforced by a Mysorean contingent under Balwant Rao marched into Kottayam. Pazhassi’s men, though secretly supplied with arms and ammunition by the British, could not hold or defeat this huge host and soon the Kottayam army was forced to disperse after a fight. Then the Mysore-Chirakkal army captured Kadathanad and installed a puppet Raja who joined hand with Mysore. In 1779, a huge Mysore-Chirakkal-Kadathanad army besieged Thalasseri. Pazhassi Raja sent a force of 2000 Nairs to aid British defence of Thalassery-and this enabled factors to hold on successfully.
By end of 1779, Sardar Khan, the Mysorean general was sent to Thalasseri to bring the siege speedily to a successful conclusion. Sardar Khan came with a force of 10,000 troops and 30 heavy guns. Sardar Khan knew that it was Pazhassi Raja’s help that enabled the British to resist him and so he opened negotiations with Pazhassi – his offer was the restoration of Mysore occupied territories of Kottayam if Pazhassi would ally himself with Mysore and pay an immediate tribute of 500,000 rupees. It was well beyond the capacity of Kottayam to raise so huge a sum in so short a time. But Pazhassi did his best to pay Sardar Khan [probably in hope that latter would make concessions] and 60,000 rupees was paid to the latter. But Khan was not satisfied and rejected Pazhassi’s request that his possessions in Malabar be restored. This greedy and tactless approach of Sardar Khan's made sure that there was little chance for Mysore to capture Thalasseri. Kottayam army became far more stronger with their major victory in 1779 at Kalpetta (Wynad) where whole Coorg army of 2,000 was surrounded and decimated by Pazhassi Raja's troops.Destruction of Coorg army in Wynad enabled Raja to throw a whole new army into contest at Thalasseri.[page needed]
In 1780, Pazhassi Raja proposed a plan to the British to break the Mysorean siege of Thalassery: he and his men would strike the enemy in the rear from the east as the British came out of the fort and struck the Mysorean line in front. Both armies would effect a junction that would split the enemy into two. The Mysorean and allied troops could then be routed easily. But it was only in 1781 that the British understood the value of this plan and their Bombay authorities agreed to it. An operation was carried out as per Pazhassi's plan; it ended with the destruction of the Mysorean forces. Sardar Khan himself was killed. What followed was a rebellion in Kottayam by the Nayar militia led by Pazhassi Raja. Soon, the Mysoreans were ousted.
Rebellion to remove Tipu Sultan (1784–1793)
By 1782, Kottayam was once more a free land. But by the Treaty of Mangalore  after the Second Anglo-Mysore War, the British recognised Tipu Sultan's sphere of authority in Malabar. Thus with its only valuable ally lost, Kottayam was ready to become a vassal state of Mysore. Once more, as Sardar Khan did in 1779, Mysore exacted an exorbitant rate of tribute. Although Ravi Varma, the elder brother of Pazhassi Raja agreed to pay 65,000 rupees per year, Mysore demanded 81,000 rupees. The hiked rate of tribute meant greater hardship for the peasantry [largely Tiyar/Izhava] who had suffered from years of foreign occupation. So Pazhassi Raja took up this issue and decided to launch a mass resistance struggle once more.
What angered Pazhassi Raja even more was that his brother Ravi Varma who paid visit to Tipu Sultan in 1786 for peace talks was forced to sign a treaty which ceded Wayanad to Tipu Sultan. Pazhassi Raja decided not to let Tipu enjoy Wayanad in peace and kept up a guerrilla warfare that constantly harassed Mysore troops in Wayanad and neighbourhood. War in Wayanad lasted for seven years – till 1793 – when the last of Mysore garrisons were expelled from soil of Wayanad.
By the end of 1788, Pazhassi Raja’s hatred of Tipu had shot up on account of the latter’s policy of forcible conversion. So he strengthened his ties with British on one hand and with fellow rebel chiefs and princes in Malabar on the other hand. Tipu sent an army under a French general named Lally with a genocidal mission—the extermination of the Nair caste from Kottayam to Palakkad – as Tipu was determined to end the menace of Nair rebels in Malabar who had foiled all attempts of him and his late father Hyder Ali to subjugate and exploit Malabar.
Tipu saw himself as a social reformer and attempted to change some of the traditional aspects of Nair society. For instance, he was appalled when he found out that Nair women cohabited with several men. He was also disgusted by the practice of lower caste women not being permitted to cover their breasts. Tipu forbade these practices, which was resented by the Nairs, who saw this as an encroachment on their religious and social rights.
Nairs and Namboodiris comprised a fifth of the population of Malabar and the upheaval wrought about by Hyder and Tipu in the caste and class privileges of these two communities led to social upheaval. The Namboodiris and the Nairs suffered the most during the time of Tipu. These two castes were severely affected by the political, social and economic reforms undertaken by Tipu. It was, therefore, the economic and social reforms that paved the way for the accusations of religious bigotry brought against Tipu Sultan.
Senior Rajah of Kottayam fled to Travancore fearing the Sultan. But before that he handed over charge of government to Pazhassi Raja and asked him to save the country from Mysore onslaught. Given below is the observation made by historian Rajayyan about Pazhassi Raja's resistance to Tipu Sultan after exodus of Rajas from Malabar in 1788:
Between 1787 and 1788, the thampurans or Rajahs of Malabar, threatened by the forces of Tipu, fled to Travancore. Among them were the princes of Kottayathu.....The Senior Rajah before his flight summoned Kerala Varma, the youngest prince, and instructed him to protect the country. Accordingly, the latter assembled the inhabitants, retired to the jungles and assisted them in the development of a new homeland. Frequently, in defiance to the authority of the Sultan, he with a band of determined followers issued forth from the woods and levied contributions.
But in 1790, Tipu abandoned the war in Malabar as the war in Deccan drew his attention. Pazhassi Raja joined the British with a force of 1500 Nairs to capture the Mysorean stronghold in Katirur (near Talassery). After Katirur, Pazhassi Raja and his troops moved south-east and captured the Kuttiyadi fort from Tipu’s men. Thus once more the whole of Kottayam was in the control of Pazhassi Raja. In 1790, the British recognised Pazhassi Raja as the head of Kottayam instead of the original Raja who was in refuge at Travancore. Raja agreed to pay 25,000 rupees as tribute to the British. But his struggle with Mysore troops continued in Wayanad till 1793 when he freed that land also.[page needed]
But by the Treaty of Seringapatam (1792) signed between the British and Tipu after the latter failed in Third Anglo-Mysore War, Malabar was ceded to the British. The British then began to work for establishment of their supremacy in Malabar. This was where the British and Pazhassi Raja had opposite opinions – Pazhassi Raja helped the British not because he was ready to accept British sovereignty but because he wanted his country Kottayam to be a free land.
Pazhassi Raja was disturbed when he heard about the terms which British put forward to Rajas of Malabar in 1792 because British had signed a cowl with him in 1790 which promised to respect independence of Kottayam. The summary of the British terms in 1792 were as follows:
- The Raja to be able to rule as before but British to control him “in case of oppressing inhabitants”.
- A resident to be appointed to enquire about “complaints of oppression”.
- Two persons on the part of the British and two persons on the part of the Raja to make valuation of land revenue of Kottayam.
- The Tax to be paid by each subject to be ascertained.
- The Raja’s tribute to be settled in October 1792 according to the appearance of crop.
- The British share of the pepper to be delivered at a price fixed by the British in December 1792.
- The remainder of the pepper to be bought only by merchants appointed by the British.[page needed]
These terms converted monarchs to mere agents of the British. Rajas were now stripped of their right to rule as they willed; they also lost control over their economies.
Kottayam was represented by Vira Varma, uncle of Pazhassi Raja during talks with British in 1792. Vira Varma concluded treaty with British by which he accepted all terms and conditions put forward by British.[page needed]
Resistance to British rule — the Cotiote War
Pazhassi Raja resisted British imperialism from 1793 onwards till his death in 1805. He fought two wars to resist British intervention in the domestic affairs of his kingdom. From 1793–1797 he fought over the question of the management of Kottayam and from 1800–1805 over the issue of who was to be master of Wynad. British called their wars with Pazhassi Rajah as Cotiote War
First revolt (1793–1797)
Pazhassi Raja was not on good terms with his uncle Vira Varma, Raja of Kurumbranad. In 1793, foxy Vira Varma who had surrendered Kottayam to British back in 1792, convinced British Commissioners to let him collect tax in Kottayam. He calculated that a good collection might please the British and that that would let him seize all of Kottayam. British had by this time adopted a hostile approach to Pazhassi Raja who had consistently refused to accept British suzerainty and hence they made obedient Vira Varma as head of Kottayam Pazhassi Raja was angry at this British move. He felt betrayed. After all he was the only Raja in Northern Malabar to have helped the British consistently in the war with Mysore.
Vira Varma Raja on the one hand undertook to collect tax in Kottayam directly, but on the other hand he instigated Pazhassi Raja to oppose the British. Moreover, the British assessment was harsh and beyond the peasants' capacity to pay. They resisted its forcible collection by the agents of the British, and Pazhassi Raja took up their cause. As seen before, Raja was deadly opposed to extortion of the peasantry.
In 1793, Pazhassi Raja made sure that no tax was collected in Kottayam by the British – as a mark of his protest. He also threatened that if British officials did not give up their enumeration of pepper vines, he would have the vines destroyed. Local British authorities, however, debated with Raja and soon both discovered Vira Varma’s dirty games. So the British put forward a solution acceptable to the Raja by which 20 percent of gross revenue would go to Raja and another 20 percent would go for the temples' expense. No tax would be imposed on temple property in the immediate future.
In 1793, Tipu’s Vakils protested to the British that Pazhassi Raja, who was a British tributary, had overrun most of Wayanad, still under Mysore. Soon the Raja was supreme in the Wayanad Plateau.
But the Governor General unwisely revoked the agreement in 1794 and gave Kottayam to Kurumbranad Raja on a five-year lease. The Raja was truly angry at this decision and decided to retaliate by ruling his country as per customary law. The year before the lease was concluded the Raja had provided asylum to a Nayar noble, Narangoli Nambiar belongs to the Iruvazinad royal clan, who had been declared an outlaw by British for the murder of three men who had killed his kinsman. The Raja’s kind treatment of Nambiar irritated the British. The British also became angry that the Raja impaled two robbers as per customary law. British planned to arrest Raja for 'murder', but gave up the idea as the Raja had a bodyguard of 500 well armed Wayanad Nayars.[page needed]
In 1795, even after a year Vira Varma Raja got Kottayam on lease, he was not able to collect tax in Kottayam-thanks to his nephew Raja’s determination. So British troops arrived in Kottayam to help Vira Varma’s tax collectors, but Pazhassi Raja’s men resisted them with success.
In 1796, orders were issued from Bombay to collect tax arrears for 2 years in Kottayam. For British no more pretexts were needed to arrest Raja. 300 men under Lieutenant James Gordon marched from Talassery and seized Raja’s fortified house at Pazhassi-but Raja fled four days earlier to Manattana [near Kottiyur]. Gordon plundered the palace where traditional treasure of Raja was kept. Raja was angry at this loot and sent a letter to Supervisor at Thalassery.
Raja was also angry that one of his former general named Pazhayamviden Chandu had become an agent of Kurumbranad Raja and what angered him even more than that was that this turn-coat had the audacity to boss him with Vira Varma’s and British blessings. Raja shifted his HQ to Purali Range and then into Wayanad. Raja then blocked all British communications between Wayanad and Low Malabar through Kuttiyadi Pass. The British retaliated by cutting all communications between Raja and Low Malabar. But as they did not have enough troops to chase him they waited for reinforcements.[page needed]
The British commandant was Colonel Dow, whom Raja knew well during Siege of Thalassery. So Raja thought that this old friend might help him mediate with the British government. Raja offered to give up the struggle provided he was pardoned and his treasure and house restored. The Colonel and Raja being old soldiers hated needless bloodshed and so he forwarded Raja’s request to Commissioners, who though they were bitterly opposed to Raja’s independent style, agreed to the Colonel’s suggestion as there was a risk that Raja might ally with Tipu.[page needed]
So Northern Superintendent ordered the restoration of the Raja's house [but not treasure], and the Raja's pardon was confirmed by the Bombay and Supreme Governments. But the orders of government were communicated to the Raja via Vira Varma – which meant that uncle Raja took care not to report to his nephew that the British had agreed to his requests. Uncle Raja had a vested interest in war between the Company and his nephew Pazhassi Raja.
Vira Varma also removed Kaitheri Ambu, a favourite noble and general of Raja, from home administration of Kottayam. Ambu along with followers went to Kannavam [also spelled Kannavath and Kannoth], where he planned and executed a mass resistance with people’s support, which made sure that Vira Varma could make no tax collection in Kottayam. But Ambu acted clearly on guidance of Raja, who felt expulsion of Ambu was another of his uncle’s conspiracies to undermine him.[page needed]
Raja feared that British planned to seize him [not knowing that their truce terms were kept blocked from him by his uncle] and retreated into depths of Wayanad. British troop build up in Wayanad also accelerated his doubts. However Raja was still eager to avoid a war and came to meet Northern Superintendent with a bodyguard of 1500 armed Nayars. Vira Varma Raja was also ordered to be present. Pazhassi Raja’s main demand was that Kottayam must be under his rule-a demand his uncle was not ready to accede.[page needed]
British Commissioners' attitude also was arrogant-they were already prejudiced towards Raja and so were blind towards Raja’s logical argument that Vira Varma had no business in Kottayam. As talks broke down, Commissioners' issued a threat proclamation in Kottayam that if those Kottayam men in service of Raja does not desert him and come home, they would be declare enemies and their properties would be confiscated. But this proclamation had little effect in Kottayam where resistance to British-Kurumbranad rule became stronger.[page needed]
British, to their horror, found out that a large number of Vira Varma’s troops had deserted to join ranks of resisters and Vira Varma himself was not much interested to help British-after all his aim was to create a flare up between his nephew and British for sake of pure self-interest.[page needed]
Raja then visited to Mysorean commandant at Karkankotta in 1796 and in 1797 held an audience with old enemy Tipu in Mysore who posted 6000 men at Karkankotta to aid Raja in case of war and also to supply ammunition to rebels. He also began to collect troops and armament. War was imminent. 1200 troops and artillery under Major General was sent by Bombay Government to deal with Pazhassi. British also began to set up outposts in Kottayam and sent more troops to Wayanad.
In early 1797, Nayar militia rose all over Kottayam and British outposts were trapped in a true state of siege. Partisan bands became active all over Kottayam and harassed reinforcements and supply convoys. Same was the case in Wayanad where British troops that moved out of safety of block-houses risked being way-laid by Kurichia bowmen. British suffered good loss in terms of men, ammunitions and stores in these ambuscades.
Victory at Periya Pass
This event was the most important in the whole war. In 1797, Colonel Dow & force marches into Wayanad. His plan was to block Periya Pass and then crush a large rebel force in Kannoth once their retreat is blocked.[page needed]
Reinforcements under Lieutenant Mealy were to reach Dow at Periya, but on way they were severely harassed by a force of Nayars and Kurichias and suffered a casualty of 105 men. So instead of Periya they retreated to their original base.
Dow’s troops suffered chronic shortage of supplies and so Dow applied for reinforcements and re-supplies to be sent under Major Anderson of Bowles' regiment. But as Mappila guides of Anderson deserted at last moment. That caused a delay in journey of Anderson-a delay that had fatal consequence for British.
Dow then received news that Tipu had sent sepoys to aid Raja as Tipu considered British entry into Wayanad a violation of Seringapatam Pact. Dow decided that he will go to Talassery to consult authorities there and to plan a greater operation to deal with troops of Raja and Tipu simultaneously in Wayanad. He left with a small band of men but was ambushed on way by Raja’s men aided by Mysorean sepoys but Dow escaped unhurt.
Day after he left, British force of 1100 under Major Cameroon in Periya decided to descend into Kottayam via Periya Pass as their supplies have exhausted.
But what they did not know was that Raja who learnt of true state of British army laid a trap for them-he ordered troops lay concealed in camouflaged stockades built on both sides of pass. Once the whole British force entered the narrow pass, hidden troops were to pounce on their enemy who must be caught unawares.
Plan worked well and what followed was great slaughter of British. Had it not been for arrival of Major Anderson’s force the following day, hardly any would have survived due to lack of medical care. Most of enemy were killed and all their guns, ammunition, baggage and cattle were plundered along with Union colours. Senior British officers like Major Cameroon, Lieutenant Nugent, Lieutenant Madge and Lieutenant Rudderman were killed in action.
Around this time, Commissioners took a decision on advice of Swaminatha Pattar, a Tamil Brahmin who was minister of Zamorin that sowed the eventual downfall of Pazhassi Raja. They decided to raise an irregular force of local traitors to harass Pazhassi Raja. This force was a fore-runner of the Kolkar, who became infamous for their sycophancy to British and cruelty to resisters and people.[page needed]
But for time being, Raja was in a strong position. On account of British disasters, Bombay Government sent a Committee of Government composed of men of highest ranks-Commander-In-Chief Lieutenant General Stuart and Governor Jonathan Duncan. They decided to make peace as they were anxious that guerrilla warfare in a mountainous and forested terrain could last long and that Raja might join forces with Tipu or French. They also decided that Kurumbranad Raja Vira Varma should be ousted form administration of Kottayam. Rajas of Chirakkal and Parappanad acted as mediators in negotiation between Raja and British and a peace pact was signed between Pazhassi and British in 1797.
- Pazhassi Raja was to be 'pardoned'.
- He will be returned his treasure.
- He will be provided an annual allowance of 8000 rupees.
- He will be given back his confiscated house at Pazhassi.
- Ravi Varma, elder brother of Pazhassi Raja will be head of Kottayam.
A pardon and restoration of property was also extended to Narangoli Nambiar of Iruvazinad.
Thus Raja’s efforts of four years ended in a political victory. Peace dawned after four years of antagonism and war.
Tipu Sultan in his letter to French government notes with glee that British had lost 1,000 European soldiers and 3,000 native sepoys in four years of war between British troops and Kottayam army.
Undeclared hostilities (1797-1800)
Despite the peace treaty of 1797, real peace did not emerge between Pazhassi Raja and English East India Company. Skirmishes continued across Kottayam. Main reason for this was that Company did not attempt to end its efforts to subjugate Kottayam and collect tax. But this was successfully foiled by partisans of Pazhassi Raja headed by Kaitheri Ambu. Pazhassi Raja also went ahead with his policy of defiance of English directions, continued with his military enlargement program and even shifted his seat of power to Mananthavadi in Wayanad - all of which were deemed as "injurious to interests of Company in Kottayam" by Colonel Dow, English representative in Kottayam. But since Raja clearly had upper hand since victory of 1797, English were powerless to put an end to his activities.
Second revolt and death (1800–1805)
After fall of Tipu, Wayanad fell to British. They sent a Mysore Commission to seize Wayanad and planned to annexe it to either Canara or Coimbatore. But as Wayanad was a traditional possession of Kottayam Raja and that Pazhassi is in control of this region since 1793, Pazhassi correctly saw move was an encroachment on his country’s ancient provinces. Raja retaliated by collecting a large force of Nayars which was now supplemented by Mappilas and Pathans, latter being ex-soldiers of Tipu who became unemployed after Tipu’s death.
British Government at Madras appointed Major General Arthur Wellesley as British army commandant of Mysore, Canara & Malabar.
He planned a double-pronged move from Malabar Coast and Mysore into Wayanad and began preparations for that end. Raja observed Major General-latter had brought reinforcements and building roads in Wayanad and outposts across rebel country. In response, Raja also recruited numerous men which so alarmed Wellesley that latter even wanted to kidnap kith and kin of rebels so as to check Raja’s recruitment.
Raja learnt that Wellesley had left to Deccan on a military mission-Raja who understood that Major General’s absence is a great chance swiftly made his move. He marched across Kuttiyadi Pass and below he made a junction with Unni Mootha Mooppan, a Walluvanad Mappila leader & his men and soon several great nobles like Kampuratt Nambiar of Iruvazhinad, Peruvayal Nambiar and Kannavath Sankaran Nambiar also joined Raja with their men.
By monsoon of 1800, rebels who controlled all of country-side of Kottayam threatened to overwhelm British outposts in Kottayam. Wellesley sent a large force under Colonel Sartorius to recapture rebel held Kottayam. But the plan could not be carried out as there were not enough troops in Malabar. Wellesley advised Commissioners to stop all communications with Wayanad so as to starve Raja of supplies. But shortage of troops also meant this plan too remained on paper. By the time, Wellesley decided to smash Raja by a double drive from Malabar Coast and Mysore into Wayanad, Manjeri Athan Gurikkal an Ernad Mappila leader along with his followers agreed to support of Raja.[page needed]
By 1801, a large British force of over 10,000 men swarmed all over Kottayam and Wayanad and they blocked all passes that linked Wayanad with Malabar. Before so large numbers, rebels thought wise to go under-ground for time being. Raja also found that he could no longer contact his supporters in Southern Wayanad and Southern Malabar. Raja became a wanderer in forests but even then, to surprise of British, he ruled out compromise it seems he understood that there was no alternative to full freedom.[page needed]
Raja had six close aides and 25 musketeers in his wanderings. First he went north via Payyavur along montane forests of eastern Chirakkal to rally support. But British were on his trail but failed to catch him. Raja then visited his secret bases in Kottayam and then moved into Kadathanad and into jungles of Kurumbranad. British were angered that where ever he went, nobles supported him in secret and decided to punish them for their help to rebel Raja.
As a part of terrorisation, Peruvayal Nambiar who was arrested was hanged. British also threatened brutal penalty and confiscation of property for all those rebels who failed to surrender in six weeks time. But a pardon was also issued for surrendered rebels. But none of these threats and temptations worked and Raja was still at large. But some of his chief supporters were arrested of whom Kannavath Sankaran Nambiar was most famous. Kannavath Sankaran Nambiar and his son were hanged too and their property was confiscated.
Following murder of Kannavath Nambiar, a deceptive calm descended on North Malabar-calm before storm. Collector Major MacLeod believed that war was over and went ahead with exploitation program. He immediately declared a total disarmament of Malabar and threatened those who kept arms with death penalty. He also doubled the rate of tax and ordered a reassessment of tax of whole Malabar in a mere forty days.
All these 'reforms' paid back in 1803 when Malabar was on verge of revolt as people were pushed to wall. MacLeod tried to calm this with corrective measure-He cancelled all his 'reforms' and old system was reinstated. But it was too late for Wayanad where Raja’s men were prepared for a rebellion.[page needed]
Capture of Panamaram Fort
The first major event was the capture of Panamaram Fort. Edachena Kungan Nair planned the operation and was helped by 150 Kurichia bowmen under Talakkal Chandu. Fort had 70 men under Captain Dickenson and there was a large force of 360 men under Major Drummond only a few miles away in Pulinjali. So if Major came to help Captain in time Kurichia force would be overwhelmed by gun-fire and numbers. But Kungan and Chandu decided to take risk.[page needed]
Whole garrison was slaughtered in the surprise attack led by the two generals and they lost only 5 dead and 10 wounded. Dickenson himself was killed. Rebels got 112 muskets, six boxes of ammunitions and 6000 rupees. They also destroyed the whole fort.(The remains of the fort can be seen now near Panamaram High School).
Wellesley was enraged at this rebel audacity and dispatched 500 men to retaliate. But by then rebel victory had roused all of Wayanad and Kottayam. Edachena Kungan, hero of Panamaram success, went to Pulpally shrine and issued a proclamation to people to join Raja’s war. 3000 men volunteered. They were posted at Valliyurkav at Mananthavadi, Motimjarra [?], and Edappally and 100 of them under brother of Kungan posted themselves at Periya Pass and 25 men were posted at Kottiyur Pass. Rebel outposts were set up en route from Dindimal to Valliyurkav. The rebel army was mostly composed of archers and sword men, but some had muskets.
Edachena Kungan Nair led an attack on a British detachment headed from Mysore to Mananthavadi. Harassment began once this force entered Wayanad till it reached a stream between Manathavadi and Bhavully river. There they were blocked by a rebel force entrenched on opposite side of stream. But to ill luck of rebels a reinforcement which had caught up with blocked British army outflanked the rebel entrenchment and took a large number of prisoners. All these prisoners were disarmed and marched to a road where they were murdered.[page needed]
Besides, British reinforcements arrived in Wayanad from all directions. But British could find rebels nowhere.
The rebels now concentrated in Kottayam. In 1802, they raided a supplies convoy near Kottiyur. British were frustrated by Kottayam people’s total lack of co-operation. To add to their trouble, in 1803, a rebel force took to field in Kurumbranad* & Payyormala* and people were sympathetic to rebels. Kungan marched towards Pazhassi to wipe out the British outpost there but had to retreat, though British suffered serious losses. Soon rebellion spread into Chirakkal where armed bands of partisans launched operations and often fought British openly. Raja’s army by end of 1803 was ranging as far as Kannur and Thalasseri. An estimated 3350 partisans of Pazhassi Raja took part in this operation that extended south as far as Ernad.
[*Both in northern and eastern parts of modern Calicut District]
In March 1803, a rebel force marched as far as Calicut and captured Sub-Jail where they killed all guards and seized their firearms and ammunition. They also released prisoners, many of whom joined ranks of rebel army. This was too much for MacLeod and he resigned immediately after this event.
In 1803, Wellesley left for Europe, after three years of inconclusive war with Pazhassi Raja, later destined to become Duke of Wellington, vanquisher of Napoleon at Waterloo.
In 1803, British had 8,147 soldiers to fight Pazhassi Raja. But as situation was slipping out of control, British military command in Malabar requested for another 5,000 men. This reinforcement arrived in early 1804 and thus increasing British force to 13,000 men.
In 1804, a large British army arrived and 1200 Kolkar were also ready for action. Most importantly Thomas Hervey Baber, a civil servant was appointed as Sub-Collector. It was he who crushed Pazhassi's Revolt forever. It is indeed ironic that what a military genius like Wellesley could not attain, was achieved by Baber – said to be just a 'civil servant.' Baber had both a personal motive – to avenge the death of his friend Major Cameron, the first husband of his wife Helen Somerville Fearon at the hand of Pazhassi Raja on 9 January 1797 at Periya Pass. Baber became a civil servant to protect the interests of a small but influential group of merchants that included his in-laws – the Inglis and Money families of Bombay. It is noteworthy that Baber's son Henry Fearon Baber married the Granddaughter of George Harris, 1st Baron Srirangapattam and the nemesis of Tipu Sultan.
In 1804, a huge rising led by Kalyat Nambiar [a powerful Chirakkal noble but Raja’s sympathiser] and Raja’s men in largely forested eastern Chirakkal was crushed by British. If there was large and long revolt warfare in Chirakkal, it would have immensely profited Raja. Though there was a lot of supporters of Raja in Chirakkal, as revolt collapsed fast as rebels opted for open confrontation instead of time honoured guerrilla warfare. Another cause for failure of revolt was treacherous Kolkar also served their White pay-masters well.[page needed]
So once more rebel force had retreat to Wayanad. They were hotly chased by British who had 2000 Sepoys and 1000 Kolkar. A reward of 3000 pagodas was offered for Raja along with 1000 Pagodas for Edachena Kungan and bounties were put on heads of 10 other associates of Raja.[page needed]
But rebels, mostly Kurumbas, struck at Churikunji [?] in Wayanad. Though they had to withdraw, they had devastated their enemy. That year, a party of Kolkar nearly caught Raja but he escaped thanks to timely warning of a Kurumba guard.
But monsoon and brutal climate of Wayanad soon aided Raja. Of 1300 Kolkar only 170 were not sick by October. Raja and Edachena Kungan organised a large force of Kurichias and Kurumbas at Pulpally shrine and positioned them to as far as Kurichiyat. Also effort of Kungan to rally Nayar nobles of Wayanad to support Raja’s war-effort had also succeeded.[page needed]
British for past couple of years did not have to suffer loss on a scale of Periya in 1797, but matters were not easy for British at all. Even in Kottayam which had become quiet might explode once more and a large rebel force with Raja as head was still at large.But one must remember that the whole revolt is a one-man show as Wellesley himself remarked once-“We are not fighting 1000 men [Raja’s army] ... but one man ... Kerala Varma.”-Raja’s end would mean end of revolt.
Betrayal and death
T.H. Baber went to Mysore to direct operations himself and began a large search for informants and traitors. True, British themselves admit that they did not get lot of informants as locals were devoted to Raja, but some of those few informants proved devastating to revolt-one of them a Chetti, found out where Raja had camped and informed Baber who took to field with 100 Kolkar and 50 Sepoys.
There is one school of thought that blames Pazhayamviden Chandu as solely responsible for fall of Raja and end of his revolt. Pazhayamviden worked with British military authority as an "adviser" like Pallore Eman, but in reality spied for Raja. But in autumn of 1805 Pazhayamviden decided to betray all military secrets of his master for a large sum of money.
In light of above points, it will not be far fetched to believe that Chetti who guided British troops to Raja's hideout mentioned by Baber in his letter could be a servant or agent of Pazhayamviden Chandu.
On 1805, 30 November, Raja and retainers were camped close to Karnataka on the shore of a stream named Mavila or Mavila Tod [not far from Pulpally]. Raja and party were caught by surprise and an intense but short fight followed. Six rebels were killed. One of the earliest rebels to be killed was Pazhassi Raja.[page needed]
But evidently, wounded Raja did live long enough for a few more minutes to raise his loaded gun and then tell Canara Menon, an East India Company minor official, not to come too close to his dying body and pollute it. Raja's contempt and sarcasm for a man who chose to serve unclean foreigner is evident. But it also showed his uncompromising stand towards collaborators and foreign invaders.
The precise nature of Raja's death is controversial. Folklore insists that he committed suicide by swallowing a diamond ring to avoid capture after he was wounded but Baber says he was killed by a clerk named Canara Menon. W. J. Wilson, who wrote on the history of the Madras Regiment, credits Captain Clafam and his six sepoys for killing. This third version is more likely as Baber was not on good terms with military authority throughout the war. He is alleged to have credited Menon so as to deny credit to Clafam and his superior Colonel Hill.
Kunjani, the wife of Raja who was taken prisoner, committed suicide in captivity at Kappanaveedu, near Thalassery. As reprisal on his family, property was confiscated and the palace at Pazhassi was demolished and replaced with a highway. The sorry state of his family aroused sympathy in local Thiyyas, who were loyal followers and built a new house for his family.
...but in all classes, I observed a decided interest for the Pyche Raja, towards whom the inhabitants entertained a regard and respect bordering on veneration, which not even his death can efface.— Thomas Harvey Baber, 1805
- Descriptive account of Pazhassi Raja as early as 1775 confirm his later day image as a courageous warrior committed to the freedom of his country.
- Walter Ivor, a member of Court of Directors, who had taken part in negotiations with Pazhassi Raja in 1797 notes that British losses that year in Cotiote War exceeded British losses in Third Anglo-Mysore War.
- War waged by Pazhassi Raja was the longest anti-British resistance struggle in India and forest warfare waged by Raja had no parallel in history of India in late eighteenth and early nineteenth century India.
- British military command always wondered at the logistics of Raja’s army. How he organized supplies for his several thousand strong armies remained a puzzle for them
- To fight overwhelmingly superior enemies, Raja imparted military training to his peasantry wholesale and recruited them into his military force. This military policy of wholesale militarization was novel in history of pre-modern Kerala. His war-effort was marked by participation of members of all creeds, classes and castes who took up arms due to his inspiration. Nobles, headmen, peasants, shopkeepers, merchants, artisans and forest tribes rallied to fight the foreign invaders — first Mysore and later English East India Company.
- British losses were severe in terms of men and ran into several thousands. Death roll was particularly high with officers of commissioned ranks. So high were the losses suffered by Bombay army regiments that operated in North Malabar that they had to be withdrawn in 1803 fearing that further losses would cripple Bombay Army as a respectable body of troops.
- Raja shared all the privations of his ordinary soldiers during war and took part in all major military action exposing himself to personal danger. On account of these attributes, he commanded great respect of his troops.
- Royal regiments from Britain also took part in Cotiote War along with Company troops.
- Anti-British rebels in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka also were allied to Pazhassi Raja.
- Arthur Wellesely, Duke of Wellington adopted methods of guerrilla warfare used by Pazhassi Raja to defeat Napoleon's armies in Spain.
- Memory of Pazhassi Raja and his struggle inspired freedom struggle in 20th century Kerala.
Pazhassi Raja had no selfish motive of personal power. Kurup (1988) describe him as an altruistic personality who upheld interests of his subjects and country over his personal interest. He believed that he was duty bound to protect his subjects from exploitation and oppression. Frenz (2008) also supports this view and opines that Raja was committed to welfare of his people and freedom of his country. She notes that Pazhassi Raja opted for fight British when it became clear to him that English East India Company would not respect freedom of his country and welfare of his subjects. She noted that Raja considered it a personal failure as a leader if he failed to uphold sovereignty of his kingdom.
Criticism leveled against Raja for allying with English East India Company during his wars with Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan is not rational in light of an analysis of contemporary South Indian history. Raja allied with Company initially not because he was a vassal of British, but because Mysore was enemy of both. Before 1792, Malabar suffered from rapacity of Mysore rule and British were only a merchant power who had not yet harmed people of Malabar. So it was understandable that many leader of Malabar – Pazhassi Raja included – allied with British to fight Mysore rulers like Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan.
Swaminatha Iyer, a British agent had noted as early as 1797 that extreme popularity of Raja was on account of the fact that he remained in his country with his subjects during Mysore invasions and shared with them the trials and tribulations and also due to his extreme generosity to this peasantry. It was on account of love and support from his subjects that Raja could evade and fight British for a decade even when he had a bounty on his head.
After his fellow Rajas in Malabar submitted to British after 1798, Raja himself knew well that he will be defeated and killed in the long run if he chose to fight English East India Company. But yet he refused to compromise. In a letter to Kalyat Kuttieman he reveals his intent to resist English power to the end.
He took initiative to rebuild his country which was devastated by Mysore invasions. As part of this, he borrowed money from Tellicherry Factory and gave financial help to his peasants to resume agriculture along with distribution of seeds and cattle. This was in contrast to rest of Rajas of Malabar who squeezed peasants. This was one reason why his popularity with masses remained high.
Raja is also credited with spread of agriculture in Wynad. He started a program that encouraged tribesmen in Wynad to adopt settled agriculture. As part of this program, he instructed his vassals in Wynad to distribute cattle and seeds to tribesmen in Wynad.
Pazhassi Raja was assisted by eighty chieftains during his wars and some were entrusted with administrative responsibilities also. Most prominent of them are Chengoteri Chathu, Pallur Eman, Kaitheri Ambu, Kannavath Nambiar, Thalakkal Chandu and Edachena Kunkan.
In his decades long war to oust invaders, Rajah developed an elaborate system of cantonments and forts in jungly and mountainous part of his country.
Four of them are most important – granite fort on Purali range [modern Muzhakunnu] which was built by his ancestor Harischandra Perumal over a thousand years ago. He had another granite fort at Manatana. In Wynad, he had a great fort in Mananthavady which was reported to have ability to house his whole army of 6000 men. He also had a stronghold in Todikulam near Kannavam which belonged to his supporter Kannavath Sankaran.
Of all his strongholds, none survive today. Only ruins of Purali fort survive today. It is today a heap of granite boulders. Only a tank still survives today. A nearby black-stone cave where Raja once lived can still be found.
In popular culture
Pazhassi Raja appears in numerous folk songs in North Malabar, in which his heroic resistance to the English is the subject.
- A drama titled Pazhassi Raja was composed by Kappana Krishna Menon in early 20th century.
- Historian K. M. Panikkar wrote a historical novel named Keralasimham in 1941, which is based on life of Pazhassi Raja.
- The 1964 Malayalam film titled Pazhassi Raja was based on his life. It was directed by Kunchacko and starring Kottarakkara Sreedharan Nair as Pazhassi Raja.
- The 2009 Malayalam film Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja depicts the life of the Raja. Directed by Hariharan and written by M. T. Vasudevan Nair. The political situation of the time is portrayed from different viewpoints, and the locals are treated sympathetically in this film.
- Elayavoor (2007), p. 24.
- Wayanad – Its People and Traditions by C. Gopalan Nair
- Menon (2007), p. 295.
- Elayavoor (2007), p. 13.
- Kurup (1980).
- Balakrishnan (2011), p. 58.
- Kurup (2008), p. 24.
- Menon (2007), p. 296.
- Kurup (2008), p. 27.
- Elayavoor (2007), p. 14.
- Murland, Lieutenant Colonel HF (2005). Baillie-Ki-Paltan: A History of the 2nd Battalion, Madras Pioneers 1759 - 1930. East Sussex: The Naval and Military Press Ltd. p. 48.
- Elayavoor (2007), p. 27.
- Kurup (2008), p. 28.
- Calicut University Text for paper Kerala History and Culture Distance Education MA History 2007 by Prof. SS Warrier
- Kurup (2008), p. 29.
- Rajayyan (1971), p. 90.
- Kurup (2008), p. 31.
- Kurup (2008), p. 32.
- Balakrishnan (2011), p. 60.
- Evolution of Kerala History and Culture, Prof. T. K. Gangadharan, 2004, Calicut University Central Cooperative Stores Ltd, No.4347, Calicut University 673,635
- Kurup (2008), p. 35.
- Menon, A Sreedhara (2007). Kerala Charitrashilpikal. Kottayam 686 001: DC Books. p. 191. ISBN 81-264-1584-3.
- Elayavoor (2007), p. 16.
- Kurup (2008), p. 38.
- Rajayyan (1971), p. 91.
- Menon (2007), p. 313.
- Balakrishnan (2011), p. 61.
- Kurup (2008), p. 42.
- Elayavoor (2007), p. 29.
- Kurup (2008), p. 36.
- Elayavoor (2007), p. 30.
- Kurup (2008), p. 43.
- Balakrishnan (2011), p. 62.
- Kurup (2008), p. 45.
- Menon (2007), p. 314.
- Rajayyan (1971), p. 92.
- Kurup (2008), p. 48.
- Kurup (2008), p. 49.
- Rajayyan (1971), p. 94.
- Elayavoor (2007), p. 32.
- Balakrishnan (2011), p. 63.
- Rajayyan (1971), p. 95.
- Kurup (2008), p. 58.
- Kurup (2008), p. 59.
- Balakrishnan (2011), p. 64.
- Elayavoor (2007), p. 19.
- Kurup (2008), p. 60.
- Menon (2007), p. 315.
- Kurup (2008), p. 64.
- Kurup (2008), p. 72.
- Elayavoor (2007), p. 20.
- Kurup (2008), p. 77.
- Kurup (2008), p. 73.
- Kurup (2008), p. 78.
- Kurup (2008), p. 83.
- Kurup (2008), p. 84.
- Rajayyan (1971), p. 175.
- Balakrishnan (2011), p. 66.
- Kurup (2008), p. 85.
- Kurup (2008), p. 89.
- Balakrishnan (2011), p. 68.
- Rajayyan (1971), p. 180.
- Kurup (2008), p. 90.
- Menon (2007), p. 316.
- Rajayyan (1971), p. 187.
- Kurup (2008), p. 93.
- Rajayyan (1971), p. 192.
- Elayavoor (2007), p. 34.
- Kurup (2008), p. 101.
- Kurup (2008), p. 103.
- Rajayyan (1971), p. 282.
- Balakrishnan (2011), p. 69.
- Elayavoor (2007), p. 21.
- Rajayyan (1971), p. 283.
- Kurup (2008), p. 104.
- Kurup (2008), p. 106.
- Kurup (2008), p. 111.
- Balakrishnan (2011), p. 70.
- Kurup (2008), p. 107.
- Historical preface of Kerala Simham, Sardar KM Panikker, , DC Books, 2008 Edition, Kottayam 686,001
- Elayavoor (2007), p. 35.
- Kurup (2008), p. 112.
- Menon (2007), p. 317.
- Rajayyan (1971), p. 286.
- Kurup (2008), p. 119.
- Elayavoor (2007), p. 36.
- Kurup (2008), p. 120.
- Kurup (2008), p. 121.
- Ramachandran (2008), p. 95.
- Kurup (2008), p. 123.
- Elayavoor (2007), p. 15.
- Kurup (1980), p. 126.
- Balakrishnan (2011), p. 52.
- Elayavoor, Vanidas (2002). Vadakkan Aitihyamala (4th ed.). Kottayam: Current Books. p. 108. ISBN 8124003963.
- Kurup (1980), p. 9.
- Kurup (1980), p. 127.
- Balakrishnan (2011), p. 71.
- Kurup (1980), p. 128.
- Menon, A Sreedhara (2016). Kerala History and its Makers. Kottayam: DC Books. p. 174. ISBN 978-81-264-2199-2.
- Kurup (1980), p. 129.
- Kurup (1980), p. 130.
- Frenz, Margaret (2004). "A Race of Monsters: South India and British 'Civilizing Mission' in Later Eighteenth Century". In Fischer-Tine, Harald; Mann, Michael. Colonialism as Civilizing Mission: Cultural Ideology in British India. London: Wimbledon Publishing Company. p. 64. ISBN 1843310929.
- Kurup (1980), p. 8.
- Kurup (1980), p. 132.
- Elayavoor (2007), p. 103.
- "Mathrubhoomi" Daily, 5 October 2009, Kannur Edition
- Elayavoor (2007), p. 7.
- Balakrishnan (2011), p. 72.
- B. Vijayakumar (14 December 2009). "Pazhassi Raja 1964". The Hindu. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 May 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
- Balakrishnan, K. (2011), Pazhassiyum Kadathanadum, Kottayam: DC Books, ISBN 978-81-264-3056-7
- Elayavoor, Vanidas (2007), Vadakkanpattiloru Pazhassikatha, Kozhikode: Poorna Publications, ISBN 81-300-0667-7
- Kurup, K. K. N. (1980), Pazhassi Samarangal
- Kurup, K. K. N. (2008), Pazhassi Samara Rekhakal (2nd ed.), Kozhikode: Mathrubhumi Books, ISBN 81-8264-574-3
- Menon, A. Sreedhara (2007) , Keralacharitram, Kottayam: DC Books, ISBN 81-264-1588-6
- Rajayyan, K. (1971), South Indian Rebellion, Mysore: Rao and Raghavan
- Ramachandran, D. P. (2008), Empire's First Soldiers, New Delhi: Lancer Publishers, ISBN 0979617472
Fischer-Tiné, Harald; Mann, Michael, eds. (2004). Colonialism As Civilizing Mission: Cultural Ideology in British India. Anthem Press. ISBN 9781843310921.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pazhassi Raja.|