Peanut milk

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Peanut milk is a plant milk, which is an alternative to animal milk. It is made with peanuts, water, and sometimes other additional ingredients like salt, sugar, or cinnamon.[1] Peanut milk is high in fat and protein compared to other plant-based milks. This milk is sometimes used by people who identify with lactose intolerance, veganism, or a casein-free diet, as it has no lactose, but includes nutritional benefits like being high in magnesium,[2] Vitamin E,[3] Vitamin B-6,[4] and protein.

Invention[edit]

George Washington Carver, a well known botanist, scientist, conversationalist and professor in the early 1900's, was most likely to have been the modern inventor of peanut milk. With a fond curiosity and great skill in chemistry and physics, George was known for his valuable research on the peanut. Through the isolation of fats, oils, gums, resins and sugars of the peanut, he found many ways to use the nut, including peanut milk.[5][6]

Market availability[edit]

There are very few manufacturers of peanut milk, despite plant-based milks being mass-manufactured, such as cashew, almond, and rice milk. As dietary preferences shift, as evidenced by the fact that online searches for diets like "veganism" have doubled in the United States since 2015, tripled in Australia, France, and Spain, and more than quadrupled in Sweden, demand for non-dairy milk has increased. Plant-based milk purchases in U.S. grocery stores rose by 5% over the previous year, accounting for 14% of total milk sales, according to the Plant Based Foods Association's examination of store sales statistics.[7] Sales of regular milk, on the other hand, had risen by 0.1 percent.[8]

Production[edit]

In order to make a basic form of peanut milk, The following is needed: peanuts, water, a blender and a Cheesecloth. The first step includes putting peanuts in a jar big enough to hold them, and then soaking the peanuts in water for at least six hours. Then transfer the soaked peanuts into a blender and blend them until smooth. Finally, transfer the blended nut substance into a cheesecloth to squeeze out the peanut milk, now ready for consumption.[9]

Sustainability[edit]

Water footprint[edit]

Though little research has been done on the sustainability of peanut milk itself (due to lack of mass-production), there is information available on the sustainability of peanuts. Peanut production is mainly concentrated in drier climates like in the Mideast and Midwest parts of the U.S.[10] Peanuts in comparison to other nuts are the most water-efficient nut, as it takes around 3.2 gallons of water to produce one ounce of peanuts. This is because of its compact plant structure and its ability to grow underground, as it takes less biomass to intake water. The peanut plant also keeps water intake to a minimum through its vine's growth structure, allowing for a microclimate conserving water.[11]

The following is an illustrated graph, showing the water usage of the 4 most harvested nuts in America.[12]

Water usage[12]
Gallons of water per oz grown in
Almonds 28.7 USA
Pistachios 23.6 USA
Walnuts 26.7 USA
Peanuts 3.2 USA

Carbon footprint[edit]

Peanuts have the lowest carbon emissions among popular USA nuts, allowing for sustainable farming. Peanuts are also unique compared to other nuts, as they improve soil composition and benefit other crops around them.[11]

Carbon Emissions of USA Grown Nuts [13]
(kg CO2-Ceqv per 1 kg grown in
Almonds 3.56 USA
Pistachios 0.76 USA
Pecans 1.61 USA
Walnuts 2.00 USA
Peanuts 0.57 USA

Nutritional value[edit]

Researchers developed a vitamin and mineral fortified infant formula that used peanut milk as a source of protein, fat and food energy.[14] When compared to other plant-based milks, peanut milk has one of the highest protein and fat contents, allowing for a creamier milk. The macro nutrients in a cup of peanut milk include the following:

Nutritional facts of peanut milk [1]
Nut milk (1 cup) Peanut milk
Calories 150 cal
Fat 11 g
Protein 6 g
Carbs 6 g

Controversially, lectins, which are found in soy, peanuts, and other beans, may limit glucose absorption in the intestine, hence affecting total calorie consumption.[15]

Uses[edit]

Peanut milk is generally used as a dairy substitute for items such as coffee creamer, peanut soup, yogurt, parfait, or by itself.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Decode the World of Nut Milks with This Guide". Healthline. 2019-01-30. Retrieved 2022-02-12.
  2. ^ "Peanut Milk Benefits". LIVESTRONG.COM. Retrieved 2022-02-12.
  3. ^ "Vitamin E". Linus Pauling Institute. 2014-04-22. Retrieved 2022-02-12.
  4. ^ "Vitamin B6". Linus Pauling Institute. 2014-04-22. Retrieved 2022-02-12.
  5. ^ "George Washington Carver: A World-Famous Scientist, Inventor and Educator | National Peanut Board". nationalpeanutboard.org. Retrieved 2022-02-13.
  6. ^ Gray, LaVerne (2011-06-14). "The George Washington Carver Digital Collection2011243The George Washington Carver Digital Collection. URL: www.lib.iastate.edu/spcl/gwc/home.html: Iowa State University Last visited February 2011. Gratis". Reference Reviews. 25 (5): 60–60. doi:10.1108/09504121111145591. ISSN 0950-4125.
  7. ^ "Retail Sales Data". Plant Based Foods Association. Retrieved 2022-02-12.
  8. ^ "Retail sales data: Plant-based meat, eggs, dairy | GFI". gfi.org. 2021-01-19. Retrieved 2022-02-13.
  9. ^ a b "DIY Peanut Milk | National Peanut Board". nationalpeanutboard.org. Retrieved 2022-02-13.
  10. ^ "Peanut Profile". www.agmrc.org. Retrieved 2022-02-13.
  11. ^ a b "Peanuts are the Food of the Future. Here's why. | National Peanut Board". nationalpeanutboard.org. Retrieved 2022-02-13.
  12. ^ a b "New Data Confirms Peanuts are More Water Efficient Than Ever | National Peanut Board". nationalpeanutboard.org. Retrieved 2022-02-13.
  13. ^ "How Eco-Friendly Are Nuts? | Which is the Most Eco-Friendly Nut?". Green Eco Friend. 2020-12-21. Retrieved 2022-02-13.
  14. ^ Kane, Nimsate; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Yu, Jianmei (2010). "Development of a fortified peanut‐based infant formula for recovery of severely malnourished children". International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 45 (10): 1965–1972. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2010.02330.x.
  15. ^ Chalupa-Krebzdak, Sebastian; Long, Chloe J.; Bohrer, Benjamin M. (December 2018). "Nutrient density and nutritional value of milk and plant-based milk alternatives". International Dairy Journal. 87: 84–92. doi:10.1016/j.idairyj.2018.07.018.

Further reading[edit]

  • Diarra, Kouane; Nong, Zhang Guo; Jie, Chen (2007). "Peanut Milk and Peanut Milk Based Products Production: A Review". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 45 (5): 405–423. doi:10.1080/10408390590967685.