Peanut oil

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Peanut oil

Peanut oil, also known as groundnut oil or arachis oil, is a vegetable oil derived from peanuts. The oil usually has a mild or neutral flavor[1] but, if made with roasted peanuts, has a stronger peanut flavor and aroma.[2][3] It is often used in American, Chinese, Indian, African and Southeast Asian cuisine, both for general cooking, and in the case of roasted oil, for added flavor. Peanut oil has a high smoke point relative to many other cooking oils, so it is commonly used for frying foods.

History[edit]

Due to war shortages of other oils, use of readily available peanut oil increased in the United States during World War II.[4]

Production[edit]

Country Production, 2018
(tonnes)
1  China 1,821,000
2  India 1,540,976
3  Nigeria 364,100
4  Myanmar 252,465
5  Sudan 177,800
6  Senegal 175,900
7  Guinea 110,000
8  Argentina 102,700
9  United States 97,000
10  Ghana 70,218
11  Chad 64,000
12  Brazil 63,600
Source : FAOSTAT

Uses[edit]

Unrefined peanut oil is used as a flavorant for dishes akin to sesame oil. Refined peanut oil is commonly used for frying volume batches of foods like French fries and has a smoke point of 450 °F/232 °C.[5]

Biodiesel[edit]

At the 1900 Paris Exhibition, the Otto Company, at the request of the French Government, demonstrated that peanut oil could be used as a source of fuel for the diesel engine; this was one of the earliest demonstrations of biodiesel technology.[6]

Other uses[edit]

Peanut oil, as with other vegetable oils, can be used to make soap by the process of saponification.[7] Peanut oil is safe for use as a massage oil.

Composition[edit]

Its major component fatty acids are oleic acid (46.8% as olein), linoleic acid (33.4% as linolein), and palmitic acid (10.0% as palmitin).[8] The oil also contains some stearic acid, arachidic acid, behenic acid, lignoceric acid and other fatty acids.[9]

Nutritional content[edit]

Peanut oil
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy3,699 kJ (884 kcal)
0 g
100 g
Saturated17 g
Monounsaturated46 g
Polyunsaturated32 g
0 g
VitaminsQuantity
%DV
Vitamin E
105%
15.7 mg
MineralsQuantity
%DV
Zinc
0%
0.01 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Cholesterol0 mg
Selenium0.0 mcg

Fat percentage can vary.
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA FoodData Central

Peanut oil is 17% saturated fat, 46% monounsaturated fat, and 32% polyunsaturated fat (table).[8]

Properties of common cooking fats (per 100 g)
Type of fat Total fat (g) Saturated fat (g) Mono­unsaturated fat (g) Poly­unsaturated fat (g) Smoke point
Butter[10] 80-88 43-48 15-19 2-3 150 °C (302 °F)[11]
Canola oil[12] 100 6-7 62-64 24-26 205 °C (401 °F)[13][14]
Coconut oil[15] 99 83 6 2 177 °C (351 °F)
Corn oil[16] 100 13-14 27-29 52-54 230 °C (446 °F)[11]
Lard[17] 100 39 45 11 190 °C (374 °F)[11]
Peanut oil[18] 100 17 46 32 225 °C (437 °F)[11]
Olive oil[19] 100 13-19 59-74 6-16 190 °C (374 °F)[11]
Rice bran oil 100 25 38 37 250 °C (482 °F)[20]
Soybean oil[21] 100 15 22 57-58 257 °C (495 °F)[11]
Suet[22] 94 52 32 3 200 °C (392 °F)
Ghee[23] 99 62 29 4 204 °C (399 °F)
Sunflower oil[24] 100 10 20 66 225 °C (437 °F)[11]
Sunflower oil (high oleic) 100 12 84[13] 4[13]
Vegetable shortening [25] 100 25 41 28 165 °C (329 °F)[11]

Health issues[edit]

Toxins[edit]

If quality control is neglected, peanuts that contain the mold that produces highly toxic aflatoxin can end up contaminating the oil derived from them.[26]

Allergens[edit]

Those allergic to peanuts can consume highly refined peanut oil, but should avoid first-press, organic oil.[27] Most highly refined peanut oils remove the peanut allergens and have been shown to be safe for "the vast majority of peanut-allergic individuals".[28] However, cold-pressed peanut oils may not remove the allergens and thus could be highly dangerous to people with peanut allergy.[29]

Since the degree of processing for any particular product is often unclear, many believe that "avoidance is prudent".[30][31]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Peanut Oil - Uses, Health Benefits & Nutrition".
  2. ^ Liu, Xiaojun; Jin, Qingzhe; Liu, Yuanfa; Huang, Jianhua; Wang, Xingguo; Mao, Wenyue; Wang, Shanshan (2011). "Changes in Volatile Compounds of Peanut Oil during the Roasting Process for Production of Aromatic Roasted Peanut Oil". Journal of Food Science. 76 (3): C404–12. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02073.x. PMID 21535807.
  3. ^ "USA-Grown Peanut Sources - Peanut Oil". National Peanut Board. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  4. ^ "The Peanut Situation" (Dec 12, 1942) The Billboard
  5. ^ The Smoke Point of Fats & Oils - TheSpruce.com
  6. ^ "Peanut Biodiesel". Boiled Peanut World. 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  7. ^ "Saponification Table Plus The Characteristics of Oils in Soap", Soap Making Resource
  8. ^ a b "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference". Nutrient Data Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 3 March 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2011. Choose peanut oil and then "Oil, peanut, salad or cooking".
  9. ^ "Peanut Oil - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  10. ^ "Butter, stick, salted, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h The Culinary Institute of America (2011). The Professional Chef (9th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-42135-2. OCLC 707248142.
  12. ^ "Oil, canola, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  13. ^ a b c "Nutrient database, Release 25". United States Department of Agriculture.
  14. ^ Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.
  15. ^ "Oil, coconut, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  16. ^ "Oil, corn, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  17. ^ "Lard, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  18. ^ "Peanut oil, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  19. ^ "Oil, olive, extra virgin, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  20. ^ "Rice Bran Oil FAQ's". AlfaOne.ca. Archived from the original on 27 September 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  21. ^ "Oil, soybean, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  22. ^ "Beef, variety meats and by-products, suet, raw, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  23. ^ "Nutrition data for Butter oil, anhydrous (ghee) per 100 gram reference amount"". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  24. ^ "Sunflower oil, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  25. ^ "Shortening, vegetable, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  26. ^ "Aflatoxin suspected in cooking oil". United Press International. 29 December 2011.
  27. ^ Common Allergens - Peanut FARE (FoodAllergy.org)
  28. ^ Crevel, R.W.R; Kerkhoff, M.A.T; Koning, M.M.G (2000). "Allergenicity of refined vegetable oils". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 38 (4): 385–93. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(99)00158-1. PMID 10722892.
  29. ^ Hourihane, J. O'B; Bedwani, S. J; Dean, T. P; Warner, J. O (1997). "Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts". BMJ. 314 (7087): 1084–8. doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7087.1084. PMC 2126478. PMID 9133891.
  30. ^ "Peanut Allergy". Food Allergy Initiative. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  31. ^ Carlson, Margaret (13 January 2012). "Deaths Show Schools Need Power of the EpiPen: Margaret Carlson". Bloomberg.

External links[edit]