Peanut

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Peanut (disambiguation).
"Goober peas" redirects here. For the folk song, see Goober Peas.
Peanut
Arachis hypogaea - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-163.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Dalbergieae
Genus: Arachis
Species: A. hypogaea
Binomial name
Arachis hypogaea
L.
subspecies and varieties
  • subsp. fastigiata Waldron
    • var. aequatoriana Krapov. & W. C. Greg
    • var. fastigiata (Waldron) Krapov. & W. C. Greg
    • var. peruviana Krapov. & W. C. Greg
    • var. vulgaris Harz
  • subsp. hypogaea L.
    • var. hirsuta J. Kohler
    • var. hypogaea L.
Synonyms[1]
  • Arachis nambyquarae Hoehne
  • Lathyrus esquirolii H. Lév.
Opened peanut

The peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) is a species in the family Fabaceae (commonly known as the bean, pea or legume family).

The peanut was probably first domesticated and cultivated in the valleys of Paraguay.[2] It is an annual herbaceous plant growing 30 to 50 cm (1.0 to 1.6 ft) tall. The leaves are nyctinastic, opposite, pinnate with four leaflets (two opposite pairs; no terminal leaflet); each leaflet is 1 to 7 cm (⅜ to 2¾ in) long and 1 to 3 cm (⅜ to 1 inch) across.

The flowers are a typical peaflower in shape, 2 to 4 cm (0.8 to 1.6 in) (¾ to 1½ in) across, yellow with reddish veining. The specific name, hypogaea means "under the earth"; after pollination, the flower stalk elongates, causing it to bend until the ovary touches the ground. Continued stalk growth then pushes the ovary underground where the mature fruit develops into a legume pod, the peanut – a classical example of geocarpy. Pods are 3 to 7 cm (1.2 to 2.8 in) long, normally containing 1 to 4 seeds.[3]

Because, in botanical terms, "nut" specifically refers to indehiscent fruit, the peanut is not technically a nut,[4] but rather a legume. Peanuts are often served in a similar manner to true nuts in many western cuisines, and are often referred to as a nut in common English.

History[edit]

The domesticated peanut is an amphidiploid or allotetraploid, meaning that it has two sets of chromosomes from two different species, thought to be A. duranensis and A. ipaensis. These probably combined in the wild to form the tetraploid species A. monticola, which gave rise to the domesticated peanut.[5] This domestication might have taken place in Paraguay or Bolivia, where the wildest strains grow today. Many pre-Columbian cultures, such as the Moche, depicted peanuts in their art.[6]

Archeologists have dated the oldest specimens to about 7,600 years, found in Peru.[7] Cultivation spread as far as Mesoamerica, where the Spanish conquistadors found the tlalcacahuatl (the plant's Nahuatl name, whence Mexican Spanish cacahuate, Castillian Spanish "cacahuete," and French cacahuète) being offered for sale in the marketplace of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City). The peanut was later spread worldwide by European traders. In West Africa farmers were already cultivating a plant from the same family, the Bambara groundnut, which also grows its seed pods underground.

Although the peanut was mainly a garden crop for much of the colonial period of North America, it was mostly used as animal feed stock until the 1930s.[8] In the United States, the US Department of Agriculture initiated a program to encourage agricultural production and human consumption of peanuts in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. George Washington Carver developed hundreds of recipes for peanuts during his tenure in the program.

Cultivation[edit]

Pollinated peanut pod shoots growing into the soil, where the shoot tip becomes a peanut. The shoot on the left has already entered the soil
Cultivation of peanut crop at Directorate of Groundnut Research, Junagadh region of Western India

The orange-veined, yellow-petaled, pea-like flower of the Arachis hypogaea is borne in axillary clusters above ground. Following self-pollination, the flowers fade and wither. The stalk at the base of the ovary, called the pedicel, elongates rapidly, and turns downward to bury the fruits several inches in the ground, where they complete their development. The entire plant, including most of the roots, is removed from the soil during harvesting.[9] The fruits have wrinkled shells that are constricted between pairs of the one to four (usually two) seeds per pod.

Peanuts grow best in light, sandy loam soil. They require five months of warm weather, and 500 to 1,000 mm (20 to 39 in) of water.[10]

The pods ripen 120 to 150 days after the seeds are planted. If the crop is harvested too early, the pods will be unripe. If they are harvested late, the pods will snap off at the stalk, and will remain in the soil.[9] They prefer an acidic soil of preferably 5.9–7 pH.

Peanuts are particularly susceptible to contamination during growth and storage. Poor storage of peanuts can lead to an infection by the mold fungus Aspergillus flavus, releasing the toxic and highly carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. The aflatoxin-producing molds exist throughout the peanut growing areas and may produce aflatoxin in peanuts when conditions are favorable to fungal growth.

Harvesting occurs in two stages:[citation needed] In mechanized systems, a machine is used to cut off the main root of the peanut plant by cutting through the soil just below the level of the peanut pods. The machine lifts the "bush" from the ground and shakes it, then inverts the bush, leaving the plant upside down on the ground to keep the peanuts out of the soil. This allows the peanuts to dry slowly to a little less than a third of their original moisture level over a period of three to four days. Traditionally, peanuts were pulled and inverted by hand.

After the peanuts have dried sufficiently, they are threshed, removing the peanut pods from the rest of the bush.[9]

Cultivation in China[edit]

Production[edit]

China leads in production of peanuts, having a share of about 42% of overall world production, followed by India (12%) and the United States of America (8%).

Top producers of peanuts in 2012[11]
Country Production

(million metric tons)

 People's Republic of China 16.7
 India 5.0
 United States 3.1
 Nigeria 3.1
 Myanmar 1.4
 Indonesia 1.2
 Argentina 1.0
 World 40.1

Cultivars in the United States[edit]

Thousands of peanut cultivars are grown, with four major cultivar groups being the most popular: Spanish, Runner, Virginia, and Valencia. Certain cultivar groups are preferred for particular characteristics, such as differences in flavor, oil content, size, shape, and disease resistance.[citation needed] Most peanuts marketed in the shell are of the Virginia type, along with some Valencias selected for large size and the attractive appearance of the shell. Spanish peanuts are used mostly for peanut candy, salted nuts, and peanut butter.

Each year, new cultivars of peanuts are bred and introduced, creating changes in the planting rate, adjusting the planter, harvester, dryer, cleaner, sheller, and the method of marketing.[citation needed]

Spanish group[edit]

The small Spanish types are grown in South Africa, and in the southwestern and southeastern US. Prior to 1940, 90% of the peanuts grown in Georgia, USA, were Spanish types, but the trend since then has been larger-seeded, higher-yielding, more disease-resistant cultivars. Spanish peanuts have a higher oil content than other types of peanuts, and in the US are now primarily grown in New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas.

Cultivars of the Spanish group include 'Dixie Spanish', 'Improved Spanish 2B', 'GFA Spanish', 'Argentine', 'Spantex', 'Spanette', 'Shaffers Spanish', 'Natal Common (Spanish)', "White Kernel Varieties', 'Starr', 'Comet', 'Florispan', 'Spanhoma', 'Spancross', 'OLin', 'Tamspan 90', 'AT 9899–14', 'Spanco', 'Wilco I', 'GG 2', 'GG 4', 'TMV 2', and 'Tamnut 06'.

Runner group[edit]

Since 1940, the southeastern US region has seen a shift to production of Runner group peanuts. This shift is due to good flavor, better roasting characteristics and higher yields when compared to Spanish types, leading to food manufacturers' preference for the use in peanut butter and salted nuts. Georgia's production is now almost 100% Runner type.[citation needed]

Cultivars of Runners include 'Southeastern Runner 56-15', 'Dixie Runner', 'Early Runner', 'Virginia Bunch 67', 'Bradford Runner', 'Egyptian Giant' (also known as 'Virginia Bunch' and 'Giant'), 'Rhodesian Spanish Bunch' (Valencia and Virginia Bunch), 'North Carolina Runner 56-15', 'Florunner', 'Virugard', 'Georgia Green', 'Tamrun 96', 'Flavor Runner 458', 'Tamrun OL01', 'Tamrun OL02' 'AT-120', 'Andru-93', 'Southern Runner', 'AT1-1', 'Georgia Brown', 'GK-7',and 'AT-108'.

Virginia group[edit]

The large seeded Virginia group peanuts are grown in the US states of Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and parts of Georgia. They are increasing in popularity due to demand for large peanuts for processing, particularly for salting, confections, and roasting in the shells.

Virginia group peanuts are either bunch or running in growth habit. The bunch type is upright to spreading. It attains a height of 45 to 55 cm (18 to 22 in), and a spread of 70 to 80 cm (28 to 31 in), with 80 to 90 cm (31 to 35 in) rows that seldom cover the ground. The pods are borne within 5 to 10 cm of the base of the plant.

Cultivars of Virginia type peanuts include 'NC 7', 'NC 9', 'NC 10C', 'NC-V 11', 'VA 93B', 'NC 12C', 'VA-C 92R', 'Gregory', 'VA 98R', 'Perry', 'Wilson, 'Hull', 'AT VC-2' and' Shulamit'

Valencia group[edit]

Valencia group peanuts are coarse, and they have heavy reddish stems and large foliage. In the United States, large commercial production is primarily in the South Plains of West Texas and eastern New Mexico near and south of Portales, New Mexico, but they are grown on a small scale elsewhere in the South as the best-flavored and preferred type for boiled peanuts[by whom?]. They are comparatively tall, having a height of 125 cm (49 in) and a spread of 75 cm (30 in). Peanut pods are borne on pegs arising from the main stem and the side branches. Most of the pods are clustered around the base of the plant, and only a few are found several inches away. Valencia types are three- to five-seeded and smooth, with no constriction of the shell between the seeds. Seeds are oval and tightly crowded into the pods. Typical seed weight is 0.4 to 0.5 g. This type is used heavily for sale roasted and salted in-shell peanuts and peanut butter. Varieties include 'Valencia A' and 'Valencia C'.

Tennessee Red and Tennessee White groups[edit]

These are alike, except for the color of the seed. Sometimes known also as Texas Red or White, the plants are similar to Valencia types, except the stems are green to greenish brown, and the pods are rough, irregular, and have a smaller proportion of kernels.

Uses[edit]

Mexican Candy

Varied applications[edit]

Peanuts can be eaten raw, used in recipes, made into oils, textile materials, and peanut butter, as well as many other uses. In general, peanut products are considered safe for human use, although there are insufficient studies about peanut aflatoxins and uses for cosmetics.[12]

Popular confections made from peanuts include salted peanuts, peanut butter (sandwiches, peanut candy bars, peanut butter cookies, and cups), peanut brittle, and shelled nuts (plain/roasted). Salted peanuts are usually roasted in oil and packed in retail-size plastic bags or hermetically sealed cans. Dry roasted salted peanuts are also marketed in significant quantities. Peanuts are often a major ingredient in mixed nuts because of their relative cost compared to Brazil nuts, cashews, walnuts, and others. Peanut butter has been a tradition on camping trips and the home due to its high protein content and resists spoiling. Large quantities are also used in the commercial manufacture of sandwiches, candy, and bakery products. Boiled peanuts are a preparation of raw, unshelled green peanuts boiled in brine and often eaten as a snack. More recently, fried peanut recipes have emerged, allowing both shell and nut to be eaten. Peanuts are also used in a wide variety of cosmetics, plastics, dyes and paints.[citation needed]

Peanut oil[edit]

Peanut oil is often used in cooking, because it has a mild flavor and a relatively high smoke point. Due to its high monounsaturated content, it is considered healthier than saturated oils, and is resistant to rancidity. There are several types of peanut oil including: aromatic roasted peanut oil, refined peanut oil, extra virgin or cold pressed peanut oil and peanut extract. In the United States, refined peanut oil is exempt from allergen labeling laws.[13]

Peanut flour[edit]

Peanut flour is lower in fat than peanut butter, and is popular with chefs because its high protein content makes it suitable as a flavor enhancer.[citation needed] Peanut flour is used as a gluten-free solution.

Boiled peanuts[edit]

Boiled peanuts are a popular snack in the southern United States, as well as in India, China and West Africa. In the US South, boiled peanuts are often prepared in briney water, and sold in streetside stands.

Dry roasted peanuts[edit]

Roasted peanuts as snack food

Dry peanuts can be roasted in the shell or shelled in a home oven if spread out one layer deep in a pan and baked at a temperature of 350 °F or 177 °C for 15 to 20 min (shelled) and 20 to 25 min (in shell).[14]

Cuisine[edit]

Groundnut fries
Boiled Groundnut

Latin America[edit]

Peanuts are used in many sauces for Latin American meat dishes, especially rabbit. Peanuts are particularly common in Peruvian and Mexican cuisine, both of which marry indigenous and European ingredients. For instance, roasted peanuts and hot peppers, both native to the region, appear with roasted onions, garlic, and oil—ingredients from European cuisine—in a smooth sauce poured over boiled potatoes, a dish well known in the city Arequipa and called papas con ocopa. Another example is a fricassee combining a similar mixture with sautéed seafood or boiled and shredded chicken. These dishes are generally known as ajíes, meaning "hot peppers", such as ají de pollo and ají de mariscos (seafood ajíes may omit peanuts). Likewise, during Colonial times, the Spanish in Peru used peanuts to replace nuts unavailable in Peru but used extensively in Spanish cuisine, such as almonds, pine nuts, and other nuts, typically ground or as paste and mixed with rice, meats, and vegetables for dishes such as rice pilaf.

Throughout the region, many candies and snacks are made using peanuts as a base.

Southwest Asia[edit]

Crunchy coated peanuts, called kabukim in Hebrew, are a popular snack in Israel. Kabukim are commonly sold by weight at corner stores where fresh nuts and seeds are sold, though they are also available packaged. The coating typically consists of flour, salt, starch, lecithin, and sometimes sesame seeds. The origin of the name is obscure (it may be derived from kabuk which means nutshell or husk in Turkish). An additional variety of crunchy coated peanuts popular in Israel is "American peanuts". The coating of this variety is thinner, but harder to crack.

Another popular Israeli peanut snack, Bamba puffs, is similar in shape to Cheez Doodles, but are made of corn and flavored with peanut butter.

Southeast Asia[edit]

Peanuts are also widely used in Southeast Asian cuisine, such as in Vietnam and Indonesia, where they are typically made into a spicy sauce. Peanuts originally came to Indonesia from the Philippines, where the legume came from Mexico in times of Spanish colonization. Some of the most famous Philippine dish concerning peanuts is the "kare-kare", a mixture of meat and peanut butter.

Common Indonesian peanut-based dishes include gado-gado, pecel, karedok and ketoprak, all vegetable salads mixed with peanut sauce, and the peanut-based sauce for satay.

South Asia[edit]

In the Indian subcontinent, peanuts are known as a light snack by themselves, usually roasted and salted (sometimes with the addition of chilli powder), and often sold roasted in pod, or boiled with salt. They are also made into little dessert or sweet snack pieces by processing with refined sugar and jaggery. Indian cuisine uses roasted, crushed peanuts to give a crunchy body to salads; they are added whole (without pods) to leafy vegetable stews for the same reason. Another use of peanut oil as cooking oil. Most Indians use mustard, sunflower, and peanut oil for cooking. In Tamil Nadu groundnut 'chutney' is a popular combination, usually partaken with Dosa and Idli at breakfast.

West Africa[edit]

Peanuts grow well in southern Mali and adjacent regions of the Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal; peanuts are similar in both agricultural and culinary qualities to the Bambara groundnut native to the region, and West Africans have adopted the crop as a staple. Peanut sauce, prepared with onions, garlic, peanut butter/paste, and vegetables such as carrots, cabbage, and cauliflower, can be vegetarian (the peanuts supplying ample protein) or prepared with meat, usually chicken.

Peanuts are used in the Malian meat stew maafe. In Ghana, peanut butter is used for peanut butter soup nkate nkwan.[15] Crushed peanuts may also be used for peanut candies nkate cake and kuli-kuli, as well as other local foods such as oto.[15] Peanut butter is also an ingredient in Nigeria's "African salad".

Peanut powder is an important ingredient in the spicy coating for kebabs in Nigeria and Ghana.

East Africa[edit]

Peanuts are a common ingredient of several types of relishes (dishes which accompany nshima) eaten by the tribes in Malawi and in the eastern part of Zambia, and these dishes are now common throughout both countries. Thick peanut butter sauces are also made in Uganda to go with rice and other starchy foods. Across East Africa, roasted peanuts (often in cones of newspaper) are a popular snack sold in the street.

North America[edit]

In Canada and the US, peanuts are used in candies, cakes, cookies, and other sweets. They are also enjoyed roasted and salted. Peanut butter is one of the most popular peanut-based foods in the US, and for four hundred years[citation needed], recipes for peanut soup have been present in the South, Virginia in particular. In some southern portions of the US, peanuts are boiled for several hours until soft and moist. Peanuts are also deep-fried, shell and all.

Malnutrition[edit]

Elyse Musandji (right), president of one of the community nutrition groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo, teaches members of a neighbouring community how to produce peanut milk from locally grown peanuts to tackle child malnutrition.

Peanuts are used to help fight malnutrition. Plumpy Nut, MANA Nutrition,[16] and Medika Mamba[17] are high-protein, high-energy and high-nutrient peanut-based pastes developed to be used as a therapeutic food to aid in famine relief. The World Health Organization, UNICEF, Project Peanut Butter and Doctors Without Borders have used these products to help save malnourished children in developing countries.

Peanuts can be used like other legumes and grains to make a lactose-free milk-like beverage, peanut milk. Peanut milk is promoted in Africa as a way to reduce malnutrition among children.

Other uses[edit]

Peanut plant tops are used for hay.

Whole peanut and blue jay

The protein cake (oilcake meal) residue from oil processing is used as an animal feed and as a soil fertilizer. Raw peanuts are also widely sold as a garden bird feed.

Peanuts have a variety of industrial end uses. Paint, varnish, lubricating oil, leather dressings, furniture polish, insecticides, and nitroglycerin are made from peanut oil. Soap is made from saponified oil, and many cosmetics contain peanut oil and its derivatives. The protein portion is used in the manufacture of some textile fibers. Peanut shells are used in the manufacture of plastic, wallboard, abrasives, fuel, cellulose (used in rayon and paper) and mucilage (glue).

Nutritional value[edit]

Peanut, valencia, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 2,385 kJ (570 kcal)
21 g
Sugars 0.0 g
Dietary fiber 9 g
48 g
Saturated 7 g
Monounsaturated 24 g
Polyunsaturated 16 g
25 g
Tryptophan 0.2445 g
Threonine 0.859 g
Isoleucine 0.882 g
Leucine 1.627 g
Lysine 0.901 g
Methionine 0.308 g
Cystine 0.322 g
Phenylalanine 1.300 g
Tyrosine 1.020 g
Valine 1.052 g
Arginine 3.001 g
Histidine 0.634 g
Alanine 0.997 g
Aspartic acid 3.060 g
Glutamic acid 5.243 g
Glycine 1.512 g
Proline 1.107 g
Serine 1.236 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(52%)
0.6 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(25%)
0.3 mg
Niacin (B3)
(86%)
12.9 mg
(36%)
1.8 mg
Vitamin B6
(23%)
0.3 mg
Folate (B9)
(62%)
246 μg
Vitamin C
(0%)
0.0 mg
Vitamin E
(44%)
6.6 mg
Trace minerals
Calcium
(6%)
62 mg
Iron
(15%)
2 mg
Magnesium
(52%)
184 mg
Manganese
(95%)
2.0 mg
Phosphorus
(48%)
336 mg
Potassium
(7%)
332 mg
Zinc
(35%)
3.3 mg
Other constituents
Water 4.26 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Peanuts are rich in essential nutrients (right table, USDA nutrient data). In a 100 g serving, peanuts provide 570 calories and are an excellent source (defined as more than 20% of the Daily Value, DV) of several B vitamins, vitamin E, several dietary minerals, such as manganese (95% DV), magnesium (52% DV) and phosphorus (48% DV), and dietary fiber (right table). They also contain about 25 g protein per 100 g serving, a higher proportion than in many tree nuts.[18]

Phytochemicals[edit]

Recent research on peanuts has found polyphenols and other phytochemicals that are under basic research for their potential to provide health benefits.[19] New research shows peanuts, especially the skins, to have comparable polyphenol content of many fruits.[20]

Peanut skins are a significant source of resveratrol, a phenolic under research for a variety of potential effects in humans.[21]

Oil composition[edit]

A common cooking and salad oil, peanut oil is 46% monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid), 32% polyunsaturated fats (primarily linoleic acid) and 17% saturated fats (primarily palmitic acid).[22][23] Extractable from whole peanuts using a simple water and centrifugation method, the oil is being considered by NASA's Advanced Life Support program for future long-duration human space missions.[24]

Health concerns[edit]

Allergies[edit]

Main article: Peanut allergy

Some people (0.6%[25] of the United States population) report that they experience mild to severe allergic reactions to peanut exposure; symptoms can range from watery eyes to anaphylactic shock, which can be fatal if untreated. For these individuals, eating a small amount of peanuts can cause a reaction. Because of their widespread use in prepared and packaged foods, the avoidance of peanuts is difficult. Some foods processed in facilities which also handle peanuts may carry warnings on their labels indicating such.

A hypothesis of the development of peanut allergy has to do with the way peanuts are processed in North America versus other countries, such as Pakistan and China, where peanuts are widely eaten. According to a 2003 study, roasting peanuts, as more commonly done in North America, causes the major peanut allergen Ara h2 to become a stronger inhibitor of the digestive enzyme trypsin, making it more resistant to digestion. Additionally, this allergen has also been shown to protect Ara h1, another major peanut allergen, from digestion – a characteristic further enhanced by roasting.[26]

Another hypothesis, called the hygiene hypothesis, states that a lack of early childhood exposure to infectious agents like germs and parasites could be causing the increase of food allergies.[27]

Recent (2008) studies comparing age of peanut introduction in Great Britain with introduction in Israel appear to show that delaying exposure to peanuts can dramatically increase the risk of developing peanut allergies.[28][29]

Results from some animal studies (and limited evidence from human subjects) suggest that the dose of peanuts is an important mediator of peanut sensitization and tolerance; low doses tend to lead to sensitization and higher doses tend to lead to tolerance.[30]

Peanut allergy has been associated with the use of skin preparations containing peanut oil among children, but the evidence is not regarded as conclusive.[31] Peanut allergies have also been associated with family history and intake of soy products.[31]

Though the allergy can last a lifetime, another 2003 study indicates that 23.3% of children will outgrow a peanut allergy.[32]

Some school districts in the United States have banned peanuts.[33][34][35] There are experimental techniques which appear to have desensitized some allergic individuals.[36] The most popular technique, oral immunotherapy, works to create desensitization in those allergic by feeding them small amounts of peanuts until their body becomes desensitized. Some progress is possibly being made in the UK, where researchers at Cambridge are studying the effectiveness of the desensitization technique.[37]

Research indicates that refined peanut oil will not cause allergic reactions in most people with peanut allergies.[38] However, crude (unrefined) peanut oils are strongly flavoured, and have been shown to contain protein, which may cause allergic reactions.[39] In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 60 people with proven peanut allergy were challenged with both crude peanut oil and refined peanut oil. The authors conclude, "Crude peanut oil caused allergic reactions in 10% of allergic subjects studied and should continue to be avoided." They also state, "Refined peanut oil does not seem to pose a risk to most people with peanut allergy." However, they point out that refined peanut oil can still pose a risk to peanut-allergic individuals if oil that has previously been used to cook foods containing peanuts is reused.[40]

Contamination with aflatoxin[edit]

Peanuts may be contaminated with the mold Aspergillus flavus which produces a carcinogenic substance called aflatoxin. Lower quality specimens, particularly where mold is evident, are more likely to be contaminated.[41] The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) tests every truckload of raw peanuts for aflatoxin; any containing aflatoxin levels of more than 15 parts per billion are destroyed. The peanut industry has manufacturing steps in place to ensure all peanuts are inspected for aflatoxin.[42]

United States Department of Agriculture program[edit]

George Washington Carver is often credited with inventing 300 different uses for peanuts[43] (which, contrary to popular belief, did not include peanut butter but did include salted peanuts). Carver was one of many United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) researchers[44][45][46][47][48][49][50] who encouraged cotton farmers in the South to grow peanuts instead of, or in addition to, cotton, because cotton had depleted so much nitrogen from the soil, and one of the peanut's properties as a legume is to put nitrogen back into the soil (a process known as nitrogen fixation). Rising demand for peanuts in the early 20th century was due to a shortage of plant oils during World War I and the growing popularity of peanut butter, roasted peanuts and peanut candies.[51] Peanut products originating around the early 20th century include many brands still sold today such as Cracker Jack (1893), Planters peanuts (1906), Oh Henry! candy bar (1920), Baby Ruth candy bar (1920), Butterfinger candy bar (1923), Mr. Goodbar candy bar (1925), Reese's Peanut Butter Cup (1925), and Peter Pan (peanut butter) (1928).

Trade[edit]

Peanut seller in Ouagadougou

Although India and China are the world's largest producers of peanuts, they account for a small part of international trade because most of their production is consumed domestically as peanut oil. Exports of peanuts from India and China are equivalent to less than 4% of world trade. The major producers/exporters of peanuts are the United States, Argentina, Sudan, Senegal, and Brazil. These five countries account for 71% of total world exports. In recent years,[vague] the United States has been the leading exporter of peanuts.

The major peanut importers are the European Union (EU), Canada, and Japan. These three areas account for 78% of the world's imports.[citation needed] 75% of Canada's peanuts are imported from the United States.[52][citation needed] Two thirds of United States (U.S.) imports are roasted, unshelled peanuts. The major suppliers are Taiwan, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Mainland China, and Canada.[citation needed] The principal suppliers of shelled peanut imports are Argentina and Canada. Imports of peanut butter from Argentina are in the form of a paste and must be further processed. Other minor suppliers of peanut butter include Malawi, China, India, and Singapore.

Consumption of peanuts in the EU is primarily as food, mostly as roasted-in-shell peanuts and as shelled peanuts used in confectionery and bakery products.[citation needed]

The average annual U.S. imports of peanuts are less than 0.5% of U.S. consumption.

Georgia is the leading peanut producing state in the U.S., followed by Texas and Alabama, respectively.[53] About half of all peanuts produced in the United States are grown within a 100 mi (160 km) radius of Dothan, Alabama.[54] Dothan is home to the National Peanut Festival established in 1938 and held each fall to honor peanut growers and celebrate the harvest.[55]

Ninety percent of India's production is processed into peanut oil. Only a nominal amount of hand-picked select-grade peanuts are exported. India prohibits the importation of all oil seeds,[citation needed] including peanuts.

Gallery[edit]

Arachis hypogaea flower 
Peanut stalks just after flower shedding 
Track-type peanut harvester 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved February 13, 2015. 
  2. ^ "World Geography of the Peanut". University of Georgia. January 2, 2004. Retrieved August 18, 2009. 
  3. ^ The peanut Alergy Answer Book ,Michael C. Young, Fair Winds publishing, 2006, ISBN 1-59233-233-1
  4. ^ "The Peanut Institute - Peanut Facts". peanut-institute.org. 
  5. ^ Seijo, Guillermo; Graciela I. Lavia; Aveliano Fernandez; Antonio Krapovickas; Daniel A. Ducasse; David J. Bertioli; Eduardo A. Moscone (December 1, 2007). "Genomic relationships between the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea, Leguminosae) and its close relatives revealed by double GISH". Am. J. Bot. 94 (12): 1963–1971. doi:10.3732/ajb.94.12.1963. PMID 21636391. Retrieved July 5, 2010. 
  6. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru: Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
  7. ^ Dillehay, Tom D. "Earliest-known evidence of peanut, cotton and squash farming found". Retrieved June 29, 2007. 
  8. ^ Putnam, D.H., et al. (1991) Peanut. University of Wisconsin-Extension Cooperative Extension: Alternative Field Crops Manual.
  9. ^ a b c "How peanuts are Grown – Harvesting – PCA". Peanut Company of Australia. Archived from the original on July 19, 2008. Retrieved May 30, 2011. 
  10. ^ Jauron, Richard (February 5, 1997). "Growing Peanuts in the Home Garden | Horticulture and Home Pest News". Ipm.iastate.edu. Retrieved May 30, 2011. 
  11. ^ "Table 13 Peanut Area, Yield, and Production". U.S. Department of Agriculture. 
  12. ^ no authors listed (2001). "Final report on the safety assessment of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Oil, Hydrogenated Peanut Oil, Peanut Acid, Peanut Glycerides, and Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Flour". Int J Toxicol 20 (Suppl 2): 65–77. PMID 11558642. 
  13. ^ "Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (Public Law 108-282, Title II)". Fda.gov. Retrieved May 30, 2011. 
  14. ^ "Delicious Peanut Recipes". Virginia Favorites Ltd. Retrieved September 21, 2013. 
  15. ^ a b Ghanaian cuisine
  16. ^ Raymond, Bret. "Rwaza Health Centre: Efficacy Study Results" (PDF). MANA Nutrition. Retrieved July 15, 2011. 
  17. ^ "Meds & Food For Kids :: — Medika Mamba". mfkhaiti.org. Retrieved April 23, 2010. 
  18. ^ "Nutrition facts for peanuts, all types, raw, USDA Nutrient Data". Conde Nast, USDA National Nutrient Database, version SR-21. 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2015. 
  19. ^ "Health benefits of consuming peanuts". BBC News. January 21, 2005. Retrieved August 18, 2009. 
  20. ^ Lopes RM, Agostini-Costa Tda S, Gimenes MA, Silveira D (2011). "Chemical composition and biological activities of Arachis species". J Agric Food Chem 59 (9): 4321–30. doi:10.1021/jf104663z. PMID 21425852. 
  21. ^ Sanders, Timothy H.; Robert, W. McMichael Jr.; Hendrix, Keith W. (2000). "Occurrence of resveratrol in edible peanuts". J Agric Food Chem 48 (4): 1243–1246. doi:10.1021/jf990737b. PMID 10775379. 
  22. ^ "Nutrition facts for oil, peanut, salad or cooking, USDA Nutrient Data". Conde Nast, USDA National Nutrient Database, version SR-21. 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2015. 
  23. ^ Ozcan MM (2010). "Some nutritional characteristics of kernel and oil of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)". J Oleo Sci 59 (1): 1–5. PMID 20032593. 
  24. ^ Shi L, Lu JY, Jones G, Loretan PA, Hill WA (1998). "Characteristics and composition of peanut oil prepared by an aqueous extraction method". Life Support Biosph Sci 5 (2): 225–9. PMID 11541680. 
  25. ^ "Food Allergy Quick Facts". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. February 24, 2012. Retrieved January 30, 2014. 
  26. ^ Maleki, SJ; Viquez, O; Jacks, T; Dodo, H; Champagne, ET; Chung, SY; Landry, SJ (2003). "The major peanut allergen, Ara h 2, functions as a trypsin inhibitor, and roasting enhances this function". The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 112 (1): 190–5. doi:10.1067/mai.2003.1551. PMID 12847498. 
  27. ^ "Peanut Allergy on the Rise: Why?". WebMD. May 14, 2010. Retrieved May 18, 2010. 
  28. ^ Food allergy advice may be peanuts, Science News, December 6, 2008
  29. ^ Høst, A; Halken, S; Muraro, A; Dreborg, S; Niggemann, B; Aalberse, R; Arshad, SH; Von Berg, A et al. (2008). "Dietary prevention of allergic diseases in infants and small children". Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 19 (1): 1–4. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2007.00680.x. PMID 18199086. 
  30. ^ Thompson, Rachel L.; Miles, Lisa M.; Lunn, Joanne; Devereux, Graham; Dearman, Rebecca J.; Strid, Jessica; Buttriss, Judith L. (2010). "Peanut sensitisation and allergy: influence of early life exposure to peanuts". British Journal of Nutrition 103 (9): 1278–1286. doi:10.1017/S000711450999376X. PMID 20100372. 
  31. ^ a b Lack G, Fox D, Northstone K, Golding J (2003). "Factors Associated with the Development of Peanut Allergy in Childhood". New England Journal of Medicine 348 (11): 977–85. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa013536. PMID 12637607. 
  32. ^ Fleischer, DM; Conover-Walker, MK; Christie, L; Burks, AW; Wood, RA (2003). "The natural progression of peanut allergy: Resolution and the possibility of recurrence". The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 112 (1): 183–9. doi:10.1067/mai.2003.1517. PMID 12847497. 
  33. ^ Hartocollis, Anemona (September 23, 1998). "Nothing's Safe: Some Schools Ban Peanut Butter as Allergy Threat". The New York Times. Retrieved August 18, 2009. 
  34. ^ Nevius, C.W. (September 9, 2003). "One 5-year-old's allergy leads to class peanut ban". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 18, 2009. 
  35. ^ "School peanut ban in need of review". Nashua Telegraph. September 14, 2008. Retrieved August 18, 2009. 
  36. ^ "Progress Against Peanut Allergies". Webmd.com. Retrieved August 18, 2009. 
  37. ^ "Peanut allergies tackled in largest ever trial". BBC News. February 22, 2010. Retrieved April 23, 2010. 
  38. ^ "The anaphylaxis campaign: peanut oil". Anaphylaxis.org.uk. Archived from the original on April 18, 2008. Retrieved August 18, 2009. 
  39. ^ Hoffman DR, Collins-Williams C (1994). "Cold-pressed peanut oils may contain peanut allergen". The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 93 (4): 801–2. doi:10.1016/0091-6749(94)90262-3. PMID 8163791. 
  40. ^ Hourihane JO, Bedwani SJ, Dean TP, Warner JO (1997). "Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts". BMJ 314 (7087): 1084–8. doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7087.1084. PMC 2126478. PMID 9133891. 
  41. ^ Hirano, S; Shima, T; Shimada, T (August 2001). "[Proportion of aflatoxin B1 contaminated kernels and its concentration in imported peanut samples]". Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 42 (4): 237–42. doi:10.3358/shokueishi.42.237. PMID 11817138. 
  42. ^ 7 CFR 2011 – Part 996a[full citation needed]
  43. ^ List of By-Products From Peanuts By George Washington Carver (as compiled by the Carver Museum). nps.gov
  44. ^ Handy, R.B. 1895. Peanuts: Culture and Uses. USDA Farmers' Bulletin 25.
  45. ^ Newman, C.L. 1904. Peanuts. Fayetteville, Arkansas: Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station.
  46. ^ Beattie, W.R. 1909. Peanuts. USDA Farmers' Bulletin 356.
  47. ^ Ferris, E.B. 1909. Peanuts. Agricultural College, Mississippi: Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station.
  48. ^ Beattie, W.R. 1911. The Peanut. USDA Farmers' Bulletin 431.
  49. ^ Rich, J.P. (1915). Uses of the Peanut on the Home Table. Farmer's Bulletin 13. University of Texas, Austin.
  50. ^ Carver, G.W. (1925). How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing it for Human Consumption. Tuskegee Institute Experimental Station Bulletin 31.
  51. ^ Smith, C. Wayne (1995) "Crop Production: Evolution, History, and Technology", John Wiley & Sons, pp. 412–413 ISBN 0-471-07972-3
  52. ^ "The Canadian Snack Food Manufacturing Industry". http://www.agr.gc.ca. Government of Canada. Retrieved October 23, 2014. 
  53. ^ "Peanut Production in Alabama". The Encyclopedia of Alabama. June 14, 2011. Retrieved November 15, 2011. 
  54. ^ "ALFA Farmers Federation – Alabama Peanut Producers". Alfafarmers.org. May 27, 2010. Retrieved May 30, 2011. 
  55. ^ "Peanut Facts". Alabama Peanut Producers Association. Archived from the original on November 1, 2004. Retrieved May 30, 2011. 

External links[edit]

  • Peanut (Alternative Field Crops Manual, 1991) by D.H. Putnam & E.S. Oplinger, from the Center for Alternative Plant and Animal Products, University of Minnesota