The Peace Society, International Peace Society or London Peace Society originally known as the Society for the Promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace, was a British pacifist organization that was active from 1816 until the 1930s.
The Society for the Promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace was founded on 14 June 1816. It advocated a gradual, proportionate, and simultaneous disarmament of all nations and the principle of arbitration. The Society in London established Auxiliary Societies in various cities and towns in the United Kingdom: for instance at Doncaster and Leeds.
Late 19th century
Lewis Appleton organized the International Arbitration and Peace Association (IAPA) in 1880. Unlike the Peace Society the IAPA accepted defensive war, was not restricted to Christians and claimed to be international. It also allowed women on the executive committee.
In the spring of 1882 E. M. Southey, the main founder of the Ladies Peace Association, persuaded her group to disaffiliate from the Peace Society and join the IAPA.The Quaker Priscilla Hannah Peckover played a central role in organizing a new ladies auxiliary of the Peace Society that was launched on 12 July 1882. During the 1880s the Peace Society stagnated. Its Ladies' Peace Association was more dynamic, and claimed 9,217 members by the summer of 1885, of which 4,000 belonged to Peckover's Wisbech group.
Early 20th century
The Society's failure to condemn the outbreak of World War I in 1914 resulted in internal divisions and led to the resignation of its leader, William Evans Darby. His successor, Revd. Herbert Dunnico, led the society's unsuccessful campaign for peace negotiations.
In 1930 the Peace Society merged with the International Christian Peace Fellowship and was renamed the International Peace Society. At some time thereafter it became defunct. It published a monthly journal, The Herald of Peace, founded in 1819.
- Robert Marsden - Evangelical stockbroker; Chairman, 1817–1836
- Charles Hindley MP - Moravian Church politician; President, 1836–1860
- Joseph Pease - Quaker politician; President, 1860–1872
- Evan Rees ?–1821
- Nun Morgan Harry - ?–1830
- John Jefferson - Congregational pastor; 1831–1848
- Henry Richard - Congregational pastor and politician; 1848–1885
- W. Evans Darby - 1885–1915
- Herbert Dunnico - 1915–?
As listed in The Origins of War Prevention: The British Peace Movement and International Relations, 1730–1854, the founding dozen were:
- William Allen- Quaker philanthropist, chemist
- John Clarkson, abolitionist, founding father of Sierra Leone
- Thomas Clarkson, abolitionist and campaigner
- William Crawford (prison reformer) (1788–1847) see WikiSource
- Charles Stokes Dudley, active in the British and Foreign Bible Society (see ODNB
- Rev Thomas Harper (1762–1832) - (Obituary in The Herald of Peace 1831, p. 528)
- Robert Marsden (1769/70 – 1847)
- Joseph Tregellan Price (see ODNB)
- Evan Rees (1790–1821), businessman
- John Scott - Banker (author of the Society's second tract: 'War Inconsistent with the Doctrine and Example of Christ', originally published 1796)
- Frederick Smith (1757–1823), chemist and druggist
- Thomas Sturge the elder (1749–1825), Quaker businessman and philanthropist
- John Bowring - Bentham's editor, governor of Hong Kong
- John Bright - Quaker politician
- Richard Cobden, MP
- Hugh Stowell Brown - leader of Liverpool branch
- Robert Charleton - Quaker pin manufacturer and Peace Envoy.
- Charles Gilpin - Quaker publisher and later MP
- Joseph Sturge - Quaker abolitionist; founded the Birmingham Auxiliary
- Sir Wilfrid Lawson Radical MP
- Joseph Pease; Uncle of the Joseph Pease above
- Robert Lucas Chance; founder of Chance Brothers glassworks
Records of the Peace Society
- International Peace Society Records, 1817-1948 at Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania. Note: this is a large file of pamphlets and other printed publications of the Society. There is an historical introduction to the collection but no business archives are in the collection.
- Other records of the Peace Society are said to be in the possession of Mr CP Dunnico
There are also records at the Savings Bank Museum http://www.savingsbanksmuseum.co.uk/collection.html as the founder of the first parish savings bank Henry Duncan wrote on this subject.
- German Peace Society (German: Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft), founded in 1892
- American Peace Society, founded in 1828
- New York Peace Society, founded in 1815
- International Peace Congress
- Peter Barberis, John McHugh, Mike Tyldesley, Encyclopedia of British and Irish Political Organizations, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2000, p.345.
- Researching Yorkshire Quaker History (2007) p.95, Item 1.5.6: Doncaster Auxiliary Peace Society p.97 1.5.13: Leeds Peace Association
- Ceadel 2000, p. 112.
- Ceadel 2000, p. 113.
- Ceadel 2000, p. 114.
- Ceadel 2000, p. 127.
- Herald of Peace, Volume 8 (1831) available online at Googlebooks.
- Cornell University Library has produced a facsimile of The Herald of Peace 1824 (April, May, June) issues (pages on Amazon.com) ISBN 978-1-4297-2848-5
- Spartacus article on Joseph Pease Archived 2007-08-17 at the Wayback Machine
- The Memoirs of Evan Rees, the first Secretary, were published in 1853. They are available online at GoogleBooks.
- details of four published texts by Rev Nun Morgan Harry are to be found in the British Library Integrated Catalogue.
- Harry, Jefferson and Richard are all buried at Abney Park Cemetery.
- Ceadel, Martin (1996). The origins of war prevention : the British peace movement and international relations, 1730-1854 (Reprint. ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 521. ISBN 9780198226741.
- Lee, Sidney, ed. (1895). . Dictionary of National Biography. 44. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- Researching Yorkshire Quaker History (2007)p.95, Item 1.5.6.
- Ceadel, Martin (2000). Semi-detached Idealists: The British Peace Movement and International Relations, 1854-1945. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-924117-0. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Paul Laity The British Peace Movement, 1870-1914, Cambridge University Press, 2001 ISBN 0-19-924835-4, some pages available at GoogleBooks - Chapter 1 concerns the founding of the British Peace Society in 1816.
- The Times, Wednesday, 23 May 1866; p. 12; Issue 25505; col C: THE PEACE SOCIETY.-The 50th anniversary