Transboundary protected area

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Flags of Canada and the United States in Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park

A transboundary protected area (TBPA) is an ecological protected area that spans boundaries of more than one country or sub-national entity. Such areas are also known as transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs) or peace parks.[1][2][full citation needed][non-primary source needed]

TBPAs exist in many forms around the world,[citation needed] and are established for various reasons. The preservation of traditional animal migration patterns, ensuring sufficient food and water sources for population growth, is a critical reason for the creation of TBPAs. However, TBPAs also encourage tourism, economic development and goodwill between neighbouring countries, as well as making it easier for indigenous inhabitants of the area to travel.[3][not specific enough to verify][full citation needed]

Types of Transboundary Protected Areas[edit]

TBPAs exist in various types of geographic configuration, with various levels of ecological protection, and with various levels of international cooperation. Additionally, different organizations employ different definitions for TBPAs. Julia Marton-Lefevre broadly defines TBPAs as "areas that involve a degree of cooperation across one or more boundaries between (or within) countries."[4] The Southern Africa Development Community's Protocol on Wildlife Conservation and Law Enforcement defines Transfrontier Conservation Area as "the area or the component of a large ecological region that straddles the boundaries of two or more countries, encompassing one or more protected areas, as well as multiple resources use areas."[5] The Global Transboundary Protected Areas Network (GTPAN) lists four types of "transboundary conservation areas:"

  • Type 1: Transboundary Protected Area;
  • Type 2: Transboundary Conservation Landscape and/or Seascape;
  • Type 3: Transboundary Conservation Migration Area; and
  • Special designation: Park for Peace.[6]

GTPAN defines a Transboundary Protected Area as "a clearly defined geographical space that includes protected areas that are ecologically connected across one or more international boundaries and involves some form of cooperation." GTPAN defines a Transboundary Conservation Landscape and/or Seascape as "an ecologically connected area that includes both protected areas and multiple resource use areas across one or more international boundaries and involves some form of cooperation."[6]

GTPAN defines a Transboundary Conservation Migration Area as "wildlife habitats in two or more countries that are necessary to sustain populations of migratory species and involve some form of cooperation."[6]

GTPAN defines a "Park for Peace" as "any of the three types of Transboundary Conservation Areas [that is] dedicated to the promotion, celebration and/or commemoration of peace and cooperation."

In many instances, individual TBPAs are part of broader international environmental or cultural programs. TBPAs can be World Heritage sites, Ramsar Wetlands, and/or UNESCO Biosphere Reserves.

Established Transboundary Protected Areas[edit]

On 1 February 1997, Anton Rupert, together with Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands and Nelson Mandela, founded the Peace Parks Foundation as a Nonprofit organisation to facilitate the establishment of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), also called peace parks.[7]

A 2001 study by the World Conservation Union found "there were 166 existing transboundary protected area complexes worldwide comprising 666 individual conservation zones."[4]

In 2007, the Global Transboundary Conservation Network published a global inventory of transboundary protected areas identifying 227 transboundary protected areas.[8]

Africa[edit]

Transboundary World Heritage sites[edit]

Transboundary Ramsar Wetlands[edit]

  • Complexe Kokorou-Namga is a transfrontier Ramsar wetland between Burkina Faso and Mali.[18]
  • Complexe Transfrontalier Lac Tele-Grands Affluents-Lac Tumba is a transboundary Ramsar wetland on the border of Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo.[19]
  • Niumi-Saloum is a transboundary Ramsar wetland on the border of Gambia and Senegal. It is composed of Niumi National Park in Gambia and Delta du Saloum National Park in Senegal.[18]
  • A transboundary Ramsar wetlands complex covers Lake Chad, composed of sites in Niger, Chad, Nigeria, and Cameroon.[20][21][22][23]
  • Zone Humide du Moyen is a transfrontier Ramsar wetland on the border of Benin and Nigeria.[18]

Transboundary Biosphere Reserves[edit]

  • Delta du Fleuve Senegal is a transboundary UNESCO biosphere reserve crossing the border of Mauritania and Senegal.[17]
  • Mono is a transboundary UNESCO biosphere reserve crossing the border of Benin and Togo.[17]

Transboundary Conservation Complexes[edit]

  • [[|Ai-|Ais/Richtersveld Transfrontier Park|/Ai /Ais-Richtersveld Transfrontier Park]] is a transboundary conservation complex on the border of Namibia and South Africa.[8][24]
  • Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park is a transboundary conservation complex on the border of Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe. It is partially composed of Mozambique's Limpopo National Park, South Africa's Kruger National Park and Zimbabwe's Gonarezhou National Park and Sengwe Corridor.[8][25]
  • Greater Mapungubwe is a transboundary conservation complex on the border of Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe.[26]
  • Lower Zambezi - Mana Pools is a transboundary conservation complex on the border of Zambia and Zimbabwe.[27]
  • Lubombo Transfrontier Conservation Area is a transboundary conservation complex on the border of Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland.[8][28]
  • Kavango Zambezi is a transboundary conservation complex on the borders of Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. It is the world's largest TBPA and encompasses the Mosi-oa-Tunya World Heritage site listed above.[8][29]
  • Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park is a transboundary conservation complex on the border of Botswana and South Africa.[8]
  • Kidepo is a transboundary conservation complex on the border of South Sudan and Uganda. It is composed of South Sudan's Kidepo Game Reserve and Uganda's Kidepo Valley National Park.[8]
  • Kilimanjaro is a transboundary conservation complex centered around Mount Kilimanjaro and on the border of Kenya and Tanzania. It is composed of Tanzania's Kilimanjaro National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage site, and Kenya's Amboseli National Park.[8][30]
  • Malawi-Zambia TFCA is a transboundary conservation complex on the border of Malawi and Zambia. It crosses the border at multiple locations.[8][31]
  • Niokolo Koba-Badiar is a transboundary conservation complex on the border of Guinea and Senegal.[8]
  • Serengeti-Masai is a transboundary conservation complex on the border of Kenya and Tanzania.[8]
  • A transboundary conservation complex crosses the border of Burkina Faso and Cote d'Ivoire. It is composed partially of a Ramsar wetland in Burkina Faso and the National Park of Comoe in Cote d'Ivoire.[32]
  • The Global Transboundary Conservation Network's 2007 inventory lists additional TBPAs on the borders of:
    1. Liberia and Sierra Leone;
    2. Guinea and Liberia;
    3. Cote d'Ivoire and Liberia;
    4. Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana at three locations;
    5. Cameroon and Nigeria at two locations;
    6. Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea;
    7. Central African Republic and Sudan;
    8. Congo and Gabon;
    9. Democratic Republic of the Congo and what is now South Sudan;
    10. What is now South Sudan and Uganda;
    11. Kenya and Uganda;
    12. Kenya and Somalia;
    13. Burundi and Rwanda;
    14. Rwanda and Tanzania;
    15. Tanzania and Uganda;
    16. Tanzania and Zambia;
    17. Mozambique and Tanzania; and
    18. Angola and Namibia.[8]

Asia[edit]

  • Govater Bay and Hur-e-Bahu - Jiwani Coastal Wetland is a transboundary Ramsar complex on the border of Iran and Pakistan.[33][34]
  • Hamun-e-Puzak, south end - Hamun-e-Saberi & Hamun-e-Helmand is a transboundary Ramsar complex on the border of Afghanistan and Iran.[35][36]
  • Landscapes of Dauria is a World Heritage site on the border of Mongolia and Russia on the Daurian Steppe. It is composed of Dornod Mongol Biosphere Reserve in Mongolia and Daursky Nature Reserve in Russia.[37]
  • Labi Hills/Gunung Pulu Transboundary Complex is a transboundary conservation complex on the border of Brunei and Malaysia.[8]
  • The Lanjak Entimau/Batang/Ai/Betung Kerihun Complex is a transboundary conservation complex on the border of Indonesia and Malaysia.[38] The countries have two additional TBPAs on their border.[8]
  • Taxkorgan is a transboundary protected area on the border of Afghanistan, China, and Pakistan. Afghanistan's Wahan National Park, China's Taxkorgan Nature Reserve, and Pakistan's Khunjerab National Park form the site.[39]
  • Turtle Island Heritage Protected Area (also known as Turtle Islands Wildlife Sanctuary) is a transboundary protected area between Malaysia and the Philippines.[8][40]
  • Uvs Nuur Basin is a World Heritage site on the border of Mongolia and Russia covering Uvs Nuur Lake and protecting its wetlands.[41] Mongolia and Russia have two more bilateral TBPAs on their border.[8]
  • Wasur-Tonda Transboundary Conservation Area is a transboundary conservation complex on the border of Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.[8]
  • The Global Transboundary Conservation Network's 2007 inventory lists an additional 49 TBPAs in Asian nations.[8]

Europe[edit]

Transboundary World Heritage sites[edit]

Transboundary Ramsar Wetlands[edit]

  • Adutiškis-Vileity is a transboundary Ramsar wetland on the border of Belarus and Lithuania.[19]
  • Austrian-Bavarian Wildalm is a transboundary Ramsar wetland on the border of Austria and Germany.[50]
  • Baradla Cave System and Domica Ramsar Sites are cooperatively managed transboundary wetlands on the border of Hungary and Slovakia. This was the first declaration of a transboundary wetland under the Ramsar Convention.[18]
  • Bistret-Ibisha Island is a transboundary Ramsar wetland on the border of Bulgaria and Romania. It is composed of Ibisha Island in Bulgaria and Bistret in Romania.[19]
  • Gornje Podunavije - Gemenc - Kopacki Rit is a transboundary Ramsar complex on the border of Croatia, Hungary and Serbia.[51]
  • Ipoly Valley and Poiplie are transboundary Ramsar wetlands on the border of Hungary and Slovakia.[18]
  • Kotra and Čepkelai are transboundary Ramsar wetlands on the border of Belarus and Lithuania.[18]
  • Krkonose/Karkonosze subalpine peatbogs is a transboundary Ramsar wetland on the border of the Czech Republic and Poland.[19] The site is also a transboundary UNESCO biosphere reserve.[17]
  • Lake Calarasi-Srebarna is a transboundary Ramsar wetland on the border of Bulgaria and Romania.[19]
  • Mannavuoma - Lataseno-Hietajoki Mire is a transboundary Ramsar complex on the border of Finland and Sweden.[52]
  • North Livonian Transboundary Ramsar Site is a transboundary Ramsar wetland on the border of Estonia and Latvia. It is composed of Nigula Nature Reserve and Sookuninga Nature Reserve in Estonia and Northern Bogs in Latvia.[19]
  • Olmany-Perebrody mires is a transboundary Ramsar wetland on the border of Belarus and Ukraine.[19]
  • Prespa Basin is a cooperatively managed Ramsar wetland on the border of Albania, Greece and Macedonia.[18]
  • Rhin supérieur/Oberrhein—Oberrhein/Rhin supérieur is a transboundary Ramsar wetland on the border of France and Germany. It is composed of Rhin superieur/Oberrhein in France and Oberrhein/Rhin superieur in Germany.[19]
  • Stokhid-Prypiat-Prostyr is a transboundary Ramsar wetland on the border of Belarus and Ukraine. It is composed of the Prostyr site in Belarus and the Prypiat River Floodplains and Stokhid River Floodplains in Ukraine.[19]
  • Storkolen-Kvisleflaet is a transboundary Ramsar complex on the border of Sweden and Norway.[53]
  • Suhaia-Belene Islands Complex is a transboundary Ramsar site on the border of Bulgaria and Romania. It is composed of Belene Islands Complex in Bulgaria and Suhaia in Romania.[19]
  • Trilateral Ramsar Site Floodplains of the Morava-Dyje-Danube Confluence is a transboundary Ramsar wetland on the border Austria, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia.[19]
  • Transboundary Ramsar Site Neusiedler See-Seewinkel-Ferto-Hansag is a transboundary Ramsar wetland on the border of Austria and Hungary.[19]
  • Upper Tisza Valley is a transboundary Ramsar wetland on the border of Hungary and Slovakia. It is composed of the Feslo-Tisza site in Hungary and the Tisa River site in Slovakia.[19]
  • Vallée de la Haute-Sure is a transboundary Ramsar wetland on the border of Belgium and Luxembourg, composed of sites of the same name in both countries.[19]

Transboundary Biosphere Reserves[edit]

Of the world's twenty transboundary UNESCO biosphere reserves, twelve are in Europe. Spain, Portugal, Poland, and Ukraine each contribute to three reserves.

  • Danube Delta is a transboundary UNESCO biosphere reserve crossing the border of Romania and Ukraine.[17]
  • East Carpathians is a transboundary UNESCO biosphere reserve crossing the border of Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine.[17]
  • Geres - Xures is a transboundary UNESCO biosphere reserve crossing the border of Portugal and Spain.[17]
  • Meseta Iberica is a transboundary UNESCO biosphere reserve crossing the border of Portugal and Spain.[17]
  • Mont Viso / Area della Biosfera del Monviso is a transboundary UNESCO biosphere reserve crossing the border of France and Italy.[17]
  • Mura Drava Danube is a transboundary UNESCO biosphere reserve crossing the border of Croatia and Hungary.[17]
  • Tatra is a transboundary UNESCO biosphere reserve crossing the border of Slovakia and Poland.[17]
  • Tejo/Tajo Internacional is a transboundary UNESCO biosphere reserve crossing the border of Portugal and Spain.
  • Vosges du Nord / Pfalzerwald is a transboundary UNESCO biosphere reserve crossing the border of France and Germany.[17]
  • West Polesie is a transboundary UNESCO biosphere reserve crossing the borders of Belarus, Poland, and Ukraine.[17]

Transboundary Conservation Complexes[edit]

North America[edit]

Canada and the United States[edit]

Canadian interprovincial Parks[edit]
United States interstate parks[edit]

Mexico and the United States[edit]

  • Dry Borders-Sonoran Desert Biosphere Reserve Network is a transboundary conservation complex composed of Mexico's El Picante y Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve and the United States' Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument.[8]
  • El Carmen-Big Bend Complex is a transboundary conservation complex composed of Mexico's Parque Nacional Canon de Santa Elena and Area Natural Protegida Maderas del Carmen, the United States' Big Bend National Park, and Texas' Big Bend Ranch State Park.[8]

Central America[edit]

  • Maya Tropical Forest Complex is a transboundary conservation complex on the border of Belize, Guatemala and Mexico. It is partly composed of Guatemala's Parque Nacional Sierra Del Lacandon, Parque Nacional Laguna Del Tigre, Parque Nacional El Mirador and Reserva Biosfera Maya, Mexico's Reserva la Biosfera Calakmul, and Belize's Rio Bravo Conservation Area.[8]
  • Montecristo Trifinio Transboundary Protected Area Complex (also known as Trifinio Fraternidad) is a transboundary UNESCO biosphere reserve on the border of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. It is composed of El Salvador's Parque Nacional Montecristo, Guatemala's Reserva Biologica Trifinio, and Honduras' Parque Nacional Montecristo Trifinio.[8][17][66]
  • Parque Internacional La Amistad is a UNESCO World Heritage site on the border of Costa Rica and Panama. A bi-national Transboundary Protected Area Commission coordinates conservation efforts in the area.[67]
  • San Juan River Basin is a transboundary conservation complex on the border of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. It is composed of Costa Rica's Parque Nacional Tortugeuro and Refugio de Vida Sylvester Barra del Colorado, and Nicaragua's Reserva Biologica Indio Maiz and Reserva Natural Punta Gorda.[8]
  • Volcan Tacana is a transboundary UNESCO biosphere reserve on the border of Guatemala and Mexico.[8][68]
  • A transboundary Ramsar wetlands complex lies on the border of Costa Rica and Panama, and is composed of the Guanaco-Manzanilla site in Costa Rica and the San San-Pond Sak site in Panama.[69][70] The Global Transboundary Conservation Network includes this site as part of Parque International La Amsted in its 2007 global inventory.[8]
  • A transboundary Ramsar wetlands complex lies on the on border of Belize and Guatemala, and is composed of Belize's Reserva de Usos Multiples Rio Sarstun and Guatemala's Sarstoon Temash National Park.[71][72]
  • The Global Transboundary Conservation Network's 2007 inventory lists additional TBPAs on the borders of:
    1. Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico;
    2. Guatemala and Honduras; and
    3. Honduras and Nicaragua at two locations.[8]

South America[edit]

  • Cordillera del Condor is a transboundary protected area on the border of Ecuador and Peru. It is composed of Ecuador's Parque Nacional Podocarpus and Peru's Zona Reservada Santiago-Comaina.[73] The countries agreed to create the protected area as part of a settlement to a border conflict in the 1990s.[74]
  • Glaciares-Torres del Paine-O'Higgins Complex is a transboundary conservation complex on the border of Argentina and Chile. It is composed of Chile's O'Higgins National Park and Torres del Paine National Park and Argentina's Los Glaciares National Park.[75][76]
  • Iguacu-Igauzu is a transboundary World Heritage complex on the border of Argentina and Brazil. It is composed of Argentina's Iguazu National Park and Brazil's Igaucu National Park.[8][77][78]
  • Lago Titicaca is a transboundary Ramsar wetlands complex on the border of Bolivia and Peru.[79][80]
  • The Global Transboundary Conservation Network's 2007 inventory lists additional TBPAs on the borders of:
    1. Colombia and Venezuela;
    2. Brazil and Colombia;
    3. Colombia, Ecuador and Peru;
    4. Brazil and Venezuela;
    5. French Guiana and Suriname;
    6. Brazil and Suriname;
    7. Brazil and Peru;
    8. Bolivia and Brazil;
    9. Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay;
    10. Argentina and Brazil;
    11. Bolivia and Chile;
    12. Argentina, Bolivia and Chile;
    13. Argentina and Bolivia at two locations;
    14. Bolivia and Paraguay; and
    15. Argentina and Chile at four locations.[8]

Intercontinental TBPAs[edit]

  • Great Atlay is a transboundary UNESCO biosphere reserve crossing the border of Kazakhstan and Russia.[17]
  • Intercontinental Biosphere Reserve of the Mediterranean is a transboundary UNESCO biosphere crossing the border of Morocco and Spain. It is a contiguous site, combining land in Morocco and Spain connected by the Strait of Gibraltar.[81]
  • A transboundary UNESCO World Heritage complex is on the border of Columbia and Panama. It is composed primarily of Columbia's Los Katios National Park and Panama's Darien National Park.[8][82][83]

Areas in the conceptual phase[edit]

The DMZ is a habitat for many threatened species on the Korean peninsula, including the black bear.

TBPA advocates by 2006 had identified additional sites for protection. Professor Saleem Ali of the University of Vermont noted that "numerous ecologically sensitive areas remain unprotected" and cites a 2006 "geographic information systems (GIS) study" that "found 104 transboundary wild areas involving 61 countries that are not formally part of any conservation park."[4] Specific sites for proposed TBPAs include:

As awareness of the importance of conserving the pristinity and ecology of Arctic region has increased,[according to whom?] there has been a global call to declare the Arctic region as a global sanctuary/international peace park. The Save the Arctic[85] campaign by Greenpeace, an environmental nonprofit organisation, has received online support from more than 5 million citizens from around the world.

Areas with treaty signed[edit]

Memorandums of agreement signed[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]