Transboundary protected area
A transboundary protected area (TBPA) is a protected area that spans boundaries of more than one country or sub-national entity, where the political border sections that are enclosed within its area are abolished. This includes removal of all human-made physical boundaries, such as fences, allowing free migration of animals and humans within the area. A boundary around the area may however be maintained to prevent unauthorised border crossing. Such areas are also known by terms such as transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs) or peace parks. The Global Transbounday Protected Areas Network cites five different types of TBPAs as follows:
- Two or more contiguous protected areas across a national boundary
- A cluster of protected areas and the intervening land
- A cluster of separated protected areas without intervening land
- A trans-border area including proposed protected areas
- A protected area in one country aided by sympathetic land use over the border
The preservation of traditional animal migration patterns, ensuring sufficient food and water sources for population growth, are the primary reason for the creation of peace parks. Peace parks however also encourage tourism, economic development and goodwill between neighbouring countries, as well as facilitating travel of indigenous inhabitants of the area.
Established 'peace parks'
On 1 February 1997, Anton Rupert, together with Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands and Nelson Mandela founded Peace Parks Foundation as a not-for-profit organisation to facilitate the establishment of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), also called peace parks.
- The Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park across the United States/Canada border was the first peace park in the Americas, formed by the merger of the Waterton Lakes and Glacier National Parks in 1932. In contrast to other peace parks, the primary purpose of the union was to serve as a symbol of friendship and peace between the two countries.
- The International Peace Garden was also established in 1932, another American/Canadian park with a similar purpose. It lies on the North Dakota/Manitoba border.
- Another American/Canadian peace park, Peace Arch Park, lies on the British Columbia/Washington border, and is famous for the Peace Arch, a large peace structure straddling the border itself.
- Roosevelt Campobello International Park - Maine, United States/New Brunswick, Canada
- Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park - Alaska, Washington, British Columbia, and Yukon
- Efforts are under way for a U.S./Mexico international park with a similar purpose, joining the Big Bend National Park in the United States with the Maderas del Carmen and Cañon de Santa Elena protected areas in Mexico.
- An American/Russian international park in the Bering Strait is underway, highlighting the shared heritage of Russians and Americans of the area.
- Acting under the recommendation of UNESCO, the governments of Costa Rica and Panama declared Parque Internacional La Amistad an international park in 1988.
United States interstate parks
- Interstate Park (Minnesota-Wisconsin)
- Palisades Interstate Park (New York-New Jersey)
- Breaks Interstate Park (Kentucky-Virginia)
Canadian interprovincial parks
- Cypress Hills Interprovincial Park (Alberta-Saskatchewan)
- Kakwa-Willmore Interprovincial Park (Alberta-British Columbia)
- Manitoba-Ontario Interprovincial Wilderness Area
- Parc linéaire interprovincial Petit Témis (Quebec-New Brunswick)
- The first transboundary protected area was established by the Swedish and the Norwegian Peace Movements in 1914, to celebrate 100 years of peace between Sweden and Norway. In 1959 the area was named Morokulien.
- The European Green Belt running along the former Iron Curtain is considered a peace park.
- A Peace Park has been established in the Red Sea between Israel and Jordan.
- A project for the Green Line Peace Park in Cyprus, between the Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot territories, is being researched by Dr. Anna Grichting, Harvard University.
- Interprovincial Park of Montoni (Livorno-Grosseto)
- The demilitarized zone between North and South Korea and the Siachen glacier region between India and Pakistan have been proposed as peace parks. Saleem Ali, a professor from the University of Vermont, is involved in research into this.
Areas in the conceptual phase
- Liuwa Plain - Kameia TFCA (Angola/Zambia)
- Lower Zambezi - Mana Pools TFCA (Zambia/Zimbabwe)
- Niassa Reserve - Selous TFCA (Mozambique/Tanzania)
- Mnazi Bay - Quirimbas Transfrontier Marine Conservation Area (Mozambique / Tanzania)
- The Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park links national parks in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique and covers an area of 35,000 km², including the famous Kruger National Park.
Being aware of the importance of conserving the pristinity and ecology of Arctic region, there has been a global call to declare Arctic region as a global sanctuary / international peace park. The Save the Arctic campaign by Greenpeace International, an environmental not-for-profit organisation, has received online support from more than 50 lakh (five million) citizens from around the world.
Areas with treaty signed
- Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (Botswana/South Africa), Openenen: 12 May 2000.
- Ai-Ais/Richtersveld Transfrontier Park (Namibia/South Africa) (see also Nama people: Namaqua and Ai-Ais Hot Springs), signed on 17 August 2001.
- Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, signed on 10 November 2000.
Memorandum of agreements signed
- Limpopo-Shashe TFCA (Botswana/South Africa/Zimbabwe), originally signed on 22 June 2006. Now renamed, see: Greater Mapungubwe Transfrontier Conservation Area.
- Lubombo Transfrontier Conservation and Resource Area (Mozambique/South Africa/Swaziland)
- Maloti-Drakensberg Transfrontier Conservation and Development Area (Lesotho/South Africa), signed on 11 June 2001.
- Iona - Skeleton Coast Transfrontier Conservation Area (Angola and Namibia), signed on1 August 2003.
- Kavango - Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area or KAZA (Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe), signed on 7 December 2006. This will be the largest park covering areas in 5 different countries.
- Malawi - Zambia TFCA (Malawi/Zambia), signed on 13 August 2004.
- Chimanimani TFCA (Mozambique / Zimbabwe)
- Conservation area
- Conservation biology
- Conservation ethic
- Conservation movement
- Habitat conservation
- Marine Protected Area
- National park
- Natural environment
- Protected area
- Sustainable development
- Global Transboundary Protected Areas Network
- A Typology of Transboundary Protected Areas
- EUROPARC Federation, Transboundary Parks Accessed 11 May 2011
- Ontario Parks Web Log, A New Manitoba-Ontario Interprovincial Wilderness Area Accessed 11 May 2011
- Quebec Official Tourism Site, Parc linéaire interprovincial Petit Témis Accessed 11 May 2011
- Save the Arctic
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Peace parks.|
- Peace Parks Foundation
- US-Mexico International Park Initiative
- Beringian Heritage International Park Program
- UNESCO La Amistad International Park overview (PDF file)
- UNEP-WCMC Transboundary Protected Areas website (has a list of adjoining Protected Areas)
- A-Z of Areas of Biodiversity Importance: Transboundary Protected Areas
- Siachen peace park campaign web site
- Peace Parks: Conservation and Conflict Resolution (MIT Press)