Providence (religious movement)
|Christian Gospel Mission
|Classification||Christian new religious movement|
|Head Pastor||Jung Myung-seok|
Seoul, South Korea
|Separated from||Unification Church
|Christian Gospel Mission|
Jung Myung-seok, founder of Providence
|Revised Romanization||Jeong Myeong-seok|
Providence (officially Christian Gospel Mission) is a Christian new religious movement founded by Jung Myung-seok in 1980; Jung was formerly a member of Unification Church and was strongly influenced by it. He founded a church that was formerly associated with Methodism but was expelled from that community. Most of its members live in South Korea. Providence has been widely referred to by the media as a cult.
Following accusations against him by South Korean police of rape, fraud, and embezzlement, Jung fled the country in 1999 and lived as a fugitive in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and China before being arrested by Chinese police in May 2007. In April 2009, the Supreme Court of South Korea sentenced him to 10 years imprisonment. Jung is scheduled for release on parole in early 2018.
The sect has also been called Jesus Morning Star (JMS), Setsuri ("Providence" in Japanese), International Christian Association (ICA), the Morning Star Church (MS Church), the Bright Moon Church, and Ae-chun Church (애천교회).
Providence's core teaching are found in a series of unpublished precepts called the 30 Lessons,[a] which bear considerable resemblance to the "Divine Principle" of the Unification Church. According to one researcher, nine of the 30 lessons exhibit a "considerable level of resemblance" with the Divine Principle. The Lessons are based on a numerological interpretation which identifies the sect's leader as the Second Coming of Christ.
One lesson implies that those who do not "meet" him will not go to Heaven; another that any who betray him are committing a grave crime. During the instruction of the advanced level[a] of the 30 Lessons, Jung is taught to be the Messiah, proven through the numerological interpretation of prophesied dates and times in the book of Daniel. Although, more recent statements from a representative seems to contradict this claim.
Like the Unification Church, Providence preaches the advent of the "Completed Testament Era". Providence furthermore allegorize the relationship between God and man to that between the groom and bride, or two lovers. While both Unification Church and Providence teach that Original sin was caused by Eve's intercourse with the fallen angel turned Satan, Providence teaches this can be redeemed by having sex with Jung Myung-seok.  Jung was found to have forced female followers to have sex with him "as a religious behavior meant to save their souls" in the Korean Court of Law.[b] Former members have stated or testified that young and attractive women were presented to Jung as "sexual gifts", with whom he coercibly engaged in the sexual act, which was explained to them as a purification rite.[c]
Although some of the teachings are held secret to within the sect, scholars such as Yoshihide Sakurai who analyzed and summarized the sect's beliefs relied on documented testimonies as well as interviews with ex-members that included victims. He also obtained notes from ex-members which were used in the "bible study", as instructions in the 30 lessons were conventionally called within the sect.
Initiates into the sect are initially approached by being invited into an "activity circle", i.e., sports or music clubs in school; the inductees learn only later when taken to "bible study" that religion constitutes part of the "circle" activity. In this manner, Providence forms non-religious organisations for the purpose of attracting young people without initially revealing the religious nature of the group or their real motives,[d] a practice ruled "fraudulent" under law by the Japanese Supreme Court.[e]
Jung Myung-seok was born in 1945. He is also known by the names of Joshua Jung, Joshua Lee and Pastor Joshua. In the 1970s he was a member of the Unification Church, whose teachings have been alleged to resemble Jung's "quite closely". In 1980, Jung founded the Ae-chun Church (애천교회), which was affiliated with the Methodist Church. The church was later expelled from the Methodists and he changed its name to the International Christian Association (국제크리스천연합) in the mid 1980s. A rift occurred in the group in 1986, according to the Hyundae Jongyo magazine and publisher, when the vice president of Providence attempted to act on the sex scandals surrounding the group, but he was shut out of the organizational system and Jung consolidated all power around himself.
Sexual abuse allegations in the media
The Providence sex scandal received wide public attention following Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS)'s exposé, broadcast on March 20, 1999 on its TV news magazine, The Unanswered. Over 100 alleged victims were contacted for information in the making of this series.[f] JMS (as Providence was known then) countered with lawsuits to suppress the broadcast, libel litigation, and an organized two-month barrage of phone calls, as many as 60,000 calls per day.
The broadcast resulted in Jung fleeing the country one day later. Jung would live freely outside of Korea for the next 7 years, until apprehended by the Chinese authorities in 2006, and repatriated to Korea the following year.
Sexual abuse allegation continued to surface against Jung overseas, in Hong Kong, China, Taiwan, Japan, and other locations. The news show The Unanswered (Korean: 그것이 알고 싶다, literally: "I Want to Know it") followed with additional episodes covering Jung's activities abroad.[g][h] In one episode, SBS reported how female members of Providence had been flown to and held against their will at Jung's hideout in Anshan in the Chinese province Liaoning on the border to Korea. One 28-year-old Korean who in April 2005 managed to escape, confided how she was sexually violated multiple times by Jung.[i]
In Japan, there were 2,000 Providence members as of 2006, almost entirely students and graduates of prestigious colleges, and 60% women. During his soujourns in Japan, Jung summoned upwards of 10 women on an almost daily basis, and under the false pretext of running a "health check" would have improper sexual encounters with them.[j] Jung's aides are said to have imposed strict secrecy of these encounters with Jung, threatening the women with condemnation to hell if they told anyone what he had done.
In Taiwan too, similar incidents have been reported, where many female members of his organization were ordered to undress for a "health check", be subjected various forms of sexual abuse, including having sex with him to wipe off their sins.
The anti-Providence group EXODUS (founded in 1999) held a press conference on April 2006, in which four unidentified women wearing bucket hats and surgical masks covering their faces, accused Jung of organized sex crimes against themselves and other women, who required medical treatment.
Jung denied the charges, his followers said. In 2008, in response to the rape allegations, Providence pastor Bae Jae-yong said that it was a "distorted rumor that was created by the people who have slandered [Jung]" and that "all fundamental truth will be clarified by [Jung] at the prosecutor's office".
According to allegations by Ex-Providence members, as of 2012, some 500 to over 1,000 women members were still being groomed for future sexual exploitation by Jung. Known internally as the "Evergreens" (Hangul: 상록수; Hanja: 常緑樹; RR: sang-rok-su), these female members are said to comprise a "reserve corps" for "sex bribes" (Hangul: 성상납; Hanja: 性上納; RR: seong sangnap), a term for sexual favors accorded to those exercising power.[k] The "Evergreens" are educated and handled by 10 women in Providence's leadership.[l] Jo Gyeong-suk, former head of the group's Seoul branch and herself an alleged victim, stated salvation through sexual union with Jung was part of its canon. According to Jo, "not a few of those women committed suicide. They become severely depressed and receive psychiatric treatment, suffer various illnesses and social phobias as a result of the stress, and are unable to marry." The accusers added that Providence leader Jung, even while serving sentence in prison, is supplied with photograph profiles of female members, for him to make selections on which women would be inducted as "Evergreens".
Civil lawsuits and criminal conviction
Providence leader Jung fled Korea after SBS reported the sexual abuse he allegedly committed by Jung. However, he was not officially charged until 2001. At the end of the trial in 2002, a male witness who had testified that there was no sexual exploitation from 1993-4 was found guilty of perjury, and received a 1-year prison sentence.
In 2001, Jung was investigated by Taiwanese authorities on charges of sexual assault, but he left the country. Jung, having been wanted by Interpol since 2002, was arrested in Hong Kong in July 2003 for overstaying his visa, but was released three days later on a HK$10,000,000 (US$1,3 million as of July 2003[update]) bail. When Hong Kong authorities approved extradition to Korea, Jung fled the extradition hearing. An Interpol Red Notice was issued on Jung in 2004. In 2006, South Korean authorities put Jung on an international wanted list on rape charges, and after learning that Jung had fled to China, the South Korean government officially asked China in November 2006 to extradite him.
A South Korean woman and a Japanese woman filed a criminal suit in 2003 against Jung for raping them. In January 2008, the Supreme Court of South Korea awarded the two females ₩50,000,000 (US$52000 as of January 2008[update]) and ₩10,000,000 (US$10400) in damages for rape. The court said Jung forced the followers to have sex with him, saying that it is a religious behavior meant to save their souls. Providence followers started riots outside of newspapers that reported the court's verdict, broke into the Seoul office of the leading newspaper The Dong-a Ilbo trashing office furniture, and demanded the removal of articles critical of Jung.
After about 8 years on the run, Chinese Ministry of Public Security announced that Jung had been arrested in Beijing by Chinese police on May 1, 2007. Liaoning Provincial Higher People's Court ruled in September 2007 to extradite Jung, a decision upheld by the Supreme People's Court. He was extradited back to South Korea to stand charges on February 20, 2008. Jung was also charged with fraud and embezzlement of church funds.
In the criminal case heard by the Seoul Central District Court, former members told the court that Jung was provided with female members of his sect as "gifts", and he would then have sex them on a religious pretext. Reportedly Jung would be shown photographs of female members of his church, and once he chooses his "sexual gift", she would be conveyed to his place of stay outside Korea.
In August 2008, Jung was convicted for raping female followers and sentenced by the Seoul Central District court to six years imprisonment. On February 10, 2009, the Seoul High Court added four years to the district court's sentence of six years, overturning one of the lower court's acquittals and finding Jung guilty on a total of four counts of rape. Jung appealed his 10 years imprisonment sentence to the Supreme Court of South Korea, but the sentence was upheld in April 2009.
One of the sexually assaulted women subsequently filed a civil lawsuit against Jung. In its verdict in November 2009 Seoul Western District Court ruled that "the plaintiff's right to bodily integrity was violated and she suffered psychological pain as a result of the sexual violence of defendant... The defendant is obligated to compensated plaintiff for her pain." and that Jung should pay ₩50,000,000 in compensation.
Outside of Korea
Christian Gospel Mission is proselytizing under different names in different regions. Providence or Providence Church in Europe and the US, Setsuri (摂理, Japanese for "providence") in Japan, the Bright Moon Church, the Morning Star Church, and Jesus Morning Star (JMS). Each church branch that follows Jung's teaching keeps its own name (e.g. Nak-seong-dae Church, Seoul Church, etc.).
Providence began operating in Australia during 1997. Members of Providence have reported to been actively recruiting for new members at the Australian National University. On April 9, 2014, the Australian government-funded television network Special Broadcasting Service reported on their activities in Australia, including statements by former members that they sought young attractive women. Providence refused numerous requests for a spokesperson to be interviewed for the program in Australia and Korea. The organization's Chief of External Affairs denied in writing to answer specific questions about the group's Australian activities; however, he did disclose that it had charitable status for tax purposes.
In May 2016, Australian magazine Crikey revealed that an Australian Taxation Office (ATO) employee had been whitewashing the Wikipedia article on Providence. Operating from a work computer since August 2015, the lawyer had removed negative press coverage from the article and inserted glowing praise of Jung, while casting doubt on Jung's prison conviction. The woman, at first denying, admitted the editing. The ATO's Fraud Prevention and Internal Investigations Unit declined to take any action.
Providence has been reported about in Hong Kong, known as The Bright Moon Church there (月明教會). In October 2006 a former member told Oriental Daily News that it has about 100 core members in Hong Kong, including many medical graduates and some assistant professors. Though it has been in Hong Kong for years, its slow development kept it fairly unknown until its media exposure. Providence temporarily created an organization to run various community activities, known as the United Culture and Arts Network (UCAN).
Providence became active in Japan around 1985 or 1987. In 2006 the national newspaper Asahi Shimbun reported that Providence is "causing serious social problems in Japan", labeling it as a "cult" and "sect". It also reported that the organization was pressuring members to live together, make regular donations, marry within the organization, and follow the strict guidance of its founder.[d]
The group's church usually consisted of a single apartment room, where their religious studies occurred. Sometimes the church was where some of the faithful cohabitated. There were some 40 such churches across Japanese cities as of 2006. Members as students working part-time jobs were expected to contribute a minimum of ¥1,000 at weekly church service, and as full-salaried wage-earners, monthly tithes and bonus-time donations. Believers were instructed to live frugally on cheap food and never indulge in alcohol. They were forbidden from dating, but at a suitable time married within the group in mass ceremonies.[d] Although the Supreme Court of Japan in 1996 ruled mass weddings performed by the Unification Church were invalid, more than 300 Japanese members of Providence were wed in six mass ceremonies held between 1996 and 2006 modeled on the Unification Church. While being wanted on rape charges, Jung at a July 2003 mass wedding urged the couples via a big-screen Internet connection to have babies to increase the number of Providence members.
Police raided eight Providence facilities in Chiba on suspicion a senior member illegally obtained residence status. They also searched a facility in the city's Chuo Ward. The senior member, a Korean, was arrested for overstaying her visa. It was learned that Providence recruited "high class, high income" men and selected women for "style and looks".
It has been said that over 100 women have fallen victim of Jung's sexual transgressions in Japan alone.
The New Zealand Herald reported that Providence is recruiting young women in universities, shopping centres and churches. The University of Auckland issued a warning to student groups, and a parent support group for those whose children have been recruited or impacted was established. The Presbyterian Church of Auckland stated that its members are also being targeted. A 22-year-old University of Auckland student said that while a member she participated in photoshoots, fashion shows, and a Bible study course which introduced Jeong as the new messiah. A Providence leader was approached for comment, but failed to turn up to a meeting with Herald staff.
Providence's earliest activity in Taiwan was in 1988. It is commonly known as Jesus Morning Star Church (JMS), (Chinese: 晨星會; Hanyu Pinyin: chéngxīng huì; Tongyong Pinyin: chéeng sīn hùei; literally: "Jesus Morning Star Church", 攝理教 or 攝禮教 (shè lǐ jìao)). Providence itself rejects these common names, officially registered as 中華基督教新時代青年會 (China Christian Youth Association, CCYA), and sometimes calls itself 攝理教會 (Providence Church).
In November 2001 the Taiwanese version of Next Magazine published the article "Korean cult leader raped over one hundred Taiwanese female college students". Allegedly involved National Taiwan University, Fu Jen Catholic University, and National Chengchi University all denied the report, stated that there were no cult activities in their campuses at the time. NCCU acknowledged that there had been such activities many years ago. There had been similar reports in 1997. Taiwanese authorities investigated Jung for raping women, but he fled the country. Members of EXODUS soon came to Taiwan and held a press conference with an involved woman.
In October 2005 Apple Daily reported that many student clubs in National Central University and other campuses are recruiting for Providence Church. These clubs hold a wide variety of activities including the "Eagle Cup" soccer tournament in Taipei city and regular model training. The paper quoted an undisclosed former church member, that the church's "modeling department" is in fact a channel of recruiting sexual partners for Jung. The paper obtained three audio recordings of dialogs of some female members, which say that Jung have had sex with ten female members by mutual consent, most of them college students from the modeling department.
- First 12 lessons are considered introductory and elementary levels, 13–20 intermediate, and 21–30 advanced.(Sakurai 2007c, p. 5)
- Supreme Court of South Korea civil suit ruling, January 2008
- Seoul Central District Court, criminal trial, 2008. And statements reported in media, 2007.
- Asahi Shimbun′s article on July 27, 2006 was followed up by similar coverage in this editorial, issued bilingually: "Another problem cult" [教団のワナにはまるな (lit. "Don't get caught in the religious group's trap")]. Asahi Shimbun (in English and Japanese). August 18, 2006. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
The gimmicks the sect uses to increase its membership are nothing new. At university campuses, the sect's recruiters first approach students under the guise of a sports or cultural circle. After building close personal relationships with these students, the members reveal the religious nature of their group and start indoctrinating them. The favorite targets are serious-minded young people who feel alienated from their families and schools and wish to change their lives.
- Front groups for Providence/Christian Gospel Mission includes: Bright Smile Movement (BSM), China Christian Youth Association (CCYA), Global Association of Culture and Peace (GACP), International Cultural Exchange (ICE), International Culture Interchange Association (ICIA), IOCA, IOCA Modeling, Korean International Cultural Society (KICS), Peace Model Korea (PMK), Peace Model USA (PMUSA), Providence Vision Project (PVP), Sky Soccer, United Culture and Arts Network (UCAN), VIA 3, World Peace Model, Youth Developer Group (YDG)
- According to the SBS producer Nam Sang-mun, who later contributed articles in newspaper on the matter.
- The March 20, 1999 broadcast was followed up by a May 29, 1999 broadcast that contained an airing of Providence's views. The news show then ran a sequel on July 24, 1999. It aired another report on Providence on November 2002
- The SBS news show broadcast on May 29, 1999 a segment where JMS (Providence) expressed its views. Providence then began to publicize it had gotten SBS to retract. The SBS news show then aired a sequel on July 24, 1999 tor rebut Providence and to report on Jung living overseas.
- This was also reported by the Sisa Journal
- According to former members.
- Reporter Song Ju-youl (송주열) in one story quotes a JMS defector A revealing there are about 500, while another quotes an alleged victim who estimates over 1,000.
- According to Kim Jin-ho (김진호), former director of the cult and now representative of the group No JMS (JMS 피해대책협의회); she is quoted as saying "JMS는 현재 여성지도자 10여 명이 상록수를 관리하고 있다 (These are women currently in JMS's leadership, than 10 of them managed the evergreens)"
- "The secretive Korean religious cult operating in Australia". Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- "South Korean cult merges sex with prayer". Kyodo News Service, Japan. July 27, 2006. Archived from the original on April 23, 2008. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
Jung honed his sagely credentials as an acolyte of South Korea's Unification Church. ... Its Bible-based teaching is similar to that of the Unification Church but departs from it.(Kyodo's story sources the July 28, 2006 issue of Friday weekly magazine).
- Luca 1997, pp. 14–: "On y apprend que JMS est un ancien adepte de la ‘secte Moon’".
- Sakurai (2007b).
- Hyundae Jongyo 2007: "정명석은 1975년도에 측근 신도들에게 통일교 창시자 문선명의 사명은 끝났고 1978년부터 자신의 사명이 시작됐다고 공언하기도 했다 (Jung Myung-seok in 1975 openly told close inner-circle members that the mission of Unification Church founder Sun Myung Moon has ended, and from 1978, his mission has begun)".
- Sim, Chang-seop (심창섭) (1997). 기독교의이단들 [Christian Heresies] (in Korean). 대한예수교장로회총회. p. 274. ISBN 978-89-88327-28-9.
- Sakurai (2006), p. 143–144: "研究家、卓明煥『キリスト教異端研究』（1986）によれば..14,17,19,20,26,27,28,29,30 の各章に統一教会の『原理講論』と相当程度の類似がある。(According to Tahk Myeong-hwan, Study of Christian cults (1986).. chapters 14, 17, 19, 20, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 contain considerable levels of similarity with the Unification Church's "The Divine Principle")
- Tahk 1986, 기독교 이단 연구 [Study on Christian cults]
- Cheung Chi-fai (July 31, 2003). "Wanted cult leader may be repatriated to South Korea". South China Morning Post. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
Mr Jung founded the so-called Ae-Chun Church in 1980 and it became affiliated with the Methodist Church. The church was later expelled from the Christian body and he changed its name to the International Christian Association. Mr Jung also wrote the '30 lessons', which criticise Christian teachings and beliefs and end with his adopting the role of Jesus Christ at the second coming.
- Chong, Sin-dae (총신대) (July 4, 2014). "정명석에 대한 신학적 비판" [Theological critique of Jeongmyeongseok]. Cult Research Committee (in Korean). Christian Portal News. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2015.
- Tahk 1986, p. 120
- Sakurai (2007c), p. 4: Lessons 20 and 22
- Sakurai (2007c), p. 7: :"2.4 再臨主の弁証 - ...688 ＋ 1290（ダニエル書12：11，日を年に換算）＝ 1978 年。第二イスラエル民族の霊的開放。鄭明析が伝道を開始した。だから，鄭明析こそ，再臨のメシアに他ならないという。(2.4 Proof of Messiah... 688 + 1290 (Daniel 12:11, days converted to years) = Year 1978. The spirial emancipation of the Second Israelites. Jung Myung-seok initiated its evangelism. Therefore, Jung Myung-seok can be none other than the Second Coming of the Savior, so they say."
- Tozer, Joel (April 9, 2014). "Extracts of Correspondence With Providence Representative in South Korea". Scribd.com. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
- Sakurai (2007c), pp. 5–6.
- Sakurai (2007a), p. 140.
- Sin, Dong-myeong (신동명) (April 6, 2012). "테러·성폭행 ... 독버섯처럼 자라고 있다" :'JMS' 탈퇴 지도자들, 실체폭로 기자회견 ['Terrorism, Rape, growing like poison mushrooms': JMS defected leader(s) hold press conference revealing actual goings-on]. The Christian Times (기독교타임즈).
- Jeong, Jae-won (April 4, 2012). '나체 동영상' 파문으로 다시 주목받는 JMS [JMS: 'Naked' video again in the spotlight] (in Korean). NewsNJoy. Archived from the original on April 5, 2012. (Registration required (. ))
논란이 된 동영상에 대해서는 "5년 이상 지난 과거의 영상이며, 성상납의 증거가 될 수 없다"고 반박했다 ([The JMS members-distributed pamphlet] retorted that regarding the controversial videos "were footages from at least 5 years ago, and cannot be evidence for sex bribery).
- Also stated by Jo Gyeong-suk, former head of the Seoul Branch of Providence, and allegedly a victim herself.
- "Religious sect leader formally arrested on rape charges". Yonhap. February 23, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2008.
- Kang, Shin-who (May 13, 2007). "Suspect of Cult Founder Arrested in China". The Korea Times. Archived from the original on September 13, 2007. Retrieved February 27, 2008.
- Herskovitz, Jon (August 12, 2008). "South Korean religious sect leader jailed for rape". Reuters. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
A South Korean court yesterday sentenced Jung Myung-seok, the leader of a fringe religious sect, to six years in jail for raping female followers, a court official said. ... Former members have told the Seoul court that young and attractive women were presented to Jung as "gifts" and he forced them into sex as a part of a purification ritual.
- Sakurai (2007c), p. 5.
- Sakurai (2006), p. 145.
- "Alleged Cult Sows Seeds Via Campus Event |". The Guardian, University of California, San Diego, USA. November 13, 2006. Archived from the original on March 6, 2014. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
Members of a controversial religious group, led by an international fugitive wanted for numerous instances of alleged rape and sexual assault of female members, recently held an event at UCSD, which included a modeling show featuring young women, singing and videotaped religious messages from the group's founder – hallmarks of the group's tactics to recruit new members. The group, known as the Global Association of Culture and Peace, was established by 61-year-old South Korean national Jung Myung Seok, who also goes by the name Joshua Jung. The group, widely regarded by international press as a cult, also goes by several other names, including JMS, Providence, Setsuri and the Bright Smile Movement.
- "韓国カルト、日本で２千人 若者勧誘、教祖が性的暴行" [Korean Cult numbering 2000 in Japan solicits youths in Japan, cult leader commits sexual violence]. Asahi Shimbun (in Japanese). July 27, 2006. Archived from the original on August 13, 2006. Retrieved April 7, 2015.
- "Smiling a serious business in South Korea". Taipei Times. September 5, 2015. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- "Cult aimed at elite in 50 universities". Asahi Shimbun. July 31, 2006. Archived from the original on December 27, 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
Ex-members say recruiting on campus started on Jung's orders in the mid-1990s. "It's a fraudulent activity, as they conceal the group's identity in luring members," a lawyer said. An ex-member in his 30s said he and other cultists were deprived of sleep--forced to work late into the night and then wake up early to listen to Jung's videotaped preaching.
- The Apologetics Index (December 31, 2006). "Jung Myung Seok / Providence".
- Callick, Rowan (May 15, 2007). "Asian cult leader arrested". The Australian (Australia).
- Cubby, Ben (March 10, 2007). "Claims sect using social groups to recruit members". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- Schwartzman, Nathan (English translator) (April 2, 2012). "Seoul: Former JMS cult members tell their stories". Asian Correspondent. Retrieved September 20, 2015.; original article: Song, Ju-youl (송주열) (March 28, 2012). "JMS 정명석, 탈퇴자에 대한 테러 지시" [Jung Myung-Seok orders terror on JMS defectors]. CBS (Korea) Newsroom (in Korean). No Cut News. Archived from the original on January 1, 2015.
- Miller, Mallory (April 8, 2014). "South Korean 'cult' JMS recruiting students at US universities". Cult News. Archived from the original on May 22, 2014. Retrieved September 20, 2015.
- Luca, Nathalie (March 2002). "After the Moon sect: South Korea and indoctrination through the sacred game of football". CNRS. Retrieved February 27, 2008.
- Sakurai 2007b: "1975-77年の間に統一教（統一教会）に関わった。そのために、摂理の教義は統一教会の教義とかなり似通ったものになっている。(From 1975 to 1978 he was involved with the Unification Church. For this reason, Providence's teachings resemble the Unification Church quite closely.)"
- 監禁、傷害での立件視野]. "世界基督教統一神霊協会（統一教会）を脱会した韓国人の鄭明析教祖が１９８０年ごろに設立した宗教集団 [Foreseeable indictment on confinement and bodily harm]. Chunichi Shinbun (in Japanese). February 17, 2007. Archived from the original on February 25, 2007. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
- Hyundae Jongyo (2002).
- Hyundae Jongyo (2007).
- Sakurai 2006, p. 142: 民放各社が報じた女性信者と乱舞する鄭明析の映像も加えて。これは1999 年3 月20 日に韓国のテレビ局SBS が視聴率34.4% を記録した特集の映像クリップであり、2 回分2 時間にわたる摂理批判は被害の実態、摂理側の問題隠蔽工作等、余すことなく伝えている。韓国における摂理批判はこの後本格化し、摂理批判と元信者の相談にのるエクソダスも同年に設立されたのである。([My lectures] included the use of the video of Jung Myeong-suk frolicking with female members. This was a video clip from the program devoted [to the topic] aired by the South Korean TV station SBS with 34.4% rating. The two shows running 2 hours long critique of Providence reported comprehensively on the realities of victimization, and Providence's machinations to cover-up the issue. Criticism began full force after this against Providence in South Korea. The same year EXODUS was established, which criticizes Providence and provides counseling to ex-members)
- Tamaki, Nanako (玉木 奈々子) (2008), 「摂理」事件に関するテレビ報道の内容分析 [A Content Analysis of TV's Coverage of the Case of "Setsuri"], 宗教研究 (Shūkyō kenkyū), 81 (4): 1209–1210
- ＜韓国新興宗教＞「摂理」信者国内に２千人 教祖を告訴も [South Korean new religion Setsuri, members in Japan 2000, even lawsuits against leader]. Mainichi Shimbun (in Japanese). August 8, 2006. Archived from the original on August 8, 2006. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
- Jung, Yeol (정열 / passion) (July 21, 1999). SBS「그것이 알고싶다」`JMS, 그후' [SBS 'I Want to Know It", the aftermath] (in Korean). Yonhap.
- Nam, Sang-mun ( 남상문, Production Director for SBS) (May 2001). [연출노트] 밝혀진 JMS 실체 용기있는 피해자들 ‘공’ [(Production Notes) JMS's true form revealed, courageous victim named 'Gong']. The Hankyoreh. Archived from the original on October 8, 2015.
- "China extradites SKorea cult leader". Radio Australia. February 21, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2008.
- PD Journal staff (July 21, 1999). <그것이 알고싶다-JMS, 그후> 방영 ['I Want to Know It', JMS - the aftermath airs] (in Korean). PD Journal.
- Yangjeong, Jee-geon (양정지건) (November 2, 2002). <속보> SBS '그것이 알고 싶다' 방송 결정 [Breaking News:SBS 'I Want to Know It" broadcast ruling] (in Korean). NewsNJoy.
- 신, 호철 (April 23, 2006). "정명석, '황제 도피' 즐긴다" [Jung Myung-Suk enjoys being a runaway emperor?]. 시사저널 (Sisa Journal) (in Korean). Sisa Press. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved August 24, 2015.
- Kim, Dae-won (김대원) (June 4, 2007). "SBS "정명석, 중국에서도 성폭행 혐의"" [SBS "Jeongmyeongseok, sexual assault allegations in China."]. Christian Today (in Korean). Archived from the original on October 9, 2007. Retrieved August 24, 2015.
- "2,000 Japanese join cult led by suspected sex offender on the run from Interpol". Asahi Shimbun. July 29, 2006. Archived from the original on January 20, 2008. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
- "World News Quick Take". Taipei Times. May 17, 2007. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
He fled an extradition hearing but was detained by Chinese authorities early this month. Former members, mostly young girls, have told police they were told to undress for a "health check" and to have sex with him to wipe out their sins.
- Kim, Min-hui (김민희) (April 18, 2006). "'JMS 정명석 성폭행 계속...정부 뭐하나' 울분" [JMS's Jung Myung Seok assaults continuing; outrage over government inaction] (in Korean). CNB News. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
피해자들은 이 날 오후 4시 안국동 느키나무까페에서 'JMS 비리 폭로 및 수사 촉구를 위한 기자회견'을 열고 최근 언론을 통해 알려진 정명석의 성폭행 당시 상황 등을 낱낱이 공개했다. (Victims held a press conference at 4 pm today in the Nukinamu Cafe in Anguk Dong demanding the exposure and investigation into the JMS corruption case and more fully clarifying events surrounding the Jung Myung Seok sexual assaults that had recently been reported in the media.)
- "South Korean fugitive cult leader Jung extradited back to Seoul". Associated Press Television News. February 20, 2008. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
- "South Korean religious sect leader extradited from China to face rape charges". International Herald Tribune, AP. February 20, 2008. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2008.
- Song, Ju-youl (송주열) (March 25, 2012). JMS, 탈퇴자 테러 지시...성상납 돕는 조직 '상록수' 실체 드러나 [JMS ordered terror on its defectors.. the evergreen organization that helps sex bribery. Real circumstances revealed]. JoongAng Ilbo. (from CBS NoCut News)
- Song, Ju-youl (송주열) (March 28, 2012). JMS 정명석, 탈퇴자에 대한 테러 지시 [JMS's Jung Myung Seok ordered terror on defectors]. Newspower.
- ":ko:JMS 교주 정명석 수감생활 특혜 의혹" [JMS leader Jung Myung seok's prison life raises suspicion of favoritism]. Nocutnews.co.kr. October 24, 2013. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- "Ask the Police". Korean National Police Agency. July 4, 2005. Archived from the original on September 1, 2007. Retrieved February 27, 2008.
Jung Myoung Seok has been wanted on the charge of rape since 30 June 2001.
- Sakurai (2006), p. 146: "2002 年ソウル地方法院では、SBS 放送禁止仮処分訴訟において、1993-4 年にかけて鄭との集団性交渉はなかったと証言した証人を偽証罪により懲役 1 年に課した。 (In 2002, the Seoul District Court, in the matter of the SBS broadcast ban injunction, ruled that a witness who had testified that there was no mass sexual relations from 1993-4 had committed perjury, and sentenced him to 1 year in prison.)"
- "Founder of cult captured in China after eight years". Korea JoongAng Daily. May 17, 2007. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
- "Asian Cult Leader Arrested". The Australian. May 15, 2007. Archived from the original on October 10, 2014. Retrieved August 24, 2015.
Jung, wanted by Korean police for rape, fraud and embezzlement, escaped South Korea in 1999 and was later placed on the Interpol wanted list. He next surfaced in Hong Kong in 2003, where he was charged with being an illegal immigrant, granted bail and fled again – apparently to China. He was caught by police in Anshan, in Liaoning, the Chinese province that borders North Korea. It is believed he has also, while on the run, lived in Italy and Taiwan.
- "Ask the Police". Korean National Police Agency. September 21, 2003. Archived from the original on October 9, 2008. Retrieved November 21, 2006.
Seoul Interpol requested the suspect's deportation to Hongkong Interpol on 1 July 2003. The suspect was arrested for illegal stay in Hongkong, China by Hongkong Immigration Department on 9 July 2003 but released on bail after 3 days. Hongkong Immigration Department approved the exit order for Korea against Myung Sok JUNG. However, the suspect disappeared since he appealed dissatisfaction to Immigration Department on 1 August 2003. Hongkong police cancelled the bail against the suspect and are searching for him after registering the suspect on watching lists.
- "Accused rapist cult leader faces extradition to Korea". January 2, 2008. Archived from the original on January 15, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2008.
- "Cult Leader Extradited to Korea". The Korea Times. February 21, 2008. Archived from the original on April 1, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2008.
He'd been on Korean wanted lists since 1999 (and the Interpol Red Notice since 2004) after fleeing the country after charges of rape emerged. While overseas, he made constant headlines for allegedly raping female devotees in various countries.
- "Lawyers eye cult rape accusations". Japan Times. July 31, 2006. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
South Korean authorities have put Jung, 61, on an international wanted list on rape charges. Watanabe said the head of Setsuri persuaded Japanese women to join the cult, introduced them to Jung and took them to Jung’s hideout. Jung allegedly raped the women, Watanabe said, while they were under mind control.
- "S. Korean sect leader facing rape charges". United Press International. February 23, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
- "JMS 정명석씨, 신도 성폭행 6천만원 위자료 확정" [Court upholds compensation for JMS's raped followers in the amount of 60 million won] (in Korean). Donganuri News. January 11, 2008. Archived from the original on February 15, 2008. Retrieved January 27, 2008.
JMS 정명석 총재에게 성추행ㆍ성폭행 당한 여성신도 2명이 위자료를 받게 됐다. (Two female followers received compensation for sexual assault and rape by Leader Jung Myung Soek.)
- "Cult Followers Break into Dong-A Ilbo Office". The Dong-a Ilbo. January 15, 2008. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
Members of the religious cult JMS broke into the editorial office of the Dong-A Ilbo Monday morning. They smashed the glass entrance on the 13th floor to enter the daily's office, demanding the removal of articles on the cult's founder Jeong Myeong-seok. Jeong is reportedly hiding in China after being accused by former women followers of committing sexual assault and rape.
- "언론계에 'JMS 공포'" [JMS terror in the world of media]. Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). January 17, 2008.
17일 언론계에 따르면 JMS 신도 40여명은 지난 14일 서울 광화문 동아일보 사옥 13층 편집국에 난입, "정명석 총재 관련 기사를 내리라"고 강요하며 장시간 난동을 부렸다. (The press reported on the 17th that on the 14th, 40 followers of JMS forced their way into the editorial department on the 13th floor of the Dong-a Ilbo Building in Gwanghwamun Seoul, demanded the paper recall articles about Jung Myung-seok, and created a general disturbance for several hours.)
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Hwang Chul-kyu, who is in charge of international crime cases in Ministry of Justice, announced on May 16 that, "Chinese police informed us that a man caught in Beijing on May 1 turned out to be Jeong Myeong-seok after comparing fingerprints."
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Jung was taken directly to the Seoul Central Public Prosecutors' Office from the airport. Prosecutors began questioning Jung after his arrival regarding nine complaints filed against him on charges that include embezzlement and sexual assault.
- Herskovitz, Jon (May 22, 2014). "South Korean religious sect leader jailed for rape". National Post. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
A South Korean court on Tuesday sentenced Jung Myung-seok, the leader of a fringe religious sect, to six years in jail for raping female followers, a court official said. Jung, 63, the leader of the Jesus Morning Star sect (JMS), fled to China from South Korea in 2001 where he had been charged with selecting followers from photographs and then forcing them to have sex with him.
- "Cult Leader Gets 6-Year Prison Term". The Korea Times. August 12, 2008. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
Notorious cult leader Jung Myung-seok received Tuesday a six-year prison sentence for raping and sexually abusing his female followers.
- "정명석 JMS총재 징역 6년 선고" [JMS leader Jung Myung-Seok sentenced to six years in prison]. Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). August 13, 2008. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
서울중앙지법 형사26부(재판장 배기열)는 12일 여자 신도들을 성폭행한 혐의로 구속기소된 JMS(기독교복음선교회) 총재 정명석(63)씨에게 징역 6년을 선고했다. (The Seoul Central District Court No. 26 Criminal Division (Justice Bae Ki-yeol) delivered a prison sentence of six years to JMS President Jung Myung-seok, 63, who had been arrested and charged with raping 12 female followers.)
- 송, 경호 (Song Gyeong-ho) (February 5, 2009). "성폭행 혐의 정명석, 항소심 선고 10일로 연기" [Jung Myung-seok sexual assault allegations, asks appeal court to postpone decision 10th]. Christian Today . Archived from the original on February 7, 2009. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
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The Seoul High Court ruled yesterday that Jung is guilty of a total four counts of rape, overturning one acquittal and handing down a heavier punishment.
- "JMS 정명석 징역 10년 확정" [Jung Myung-Seok's 10-year prison sentence upheld] (in Korean). Yonhap. April 23, 2009. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
여신도들을 성폭행한 혐의(강간) 등으로 구속기소된 국제크리스천연합(JMS) 총재 정명석(64)씨에게 징역 10년을 선고한 원심을 확정했다.
- "Court Upholds 10-Yr Sentence on Cult Leader". The Korea Times. April 23, 2009. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
The Supreme Court upheld a 10-year-imprisonment sentence on Jung Myung-suk, the leader of the JMS (Jesus Morning Star) religious cult Thursday for the rape and sexual assault of five Korean female followers. Jung was indicted for sexually assaulting the victims between 2003 and 2006 in Hong Kong, Malaysia and China. A lower court convicted him on three counts sentencing him to a six-year-prison term, but a high court extended this to 10 years convicting him on all five counts.
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