Peanut oil, also known as groundnut oil or arachis oil, is a mild-tasting vegetable oil derived from peanuts. The oil is available in refined, unrefined, cold-pressed, and roasted varieties, the latter with a strong peanut flavor and aroma, analogous to sesame oil.
It is often used in Chinese, South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine, both for general cooking, and in the case of roasted oil, for added flavor. Peanut oil has a high smoke point relative to many other cooking oils, so is commonly used for frying foods. Its major component fatty acids are oleic acid (46.8% as olein), linoleic acid (33.4% as linolein), and palmitic acid (10.0% as palmitin). The oil also contains some stearic acid, arachidic acid, arachidonic acid, behenic acid, lignoceric acid and other fatty acids.
Shortage of whale oil in the Confederacy made peanut oil an attractive alternative during the Civil War. The oil had increased use in the United States during World War II, because of war shortages of other oils.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||3,699 kJ (884 kcal)|
Fat percentage can vary.
|Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
|Type of fat||Total fat (g)||Saturated fat (g)||Monounsaturated fat (g)||Polyunsaturated fat (g)||Smoke point|
|Sunflower oil||100||11||20||69||225 °C (437 °F)|
|Sunflower oil (high Oleic)||100||12||84 ||4 |
|Soybean oil||100||16||23||58||257 °C (495 °F)|
|Canola oil||100||7||63||28||205 °C (401 °F)|
|Olive oil||100||14||73||11||190 °C (374 °F)|
|Corn oil||100||15||30||55||230 °C (446 °F)|
|Peanut oil||100||17||46||32||225 °C (437 °F)|
|Rice bran oil||100||25||38||37||250 °C (482 °F)|
|Vegetable shortening (hydrogenated)||71||23||8||37||165 °C (329 °F)|
|Lard||100||39||45||11||190 °C (374 °F)|
|Suet||94||52||32||3||200 °C (392 °F)|
|Butter||81||51||21||3||150 °C (302 °F)|
|Coconut oil||100||86||6||2||177 °C (351 °F)|
Allergens and toxins
Most highly refined peanut oils remove the peanut allergens and have been shown to be safe for "the vast majority of peanut-allergic individuals". However, cold-pressed peanut oils may not remove the allergens and thus could be highly dangerous to people with peanut allergy. Since the degree of processing for any particular product is often unclear, "avoidance is prudent." If quality control is neglected, peanuts that contain the mold that produces highly toxic aflatoxin can end up contaminating the oil derived from them.
Peanut oil, as with other vegetable oils, can be used to make soap by the process of saponification. The oil is safe for use as a massage oil. Peanut researcher George Washington Carver marketed a peanut massage oil.
At the 1900 Paris Exhibition, the Otto Company, at the request of the French Government, demonstrated that peanut oil could be used as a source of fuel for the diesel engine; this was one of the earliest demonstrations of biodiesel technology.
Some medicines and vitamins use arachis oil as a suspension agent.
- Liu, Xiaojun; Jin, Qingzhe; Liu, Yuanfa; Huang, Jianhua; Wang, Xingguo; Mao, Wenyue; Wang, Shanshan (2011). "Changes in Volatile Compounds of Peanut Oil during the Roasting Process for Production of Aromatic Roasted Peanut Oil". Journal of Food Science 76 (3): C404–12. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02073.x. PMID 21535807.
- "USA-Grown Peanut Sources - Peanut Oil". National Peanut Board.
- "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference". Nutrient Data Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 3 August 2011. Choose peanut oil and then "Oil, peanut, salad or cooking".
- Chu, Yan-Hwa; Hsu, Hsia-Fen (1999). "Effects of antioxidants on peanut oil stability". Food Chemistry 66: 29–34. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00082-X.
- http://www2.uttyler.edu/vbetts/savannah_republican_1862.htm, January 16th, p.1., c.5
- "The Peanut Situation" (Dec 12, 1942) The Billboard
- The Culinary Institute of America (2011). The Professional Chef (9th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-42135-2. OCLC 707248142.
- "Nutrient database, Release 25". United States Department of Agriculture.
- Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry 120: 59. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.
- Crevel, R.W.R; Kerkhoff, M.A.T; Koning, M.M.G (2000). "Allergenicity of refined vegetable oils". Food and Chemical Toxicology 38 (4): 385–93. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(99)00158-1. PMID 10722892.
- Hourihane, J. O'B; Bedwani, S. J; Dean, T. P; Warner, J. O (1997). "Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts". BMJ 314 (7087): 1084–8. doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7087.1084. PMC 2126478. PMID 9133891.
- "Peanut Allergy". Food Allergy Initiative. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- Carlson, Margaret (13 January 2012). "Deaths Show Schools Need Power of the EpiPen: Margaret Carlson". Bloomberg.
- "Aflatoxin suspected in cooking oil". United Press International. December 29, 2011.
- "Saponification Table Plus The Characteristics of Oils in Soap", Soap Making Resource
- "Peanut Oil", Meridian Institute
- "Oil Treatment for the Hands Gaining Favor" (Jun 24, 1939) Spokane Daily Chronicle
- "Peanut Biodiesel". Boiled Peanut World. 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Peanut oil.|